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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at

p. 108



In Kampâ there lived a Srâvaka, the merchant Pâlita, who was a disciple of the noble and venerable Mahâvîra. (1)

As a Srâvaka he was well versed in the doctrines of the Nirgranthas. Once he went by boat to the town of Pihunda on business. (2)

A merchant gave him his daughter while he was doing business in Pihunda. When she was big with child, he took her with him on his returning home. (3)

Now the wife of Pâlita was delivered of a child at sea; as the boy was born at sea (samudra), he was named Samudrapâla. (4)

Our merchant, the Srâvaka, went leisurely to Kampâ, to his house; in his house the boy grew up surrounded by comfort. (5)

He studied the seventy-two arts, and acquired knowledge of the world 1; he was in the bloom of

youth, and had a fine figure and good looks. (6) His father procured him a beautiful wife, Rûpinî, with whom he amused himself in his pleasant palace, like a Dôgundaga god 2. (7)

Once upon a time he saw from the window of his palace a man sentenced to death, dressed for execution, on his way to the place of execution. (8)

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Agitated by what he saw, Samudrapâla spoke thus: 'Of wicked actions this is the bad result.' (9)

He became enlightened at once, the venerable man, and he was immensely agitated; he took leave of his parents, and entered the state of houselessness. (10)

Abandoning the great distress to which the worldly 1 are liable, the great delusion, and whatever causes fear, one should adopt the Law of monks 2, the vows, the virtues, and the (endurance of) calamities. (11)

One should keep the five great vows, viz. not to kill, to speak the truth, not to steal, to be chaste, to have no property whatever; a wise man should follow the Law taught by the Ginas. (12)

A monk should have compassion on all beings, should be of a forbearing character, should be restrained and chaste, and abstaining from everything sinful; he should live with his senses under control. (13)

Now and then 3 he should travel in one country,

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taking into consideration its resources and his own ability; like a lion he should not be frightened by any noise; and whatever words he hears, he should not make an improper reply. (14)

In utter indifference he should walk about, and bear everything, be it pleasant or unpleasant; he should not approve of everything everywhere, nor care for 1 respectful treatment or blame. (15)

There are many opinions here among men, which a monk places in their true light; there will rise many dangerous and dreadful calamities, caused by gods, men, or animals, which are difficult to be borne and cause easily-discouraged men to sink under them; but a monk who comes in contact with them will not be afraid, like a stately elephant at the head of the battle. (16, 17)

Cold and heat, flies and gnats, unpleasant feelings, and many diseases attack the body; without flinching 2 he should bear them, and should

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not recall to his memory the pleasures he once enjoyed. (18)

Giving up love, hatred, and delusion, a monk who is always careful and who is steadfast even as Mount Mêru cannot be shaken by the storm, should bear calamities, guarding himself. (19)

A great sage should be neither too elevated by pride nor too humble, he should not care for respectful treatment nor blame; an ascetic who has ceased (to act), will by means of his simplicity enter the path of Nirvâna. (20)

He is neither grieved nor pleased (by anything) 1, he abandons his relations with men, he ceases (to act), is intent on the benefit of his soul, he strives for the highest good (viz. mukti), and uses the means to reach it, free from sorrow, egoism, and any kind of property. (21)

A merciful (monk) should use beds distant from others, which are not got ready for his sake 2 nor strewn (with leaves or things considered to be possessed of life); he should sustain such hardships as the sages are accustomed to. (22)

The great sage (Samudrapâla), understanding the sacred lore and practising completely the best Law, shone forth like the sun in the sky, being possessed of the highest knowledge and glory. (23)

Having annihilated his Karman both meritorious

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and sinful, being steadfast 1, and free from all fetters, Samudrapâla crossed the ocean-like Flood of worldly existence and obtained exemption from transmigration. (24)

Thus I say.


108:1 To render nîtikôvida.

108:2 For Dôgundaga, see above, p. 88, note 2.

109:1 Saggantha = sagrantha, which is obviously the opposite of nirgrantha. The commentators correct samgamtha in samgam ka. The original reading is in MS. B. A. has samgamtha, and so had C. originally, but it corrects the tha into ka. According to the commentators we should translate: abandoning worldly attachment which causes great distress, great delusion, black (Lêsyâ), and dangers, one should, &c.

109:2 Paryâya-dharma. Paryâya means a state under which a substance presents itself. Here is meant the state of the soul in pravragyâ, i.e. srâmanya-paryâya; compare the expressions khadmastha-paryâya and kêvali-paryâya. Paryâya-dharma is here equal to prayragyâ-dharma, Law of the monks.

109:3 Kâlêna kâlam, the commentators supply kurvan, and explain the passage as follows: kâlêna, i.e. in a paurushî (four p. 110 hours) less one quarter of it, kâlam, i.e. what is proper for the time. The meaning would be 'doing at every time what is proper or prescribed to do at it.' But this explanation looks very artificial; I think that the expression kalêna kâlam is an adverb of the same type as maggham magghêna and many others.

110:1 Samgae. This word may be samyata in this place; but in verse 20, where the same line occurs again, it cannot be so interpreted, because there the word samgae occurs twice; once it has the meaning of samgata, but in the passage under discussion it must be a verb, and it is rendered there sañgayet = saṅgam kuryât by the commentators.

110:2 Akukkuô, translated akukûga, derived from the root kûg 'to warble, to groan;' it would therefore mean 'without complaint.' But in I, 30 we have appakukkuê, derived from the root kuk to bend, to be crooked,' and it is rendered alpaspandana. The same meaning applies in the present case.

111:1 This is the meaning commonly given to the frequently occurring phrase arairaisahe. Another interpretation is: samyamâ-samyamavishayê, tâbhyâm na bâdhatê.

111:2 Nirôvalêvâi = nirupalipta. By upalêpa may be meant 'dirt,' but the author of the Avakûri explains upalêpa as consisting in abhishvaṅga affection: It is almost impossible to render satisfactorily so vague an expression.

112:1 Nirangana = samyamê niskala, immovable with regard to self-control.

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