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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at



What is the Law that has been preached by the wise Brâhman1 (i.e. Mahâvîra)? Learn from me the noble Law of the Ginas as it is. (1)

Brâhmanas, Kshattriyas, Vaisyas, Kândâlas, Vukkasas, hunters 2, merchants 3, Sûdras, and others who are accustomed to do acts; (2)

The iniquity 4 of all these men who cling to property goes on increasing; for those who procure themselves pleasures by sinful acts will not get rid of misery. (3)

After a man has done acts which cause the death of living beings, his pleasure-seeking relations take possession of his wealth, whilst the doer of the acts must suffer for them. (4)

'Mother, father, daughter-in-law, brother, wife, and sons will not be able to help me, when I suffer for my own deeds 5.' (5)

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Taking to heart this truth from which flow the most important truths, a monk, without property and without egoism, should follow the teaching of the Ginas. (6)

Leaving his wealth, sons, relations, and property, leaving sorrow that never ceases, (a monk) should wander about without any worldly interests. (7)

Earth, water, fire, and wind; grass, trees, and corn; oviparous animals, the two kinds of viviparous 1 animals; beings engendered in fluids and in dirt, and plants; (8)

These six classes of living beings a wise man should know and treat tenderly, in thoughts, words, and acts; he should neither do actions nor desire property whereby he might do them any harm. (9)

Untrue speech, sexual intercourse, personal property, taking things that are not freely given: all these causes of injury to living beings a wise man should abstain from. (10)

Deceit 2, greed 3, anger 4, and pride 5: combat these causes of sin; a wise man should abstain from them. (11)

Washing, dyeing, making urine, evacuation of the bowels, vomiting, anointing of the eyes, and whatever is contrary to the rules of conduct 6: from all this a wise man should abstain. (12)

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Perfumes, wreaths, bathing, cleansing of the teeth, property, actions referring to women: from all this a wise man should abstain. (13)

Alms that have been prepared, or bought, or stolen, or brought for the sake of a monk, or alms that contain particles of the above mentioned, or such alms as are unacceptable (for one cause or other), from all these a wise man should abstain. (14)

Invigorating food, anointing of the eyes, greed, damaging others, washing (one's limbs), (rubbing them with) Lôdhra-powder, &c.: from all this a wise man should abstain. (15)

Deliberating with laymen, praising their work, answering their questions, eating the householder's meals: from all this a wise man should abstain. (16)

He should not learn to play chess 1, he should not speak anything forbidden by the Law; a wise man should abstain from fights and quarrels. (17)

Shoes, an umbrella, dice, chowries, working for another, helping each other: from all this a wise man should abstain. (18)

A monk should not void his excrements or urine among plants; he should never rinse his mouth (even) with distilled water after having removed (everything endowed with life). (19)

He should never eat or drink out of a householder's vessel; nor wear his clothes, especially if he

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is a naked monk: from all this a wise man should abstain. (20)

A stool or bed or a seat in a house, asking of news and recollection (of past sports): from all this a wise man should abstain. (21)

Fame, glory, and renown; honours and respectful treatment; all pleasures in the whole world: from all this a wise man should abstain. (22)

A monk (should be content) with such food and drink as will sustain his life; he should give a portion of it to others: [from all this a wise man should abstain 1.] (23)

Thus spoke the Nirgrantha, the great sage Mahâvîra; he who possesses infinite knowledge and faith has taught the Law and the sacred texts 2. (24)

In speaking (a monk) should use as few words as possible; he should not delight in another's foibles; he should avoid deceiving speech 3, and should answer after ripe reflection. (25)

One will repent of having used the third kind of speech 4; a secret should not be made known. This is the Nirgrantha's commandment. (26)

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(A monk) should not call one names 1, nor 'friend,' nor by his Gôtra; 'thou, thou' is vulgar; never address one by 'thou!' (27)

A virtuous monk should never keep company (with the wicked); for thereby he incurs dangers (for his conduct) disguised as pleasures. A wise man should be aware of them. (28)

(A monk) should not stay in the house of a householder except by constraint; nor should he amuse himself too long (by looking) at the sports of the children of the village 2. (29)

Not desirous of fine things, he should wander about, exerting himself; not careless in his conduct, he should bear whatever pains he has to suffer. (30)

If beaten, he should not be angry; if abused, he should not fly into a passion; with a placid mind he should bear everything and not make a great noise. (31)

He should not enjoy pleasures though they offer themselves; for thus he is said (to reach) discernment. He should always practise what is right to do in the presence of the enlightened ones. (32)

He should obey and serve a wise and pious teacher, (such teachers) as are heroes (of faith), who search for the benefit of their souls, are firm in control, and subdue their senses. (33)

These men, who do not see the light (as it were) in domestic life, are the beloved of the people; these heroes, free from bondage, do not desire life. (34)

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They do not long for sensual pleasures, they do not engage in works. All that (the heretics) always talk about, is opposed to the right faith. (35)

Excessive pride and deceit, all worldly vanities: all this a wise man knows and renounces, and thus brings about his final Liberation. (36)

Thus I say.


301:1 The word brâhmana (mâhana) is here, as in many other passages, a mere honorific title which could be rendered by 'ascetic.'

301:2 Êsiya.

301:3 Vêsiya.

301:4 Vêra = vaira.

301:5 This verse recurs in Uttarâdhyayana VI, 3; above, p. 25.

302:1 Pôyagarâû = pôtagarâyu, i.e. born alive (as elephants, &c.) and born together with the chorion (as cows, &c.)

302:2 Paliuñkana = parikuñkana, i.e. mâyâ.

302:3 Bhayana = bhagana, i.e. lôbha.

302:4 Thandilla, i.e. krôdha.

302:5 Ussayana = ukkhraya, i.e. mâna. These four passions are named here from the way in which they are supposed to act upon the soul. Similar names occurred above, p. 248, notes 3-6.

302:6 Palimantha.

303:1 Ashtâpada. This does not necessarily, in this place, mean chess-board, but any game played on a similar chequered board may be intended. The earliest unmistakable mention of chess, that I have met with, occurs in Ratnâkara's Haravigaya XII, 9, a mahâkâvya written in the first half of the ninth century A. D. in Kashmir.--Another explanation of atthâvayam is arthapadam = arthasâstram 'means of acquiring property.'

304:1 The last part of this verse is here repeated from the preceding ones; but it is quite out of place here.

304:2 Here apparently ended the original treatise; the following verses are not directly connected with it.

304:3 Mâitthânam, always rendered mâtristhânam. I think it is a regular corruption for mâyâsthânam. The second syllable of the word becomes short before two consonants, and then the ya was changed into i with which it is almost interchangeable.

304:4 The four kinds of speech are (1) true speech, (2) untrue speech, (3) speech partly true and partly untrue, (4) speech which is neither true nor untrue, see part i, p. 150.--Inaccurate statements are intended here.

305:1 Hôlâ, which is said to be a Dêsî word of abuse. The same word occurs also in the Âkârâṅga Sûtra, see part i, p. 151, where I translated it by 'loon.'

305:2 According to Sîlâṅka: (he should not join) the sports of the children of a village, nor amuse himself too long.

Next: Book 1, Lecture 10: Carefulness