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Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at


p. 350



4:3:5:11. Now there are three kinds of gods,--the Vasus, the Rudras, and the Âdityas. Between them the press-feasts are divided: the morning pressing belongs to the Vasus, the midday pressing to the Rudras, and the third pressing to the Âdityas. But the morning pressing belonged to the Vasus exclusively, and the midday pressing to the Rudras exclusively, and the third pressing to the Âdityas conjointly (with others).

4:3:5:22. The Âdityas then said, 'As that morning pressing belongs exclusively to the Vasus, and that midday pressing exclusively to the Rudras, so offer ye now to us a libation before the common (pressing).' The gods said, 'So be it!' After the completion of the midday pressing, they offered that (libation) previous to the third pressing 1. And in like manner is that libation offered to this day after the completion of the midday pressing and previous to the third pressing.

4:3:5:33. The Âdityas said, 'Neither in the one pressing have we a share nor in the other: we fear lest the Rakshas might injure us!'

4:3:5:44. They said to the (cups) belonging to two deities (dvidevatya 2), 'We are afraid of the Rakshas: pray, let us enter into you!'

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4:3:5:55. The Dvidevatyas said, 'What will be our reward then?'--'By us ye shall be supplied with the Anuvashat 1!', said the Âdityas.--'So be it!'--They entered into the dvidevatya cups.

4:3:5:66. Hence, when at the morning pressing he (the Adhvaryu) proceeds with the dvidevatya cups, the Pratiprasthâtri draws Soma juice from the Dronakalasa into the Âditya vessel, with this much (of the formula, Vâg. S. VIII, I), 'Thou art taken with a support!' The Adhvaryu calls for the (Agnîdh's) Sraushat, and after the Adhvaryu's libation the Pratiprasthâtri pours (his juice into the fire), and with this much 'Thee to the Âdityas!' he pours the remains (into the Âditya-sthâlî). In the same way at all (three dvidevatya libations).

4:3:5:77. Thus, the reason why the Pratiprasthâtri draws the Soma-juice, is that they entered into the dvidevatya cups. And the Âdityas then said, 'By us ye shall be supplied with the Anuvashat!' For, that second libation which he (the Pratiprasthâtri) makes, he makes to (Agni) Svishtakrit, and by means of the Svishtakrit these (dvidevatyas) are supplied with the Anuvashat; and thus those (libations) of

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his are supplied with the Anuvashat, having the (oblation to Agni) Svishtakrit performed for them. He offers on the north part (of the fire), for that is the region of that god 1: hence he offers on the north part.

4:3:5:88. And again, why the Pratiprasthâtri draws the Soma. They entered into the Dvidevatyas; and from those which they entered he thereby draws them out. He then covers it 2--for they were afraid of the Rakshas--with 'O Vishnu, Far-strider, here is thy Soma, protect it lest they should injure it!' For Vishnu is the sacrifice: to the sacrifice he thus makes it over for protection. Now, after the completion of the midday Soma feast and before the evening feast he says, 'Come hither, Sacrificer!'

4:3:5:99. They enter (the Havirdhâna) together,--the Adhvaryu, Sacrificer, Âgnîdhra, Pratiprasthâtri, Unnetri, and whatever other attendant (of the Adhvaryu) there is 3. They close both doors,--for they (the Âdityas) were afraid of the Rakshas. He (the Adhvaryu) takes up the Âditya-sthâlî and Âditya-pâtra, and holds them close over the Pûtabhrit, 'lest (any Soma juice) should be spilt.'

4:3:5:1010. He then draws (the juice from the sthâlî into the pâtra) with (Vâg. S. VIII, 2; Rig-veda VIII, 51, 7), 'At no time art thou barren, and never failest thou the worshipper, O Indra; but

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more and ever more is thy divine gift increased, O mighty lord!--Thee to the Âdityas!'

4:3:5:1111. Let him not draw it with a 'support'--for it was originally drawn with a support--to avoid a repetition (of sacrificial performance); but were he now also to draw it with a support, he would certainly commit a repetition.

4:3:5:1212. Having withdrawn (the cup for a moment from the flowing juice), he again pours it in with (Vâg. S. VIII, 3; Rig-veda VIII, 52, 7), 'At no time art thou heedless, but watchest over both generations; the Soma feast 1 is thy strength, O fourth Âditya: the ambrosia is ready for thee in the heavens!--Thee to the Âdityas!'

4:3:5:1313. Thereupon he takes sour milk; for the evening pressing belongs to the Âdityas, and cattle are after (the manner of) the Âdityas 2: he thereby puts milk into the cattle, and thus that milk in cattle is beneficial 3. 'He should put it right in the centre (of the Âditya cup),' they say, 'for that milk is right in the centre of cattle.' But let him rather put it in the back part (of the cup), for that milk is in the hind part of cattle.

4:3:5:1414. And the reason why he takes sour milk is that those remains (of Soma) poured together are the leavings of offerings, and insufficient for an oblation: he now increases those (remains), and thus they

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become sufficient for an oblation. This is why he takes sour milk.

4:3:5:1515. He takes it with (Vâg. S. VIII, 4; Rig-veda I, 107, I), 'The sacrifice draweth nigh to the glory of the gods: be ye merciful, O Âdityas! Let your favour incline unto us, that it may set us free from all trouble!--Thee to the Âdityas!'

4:3:5:1616. He mixes it by means of the Upâmsusavana stone 1. For, indeed, that Âditya Vivasvat (the sun) is really the same as the Upâmsusavana, and this is the Âditya libation: thus he makes him delight in his own share.

4:3:5:1717. He touches it neither with the fringe nor with (the woven part of) the straining-cloth; for those two pressings, the morning pressing and midday pressing, forsooth are rich in pure Soma, rich in juice, but this, the third pressing, is emptied of its pure Soma. Now, in that he does not touch it either with the fringe or the straining-cloth, thereby that third pressing of his also becomes rich in pure Soma and juice: therefore he touches it neither with the fringe nor with the straining-cloth.

4:3:5:1818. He mixes it with (Vâg. S. VIII, 5), 'O Âditya Vivasvat, this is thy draught of Soma: feast thou upon it!' Thereupon he hands the Upâmsusavana to the Unnetri. Then he says to the Unnetri, 'Drop in the pressing-stones!' He drops them either into the Âdhavanîya or into a cup 2.

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4:3:5:1919. After drawing the king (Soma)--the third press-feast belonging to the Âdityas, and the pressing-stones being after (the manner of 1) the Âdityas, he thus makes them delight in their own share--they open the doors.

4:3:5:2020. He now walks out, covering (the cup with his hand or the sthâlî); for they (the Âdityas) were afraid of the Rakshas. He then says (to the Maitrâvaruna), 'Recite (the invitatory prayer) to the Âdityas!' If he likes, he may now enumerate (their qualities); but let him rather enumerate them, after he has called for the Sraushat,--'Prompt (the Hotri to recite the offering prayer) to the Âdityas, the beloved, rite-loving, law-loving lords of the great abode, the rulers of the wide air.' He offers, as the Vashat is pronounced. He (the Hotri) pronounces no Anuvashat, lest he should consign the cattle to the fire. The remains (of juice in the sthâlî and graha) he (the Adhvaryu) hands to the Pratiprasthâtri.

4:3:5:2121. Thereupon he again enters (the Havirdhâna) and draws the Âgrayana graha 2. They spread (over the Pûtabhrit) a straining-cloth with the fringe towards the north. The Adhvaryu pours out (the

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juice) of the Âgrayana; the Pratiprasthâtri holds out (and pours in) the two residues (of the Âditya graha 1); the Unnetri adds thereto (some juice from the Âdhavanîya) by means of a kamasa cup or a dipping-vessel (udañkana).

4:3:5:2222. Thus he draws the Âgrayana graha from four streams; for the evening pressing belongs to the .Âdityas, and cows are after the manner of the Âdityas; whence this milk of cows is of a fourfold nature: therefore he draws the Âgrayana from four streams 2.

4:3:5:2323. And as to why the Pratiprasthâtri holds out the two residues: this is (the remains of) the Âditya libation, and for the Âditya libation he pronounces no Anuvashat; and from that (Âgrayana graha) he intends to draw the Sâvitra graha,--so that the Anuvashat is performed for it by means of the Sâvitra graha.

4:3:5:2424. And again why the Pratiprasthâtri holds out the two residues. Previous to that mixed (press-feast), previous to the evening feast, they have offered that (unmixed or special) libation to those (Âdityas); but this libation is taken for the evening feast: thereby the Âdityas take part in the evening feast, and thus they are not excluded from the sacrifice. This is why the Pratiprasthâtri holds out the two residues 3.


350:1 The Âditya-graha, with which the succeeding paragraphs deal, is considered as not belonging to the Tritîya Savana proper, but as a preliminary ceremony.

350:2 For the three dvidevatya grahas (Aindravâyava, Maitrâvaruna, and Âsvina), see Brâhmanas IV, 1, 3-5.

351:1 At the three dvidevatya libations no Anuvashatkâra is permitted; that is to say, the Hotri is not to pronounce the words, 'O Agni, accept of the Soma!' after the Vashat, with which the offering prayer (yâgyâ) concludes. But as the libation, ordinarily made at the Anuvashat, corresponds to the oblation to Agni Svishtakrit made after each chief oblation at the haviryagña (see I, 7,3; Ait. Br. III, 5), there is apparently no such Svishtakrit oblation at the dvidevatya libations. Now, as each of these chief libations, made by the Adhvaryu, is followed by one made by the Pratiprasthâtri from the Âditya vessel (see p. 316, note 1), these latter libations are here, as it were, identified with the Svishtakrit and the Anuvashatkâra.

352:1 See I, 7, 3, 20.

352:2 The remains of Soma-juice he pours after each libation from the Âditya-pâtra into the Âditya-sthâlî, and finally puts the former on the latter by way of a lid. See p. 326, note 1.

352:3 While they enter by the front door, the mistress of the house enters by the back (west) door. Kâty. X, 4, 2.

353:1 The Rig-veda reads 'havanam' (invocation) instead of 'savanam.'

353:2 Or, cattle correspond, stand in relation, to the Âdityas. Sâyana takes 'anu' in the sense of 'behind, inferior to, dependent upon (hîna).' The cattle are inferior to, or dependent upon, the Âdityas, inasmuch as the Âdityas give the rain on which the cattle depend for their food.

353:3 Or, 'put' (hita) into them.

354:1 See p. 238, note 2.

354:2 'Into the Âdhavanîya trough or into a kamasa cup containing Soma-juice,' Kâty. X, 4, 10; 'into the Âdhavanîya or the Sambharanî,' Kânva text; 'into the Âdhavanîya or into the graha,' Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 386. Perhaps the next paragraph has to p. 355 be taken along with this: 'Or into a kamasa, after drawing Soma (into it).' According to Kâty., the stones are taken out again immediately and laid down in their places on the pressing-skin.

355:1 See p. 353, note 2. Sâyana again takes 'anu' in the sense of 'after, behind,' apparently on the ground that, in the above formulas, the stones are mentioned after the Âditya. The text of my manuscript is, however, rather corrupt at this place.

355:2 The Âgrayana Soma was originally drawn into the Âgrayana bowl (sthâlî) and deposited in its place in the centre of the khara. It is now poured from the bowl into some other vessel, and thence through a straining-cloth into the Pûtabhrit.

356:1 'Sampraskandayati pratiprasthâtâdityapâtrayoh samsravam,' Kânva text.

356:2 In drawing the Âgrayana cup he uses the same formula as at the morning pressing. See IV, 2, 2, 9 seq.

356:3 In the actual performance of the Agnishtoma the drawing of the Âgrayana graha is followed by sour milk being poured to the Soma-juice left in the Pûtabhrit, the compound being consecrated by the lady eying it with an appropriate mantra. Thereupon they leave the Havirdhâna shed in the same way as at the morning feast p. 357 (see IV, 2, 5, 1, with notes), and perform the Viprud-homas, followed by the Sarpana and chanting of the Ârbhava, or Tritîya Pavamâna stotra (for an account of which, see p. 315, note 2). Then follow the oblations from the victim (which has been cooking since the morning, see IV, 2, 5, 13), &c., up to the eating of the pasvidâ (see III, 8, 3, 4 seq.); and offering of the four Savanîya-purodâsas, likewise up to the eating of the idâ. Previous to the eating, small pieces of rice-cake are thrown into the kamasa cups, as an oblation to the sacrificer's deceased ancestors, with naming of his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather (as at the Pindapitriyagña, II, 4, 2, 19 seq.); whereupon the pieces are eaten along with the idâ.

Next: IV, 4, 1. Fourth Adhyâya. First Brâhmana