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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at



The wise (Arhat) having pondered on the Law proclaimed it; learn from me correctly what is carefulness. A monk who forms no resolutions and is possessed of carefulness, should wander about, giving no offence to any creature; (1)

To no living beings, whether they move or not, whether above or below or on earth, by putting a strain upon them by his hands or feet 2. Nor should he take from householders anything that is not freely given. (2)

Having mastered the Law and got rid of carelessness, he should live on allowed food 3, and treat

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all beings as he himself would be treated; he should not expose himself to guilt by his desire for life; a monk who performs austerities should not keep any store. (3)

Restraining his senses from women, a sage should wander about free from all worldly ties. See, every creature and every being suffers pain and is afflicted. (4)

Doing harm to these beings, an ignorant man becomes involved in sins. Sin is committed by injuring (beings), and one sins also by employing others (in such acts). (5)

He too who leads a miserable life, commits sin. Therefore (the Ginas) have enjoined thorough carefulness. One should know the truth, delight in control and sound judgment, cease from injuring beings, and be of a settled mind. (6)

Looking at all people with an impartial mind, one should not do anything to please or to harm them. After a virtuous beginning some become miserable and lose heart, (since) they desire honour and fame. (7)

Desiring unallowed 1 food and accepting such, the sinner, careless in his conduct, is attached to women, and tries to acquire property. (8)

Given to violent deeds he accumulates (Karman); on his decease he (meets with) really distressing misery. Therefore a wise man considers well the Law; a sage wanders about free from all worldly ties. (9)

He should not expose himself to guilt by his desire for life, but he should wander about without any attachment. Speaking after due consideration,

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and combating his worldly desires, he should say nothing that involves slaughter of living beings. (10)

He should not desire unallowed food, and he should not mix with people who desire such; he should mortify his flesh, thinking (of his duty), and giving up his sorrows without regard (to worldly interests). (11)

Try to realise that you are single and alone; thereby you will obtain Liberation; mind, this is no false assertion! This Liberation is not anything unreal, but the best thing. An ascetic is free from anger, and delights in the truth. (12)

Abstain from sexual intercourse with women, do not acquire property; a man possessed of carefulness will, beyond doubt, be a saviour (to others) in all circumstances. (13)

A monk having conquered aversion to control and delight in sensual objects 1, should bear all troubles caused by (pricking) grass, cold, heat, and insects; he should endure pleasant and unpleasant smells. (14)

Guarding his speech and possessed of carefulness, acquiring (pure) Lêsyâ 2, he should wander about; he should not thatch a house for himself or for others, nor behave towards other people like a householder. (15)

Questioned by somebody who maintains the unchangeable character of the soul 3, he should expound the true (doctrine); those who engage in works and

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are held in worldly bondage, do not know the Law which leads to Liberation. (16)

Men here have various opinions; (they adhere) to the doctrine of the Kriyâvâdins and Akriyâvâdins. The iniquity of an unrestrained sinner, who after having been born injures the body (of beings to procure his own happiness), goes on increasing. (17)

Forgetting that his life will have an end, a rash and foolish man is full of selfishness; he toils day and night, greedy of wealth, as if he never should grow old or die. (18)

Leave wealth and cattle, all relations and dear friends! (A man) always talks (about these things), and he is infatuated with them; but other people will take away his wealth. (19)

As smaller beasts keep at a distance from a lion, being afraid of him, so a wise man keeps aloof from sin, well considering the Law. (20)

A wise man who has become awakened should turn away from sin, when he considers the evils arising from slaughter and the great dangers entailed by his cruel disposition. (21)

A sage setting out for the real good 1 (viz. Liberation), should not speak untruth; this (rule, they say,) comprises Nirvâna and the whole of carefulness. He should not do works, nor cause others to do them, nor assent to others doing them. (22)

When he gets pure (food), he should not be affected (by love or hate), and he should not be too

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fond (of such food) nor long for it. A pious monk, free from bonds, should wander about desiring neither honours nor fame. (23)

A monk who has left the house and is free from desires should abandon his body, annihilating his sins; he should not desire life nor death, and walk about, having got beyond the Circle (of Births) 1. (24)

Thus I say.


306:1 Samâhi = samâdhi. This word has not only the meaning 'meditation,' but also a much wider one. Here it is explained as 'the means of obtaining Môksha.' I have chosen 'carefulness,' because it is less technical than 'control,' which I have used in other places.

306:2 The first part of verse 2 to be construed with the last part of the preceding verse.


307:1 Ahâgada = yathâkrita; cf. p. 131, note 7, 1.

308:1 This is, according to Sîlâṅka, the meaning of the words araim raim vâ, see, however, above, p. 111, note 1.

308:2 See Uttarâdhyayana, Lecture XXXIV.

308:3 Akiriyaâyâ = akriyâtman.

309:1 Attagâmî = âptagâmin. Âpta is either Môksha as assumed in my translation, or it denotes the 'highest authority;' in the latter case we can translate: who proceeds on the right path.

310:1 Or, the fetter of sin.

Next: Book 1, Lecture 11: The Path