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Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at

p. 363



4:4:2:11. He proceeds with (the offering of) Soma's rice-pap; for Soma is the sacrificial food of the gods; and here now sacrificial food is prepared for Soma on his part; and thus Soma is not excluded therefrom. It is a rice-pap (karu), for rice-pap is food for the gods, since rice-pap is boiled rice, and boiled rice is clearly food: therefore it is a rice-pap.

4:4:2:22. Neither at the morning feast, nor at the midday feast does he offer it, for those two press-feasts, the morning feast and the midday feast, are the exclusive feasts of the gods; and Soma is sacred to the Fathers 1.

4:4:2:33. But were he to offer it at the morning feast, or at the midday feast, he would cause discord between the gods and Fathers. He offers it at the evening feast, because the evening feast belongs to the All-gods 2: thus he does not cause discord. He recites no invitatory prayer (but only an offering prayer), for the Fathers have passed away once for all: hence he recites no invitatory prayer.

4:4:2:44. Having, in the first place, taken ghee in four ladlings, and having called (on the Agnîdh) for the Sraushat, he says, 'Recite the offering prayer of the ghee!' and offers as the Vashat is uttered. Whatever oblations have been offered previous to this (karu), therefrom he separates this one (to Soma), and thus he causes no discord.

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4:4:2:55. Having poured (into the spoon) an 'underlayer' of ghee, he makes two cuttings from the rice-pap; and bastes them with ghee above. Having called for the Sraushat, he says, 'Recite the offering prayer of the Saumya (rice-pap)!' and offers as the Vashat is uttered.

4:4:2:66. He then takes ghee a second time by four ladlings, and having called for the Sraushat, he says, 'Recite the offering prayer of the ghee!' and offers as the Vashat is uttered. From whatever oblations he intends to offer hereafter, he thereby separates this one (to Soma), and thus he causes no discord. If he chooses, he may offer (ghee) on both sides (before and after the Soma's rice-pap); or, if he chooses, he may offer on one side only 1.

4:4:2:77. Now there is an offering-spoon called 'prakaranî.' Therein the Adhvaryu takes ghee by four ladlings (with the dipping-spoon) and pours it on the Dhishnya hearths by means of fagots (held over them). The reason why he pours ghee on the hearths by means of fagots is this. Because, on a former occasion 2, the gods said to those (Gandharva

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[paragraph continues] Soma-wardens), 'At the third pressing an offering of ghee shall fall to your share, but not one of Soma, for the Soma-draught has been taken from you, wherefore ye are not worthy of a Soma-offering,' that same offering of ghee now falls to their share at the evening pressing, but not one of Soma, in that he pours ghee on the hearths by means of fagots. One after another, in the order in which they were thrown up, and with the same formulas 1, he pours ghee upon them; on the Mârgâlîya last of all.

4:4:2:88. Now some make a second pouring on the Âgnîdhrîya hearth, thinking, 'In the North (or upwards) shall this sacred work of ours be accomplished!' but let him not do it in this way, but rather the Mârgâlîya last 2.

4:4:2:99. Now, while the Adhvaryu pours ghee on the hearths by means of fagots, the Pratiprasthâtri draws the Pâtnîvata 3 cup. For from the sacrifice creatures are produced; and being produced from the sacrifice, they are produced from union; and being produced from union, they are produced from the hind part of the sacrifice;--hence he thereby produces them from a productive union, from the hind part of the sacrifice: therefore he draws the Pâtnîvata cup.

4:4:2:1010. He draws it with the Upâmsu vessel. If he

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draws the Sâvitra libation with the Upâmsu vessel, (he draws) this one with the Antaryâma vessel; and if he draws the Sâvitra with the Antaryâma vessel (he draws) this one with the Upâmsu vessel;--for one and the same indeed are the Upâmsu and Antaryâma, being breath, and that which is the out-breathing is also the in-breathing. Now the breath (prâna, masc.) is male, and the wife is female: a productive union is thus brought about.

4:4:2:1111. He draws it without a puroruk 1,---the puroruk being manhood,--lest he should bestow manhood on women: therefore he draws it without a puroruk.

4:4:2:1212. He thus draws it from that (Âgrayana graha) with (Vâg. S. VIII, 9), 'Thou art taken with a support: Of thee, divine Soma, begotten by Brihaspati'--Brihaspati is the priesthood: of thee, divine Soma, the priest-begotten' he thereby means to say--'Of thee, the potent juice of the powerful (manly) juice' he means to say when he says 'of thee, the potent juice'--'May I prosper the draughts of thee, the mated one 2!' he does not now draw it for the wives, lest he should bestow manhood on women: therefore he does not now draw it for the wives.

4:4:2:1313. He (the Adhvaryu) then mixes it with the residue (of ghee) which is left in the prakaranî spoon. Now other libations he completes by mixing, but this one he diminishes; for ghee is a thunderbolt,

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and by that thunderbolt, the ghee, the gods smote the wives and unmanned them, and thus smitten and unmanned they neither owned any self nor did they own any heritage. And in like manner does he now, by that thunderbolt, the ghee, smite the wives and unman them; and thus smitten and unmanned, they neither own 1 any self nor do they own any heritage.

4:4:2:1414. He mixes it, with (Vâg. S. VIII, 9), 'I am above, I am below; and what space there is between, that was my father;--I saw the sun on both sides: I am what is highest to the gods in secret.' In that he mixes with 'I--I,' thereby he bestows manhood on men.

4:4:2:1515. He then says, 'Agnîdh, pronounce the offering prayer of the Pâtnîvata!' The Agnîdh is male, and the wife is female: thus a productive union is brought about. He offers with (Vâg. S. VIII, 10), 'O Agni, wife-leader 2!'--Agni is male, and the wife is female: thus a productive union is brought about.

4:4:2:1616. 'Together with the divine Tvashtri'--for Tvashtri transforms the cast seed: thus he thereby transforms the cast seed;--'drink the Soma, Hail!' therewith he offers on the north (left) part (of the fire); what other offerings there are, they are the gods, and these are the wives: thus alone it is a proper union, since the woman lies on the left (north) side of the man. The Adhvaryu takes a draught of Soma to the Agnîdh, and the latter says, 'Adhvaryu, invite me!' [It might be said

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that] he should not invite him, since how can there be an invitation of one smitten and unmanned? He should nevertheless invite him: they offer in his fire, and utter the Vashat,--therefore he should invite him.

4:4:2:1717. He then gives orders, 'Agnîdh, sit in the Neshtri's lap! Neshtri, lead up the lady, and make her exchange looks with the Udgâtri! Unnetri, fill up the Hotri's cup, and let no Soma-juice remain!' Thus, if it be an Agnishtoma sacrifice.

4:4:2:1818. But if it be an Ukthya 1, let him say, 'Lengthen out the Soma!'--Holding the same vessel (from which the Pâtnîvata libation was made, the Agnîdh) sits down in the Neshtri's lap,--for he, the Agnîdh, is in reality Agni, and the Neshtri is female: the Agnîdh is male, and the Neshtri female,--a productive union is thus brought about. The Neshtri leads up the lady and makes her exchange looks with the Udgâtri 2, with 'Thou art Pragâpati, the

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male, the bestower of seed: lay thou seed into me!' The Udgâtri is Pragâpati, and the lady is a woman: a productive union is thus brought about.


363:1 Probably, because Soma is slain in being sacrificed (see IV, 3, 4, 1), and therefore belongs to the Fathers or Departed Spirits.

363:2 And the All-gods (or all he gods) mean everything. See IV, 4, 1, 4.

364:1 The homa of ghee, made-before the rice-pap oblation to Soma, belongs to Agni, and the one made after the oblation, to Vishnu. If only one homa be made, it belongs to Agni and Vishnu. The Kânva text reads, 'Tad vâ âhur anyatarata eva pariyaget purastâd eveti,' now they say, 'He should offer on one side only, and that in front (previously to the karu).' For the offering formulas, see Âsv. V, 19, 3; Ait. Br. III, 32. After the completion of these offerings, the Adhvaryu pours ordinary ghee on the rice-pap and presents it to the Hotri, who looks at it while pronouncing some formulas (Âsv. V, 19, 4, 5), and he smears his eyes with the ghee on the pap, after which the latter is handed to the chanters (udgâtri) to be eaten by them.

364:2 See III, 6, 2, 19.

365:1 Viz., Vâg. S. V, 31, 32. The Âgnîdhra hearth is prepared first, and the Mârgâlîya last of the eight dhishnyas. See p. 148, note 4.

365:2 Or, uppermost (uttamam; the Kânvas read 'antamâm').

365:3 The meaning of the term pâtnîvata is 'relating to the patnîvant (i.e. wived or mated one),' the 'patnîvant' being probably Soma with the water mixed with it; or Agni with the wives of the gods, (with special reference to the sacrificer's wife); cf. Taitt. S. VI, 5, 8, I, 2. According to the Kânva text, Agni associated with the goddess Speech (Vâk patnî) seems to be understood.

366:1 See p. 268, note 1.

366:2 In the St. Petersburg Dictionary 'patnîvatah' seems to be taken as qualifying 'grahân;' but cp. Rig-veda VIII, 82, 22, 'United with their wives (i.e. the water mixed with the Soma-juice?) these Soma-draughts (sutâh) go longing to the rejoicing.'

367:1s,' etymologically connected with 'own.'

367:2 Or, wived, mated one, 'patnîvan;' the Kânva text reads 'Agne Vâk patni.' See preceding page, note 2.

368:1 But if it be an Ukthya, or Shodasin, or Atirâtra, or Vâgapeya, Kânva text. See towards the end of next note.

368:2 Kâty. X, 7 and schol. supply the following details. The Unnetri puts down the kamasa cups behind the high altar, and pours into them the entire Soma-juice remaining in the Pûtabhrit, putting but little into the Hotri's cup, to leave room in it for the dhruva libation. Besides this the Âgrayana is the only Soma that remains. The Adhvaryu then, by touching the Soma in the Hotri's cup with two stalks of grass, gives the signal for the chanting of the Agnishtoma Sâman (viz. the Yagñâyagñîya, Sâmav. II, 53, 54), wrapping up his head, if he chooses, in the same way as the Udgâtris. Meanwhile the Neshtri leads up the lady through the back door into the Sadas, makes her sit down north of the Udgâtri and exchange looks with the latter three times (at the 'Him,' see p. 308, note 2). Three times also (at every Nidhana) she uncovers her right leg and pours on it some of the pânneganî water fetched by her in the morning (see III, 9, 3, 27), p. 369 whereupon she returns to her own tent. Then follows the recitation of the Âgnimâruta sastra, consisting of the following parts:--

Sûkta (hymn), Rig-veda III, 3, to Agni Vaisvânara, with Nivid ('May Agni Vaisvânara feast on this Soma,' &c.) inserted before the last verse.

Dhâyyâ, I, 43, 6; or (verse to Rudra) II, 33, 1.

Sûkta, I, 87, to Maruts, with Nivid ('May the Maruts feast on this Soma,' &c.) before the last verse.

Stotriya pragâtha, VI, 48, 1-2 (identical with the text of the Yagñâyagñîya Sâman).
Anurûpa pragâtha, VII, 16, II-12 (antistrophe).

Sûkta to Agni Gâtavedas, I, 143, with Nivid before the last verse.

Tristich to Âpah (waters), X, 9, 1-3, recited in breaks, the Hotri having previously uncovered his head (as do the other priests) and touched water, and the others holding on to him from behind. This and the following parts also have the Âhâva ('somsâvom') before each of them.

Verse VI, 50, 14 to Agni Budhnya.

Verses V, 46, 7-8 to wives of gods.

Verses II, 32, 4-5 to Râkâ.

Verse VI, 49, 7 to Pâviravî (daughter of lightning).

Verse X, 14, 4 to Yama.

Verse X, 14, 3 to Kavyas (manes).

Verses X, 15, 1, 3, 2 to Pitarah (fathers), with the Âhâva before each verse.

Anupânîya (or Svâdushkilîya) verses VI, 47, I-4 to Indra. After each of the first three the Adhvaryu may respond to the Hotri's Âhâva, with 'madâmo daiva' (instead of 'samsâmo daiva'). See note on IV, 3, 2, 11.

Verse to Vishnu and Varuna (Atharva-veda VII, 25, 1). p. 370

Verse to Vishnu, Rig-veda I, 154, 1.

Verse to Pragâpati, X, 53, 6.

Paridhânîyâ (concluding verse) IV, 17, 20, in reciting which the Hotri touches the ground; and during the recitation of the last pâda the Dhruva graha is poured into the Hotri's cup.

Ukthavîrya, 'Praise has been sung to Indra, to the gods, for hearing (?) thee!'

gyâ (offering prayer) V, 60, 8, at the conclusion of which libations are made to Agni and the Maruts, both at the Vashat and Anuvashat.

Then follow the after-offerings of the animal sacrifice (see III, 8, 4, 1 seq.).

At the Ukthya (and other Soma-sacrifices) the Ukthya graha is drawn immediately after the drawing of the Âgrayana (see IV, 3, 5, 24, with note). Previous to the after-offerings the Ukthya graha is divided, as at the morning and midday performances (see p. 293, note 2), between the three Hotrakas, with a view to the recitation of their sastras which form the distinctive feature of the Ukthya sacrifice, bringing up the number of sastras (and stotras) from twelve (of the Agnishtoma) to fifteen. Besides, the Ukthya requires the immolation of at least two victims on the Soma-day, viz. a he-goat to Indra and Agni, besides the one to Agni.

Next: IV, 4, 3. Third Brâhmana