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Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at



4:3:2:11. Now truly when the Hotri praises (recites the sastra 2), he sings, and to him thus singing the

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[paragraph continues] Adhvaryu responds (prati-â-gar), whence the name response (pratigara).

4:3:2:22. [The Hotri] calls upon that (Adhvaryu) seated (before him) with his face towards the east 1. For all

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others except the Udgâtri perform their priestly duties while facing the east, and in this manner that priestly duty of his is performed towards the east.

4:3:2:33. Now the Udgâtri is Pragâpati, and the Hotri, (being) the Rik (fem.), is a female. And when he chants, then the Udgâtri, Pragâpati, implants seed in the female Hotri, the Rik; this the Hotri brings forth by means of the sastra (recitation), he sharpens

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it even as this man is sharpened 1, and because he thereby sharpens (so) therefore it is called sastra.

4:3:2:44. Having turned round (so as to face the Hotri, the Adhvaryu) then responds: thereby he quickens 2 that implanted seed. On the other hand, were he to respond while standing with his face turned away (from the Hotri), that implanted seed would assuredly perish away, and would not be brought forth; but thus facing each other (the male and female) bring forth the implanted seed.

4:3:2:55. Now the strength of the metres was exhausted by the gods, for it was by the metres that the gods attained the world of heaven. And the response (song) is ecstasy (mada 3)--what ecstasy there is in the rik and that which there is in the Sâman, that is sap: this sap he now lays into the metres, and thus makes the metres of restored strength; and with them of restored strength they perform the sacrifice.

4:3:2:66. Hence if (the Hotri) recites by half-verses, let (the Adhvaryu) respond at each half-verse; and if he recites by pâdas (hemistichs), let him respond at each pâda. For whenever, in reciting, he (the Hotri) draws breath, there the Asura-Rakshas rush into the sacrifice: there he (the Adhvaryu) closes it up by means of the response, so that the evil spirits, the Rakshas, cannot rush in; and thus he destroys the world of the sacrificer's enemies.

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4:3:2:77. Now, in the beginning the metres consisted of four syllables. Then Gagatî flew up for Soma and came back, leaving behind three syllables. Then Trishtubh flew up for Soma and came back, leaving behind one syllable. Then Gâyatrî flew up for Soma, and she came back bringing with her those syllables as well as Soma. Thus she came to consist of eight syllables: wherefore they say, 'Gâyatrî is octosyllabic.'

4:3:2:88. With her they performed the morning feast of the Soma-sacrifice,--whence the morning feast pertains to Gâyatrî. With her they performed the midday feast. Trishtubh then said to her, 'To thee will I come with three syllables: invite me, and exclude me not from the sacrifice!'--'So be it!' she said and invited her. Thus the Trishtubh came to consist of eleven syllables, and therefore they say, 'The midday Soma feast pertains to Trishtubh.'

4:3:2:99. With her (Gâyatrî) indeed they performed the evening feast. Gagatî then said to her, 'To thee will I come with one syllable: invite me, and exclude me not from the sacrifice!'--'So be it!' she said and invited her. Thus the Gagatî came to consist of twelve syllables; and therefore they say, 'The evening Soma feast pertains to Gagatî.'

4:3:2:1010. As to this they say, 'Surely all the Soma feasts pertain to Gâyatrî, since Gâyatrî alone went on increasing.' At the morning feast he should therefore respond with a complete (formula), for complete 1 Gâyatrî returned. At the midday feast

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[paragraph continues] (he responds with a formula) containing once (the verb) 'to rejoice (mad) 1,' for she (Trishtubh) came back, leaving one syllable behind; and with that same (formula) he then completes her, makes her whole,

4:3:2:1111. When trishtubh verses were recited. At the evening Soma feast (the Adhvaryu responds with a formula) containing thrice (the verb) 'to rejoice 2,' for she (Gagatî) came back leaving three syllables behind; and with these (formulas) he then completes her, makes her whole,--

4:3:2:1212. When (the hymn) to Heaven and Earth is recited 3. Now these creatures subsist on those two,

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the heaven and the earth--he thereby imbues those two, heaven and earth, with vigour; and upon those two, thus vigorous and affording the means of subsistence, these creatures subsist. Let him respond with 'Om!' only, for that is truth, that the gods know.

4:3:2:1313. Now some respond with 'Othâmo daiva vâk,' saying, 'The response is speech (vâk): thus we obtain speech.' But let him not do this; for surely, in whichsoever way he may respond, speech is obtained by him, since he responds by speech. Let him therefore respond with 'Om 1!' only, for that is truth, that the gods know.


325:2 Every chant or hymn (stotra) of the Udgâtris is followed by a 'song of praise' (sastra) recited by the Hotri or one of his three assistants (Maitrâvaruna, Brâhmanâkhamsin, and Akhâvâka); the first two sastras at each savana being recited by the Hotri, and the three additional ones at the morning and midday feast by his assistants (Hotrakas). The exact correlation between the stotras and sastras at the three savanas will appear from the following table:--

I. Prâtah-savana.

1. Bahish-pavamâna-stotra.

1. Âgya-sastra (Hotri).

2. Âgya-stotra dhuryas.

2. Praüga-sastra (Hotri).

3. Âgya-stotra dhuryas.

3. Âgya-sastras (Hotrakas).

4. Âgya-stotra dhuryas.

4. Âgya-sastras (Hotrakas).

5. Âgya-stotra dhuryas.

5. Âgya-sastras (Hotrakas).


II. Mâdhyandina-savana.

6. Mâdhyandina-pavamâna-stotra.

6. Marutvatîya-sastra (Hotri).

7. Prishtha-stotra dhuryas.

7. Nishkevalya-sastra (Hotri).

8. Prishtha-stotra dhuryas.

8. Nishkevalya-sastra (Hotrakas).

9. Prishtha-stotra dhuryas.

9. Nishkevalya-sastra (Hotrakas).

10. Prishtha-stotra dhuryas.

10. Nishkevalya-sastra (Hotrakas).

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III. Tritîya-savana.

11. Ârbhava (or Tritîya)-pavamâna.

11. Vaisvadeva-sastra (Hotri).

12. Agnishtoma-sâman (Yagñâ-yagñîya).

12. Âgnimâruta-sastra (Hotri).

[paragraph continues] These are the twelve stotras and sastras of the Agnishtoma. At the Ukthya sacrifice, the performance of the evening feast is completed by the addition of three uktha stotras and sastras, one for each Hotraka.

326:1 While the Adhvaryu sits before the Sadas, with his back to the Hotri (p. 322, note 1), the latter performs the (tûshnîm-) gapa--i.e. the muttering of the formula 'May Father Mâtarisvan grant flawless (verse-) feet! may the bards sing flawless hymns!' &c. Ait. Br. II, 38; Âsv. Sr. V, 9, 1--after which he addresses to the Adhvaryu his call (âhâva), 'sõmsâvõm (let us two recite, Om)!'--which formula is used at all sastras, except that, at the midday and evening libations, it is preceded by 'Adhvaryo' (O Adhvaryu); while at the evening savana the first syllable of the verb is repeated, thus 'sosomsâvo.'--The Adhvaryu rises, turns round so as to face the Hotri, and responds by 'somsâmo daiva (we recite, O divine one)!' According to Ait. Br. III, 12, the Âhâva and Pratigara together are to consist of the number of syllables corresponding to the metre of the respective libation, viz. 8, 11, 12 respectively. Then follows the Hotris Tûshnîm-samsa or 'silent praise;' viz. 'Earth! Agni is the light, the light is Agni, Om!--Indra is the light, Ether! the light is Indra, Om! Sûrya is the light, the light, Heaven! is Sûrya, Om!'--This is followed by a Puroruk, or preliminary invocation of a deity, recited in a loud voice, (and consisting of twelve short formulas resembling the Nivid part i, p. 114, note 2; ib. I, 4, 2, 5 seq.), which, indeed, takes its place in the sastras of the midday and evening libations, being inserted in the middle or before the last verse of the hymn of the sastra; viz. Agni kindled by the gods, Agni kindled by man, Agni the well-kindling, the Hotri chosen by the gods, the Hotri chosen by men, the carrier of offerings, the leader of sacrifices, the irresistible Hotri, the swift carrier of oblations: may he, the god, p. 327 bring hither the gods! may Agni, the god, worship the gods! may (Agni), the knower of beings, perform the sacrificial rites!' (Ait. Br. II, 34.) Then follows the hymn, the Âgya-sûkta, the chief part of the sastra, viz. Rig-veda III, 13, 'To him, your god Agni, will I sing with loudest voice; may he come hither to us with the gods; may he, the best offerer, sit down on our sacred grass!' &c.; the seven (anushtubh) verses of which are recited in the order 1, 5, 4, 6, 3, 2, 7. The first and last verses being, however, repeated thrice, the number is thus raised to eleven. The recitation of the hymn is followed by the so-called ukthavîrya ('the strength of the praise'), consisting of the formula ukthamki, 'praise hath been sung,' with some words added to it differing at different sastras,--at the present sastra 'ghoshâya tvâ,' 'thee (I have recited) for sound (praise)!' [for school-differences as to these formulas, see Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 177],--to which the Adhvaryu responds, 'Om ukthasâh,' 'yea, singer of praise!' The Ukthavîrya, together with the response, is again to consist of as many syllables as the characteristic metre of the respective libation. Then follows the recitation, by the Âgnîdhra (Ait. Br. VI, 14), of the yâgyâ or offering prayer, viz. Rig-veda III, 25, 4.--As regards the term 'âgya,' the Pañk. Br. VII, 2, 1, 2, derives it from âgi, a race, in accordance with the following legend: When Pragâpati offered himself as a sacrifice to the gods, the latter could not agree as to which of them should have the first share. Pragâpati then proposed that they should run a race for it. In this race Agni came off first, then Mitravaruna, then Indra. To each of these three divinities an âgya was thereupon assigned; and, by a secret understanding between Indra and Agni, these two divided the fourth âgya between them. Hence the âgneya, maitrâvaruna, aindra, and aindrâgna sastra (and stotra), belonging to the Hotri, Maitrâvaruna, Brâhmanâkhamsin, and Akhâvâka priests respectively.

328:1 That is, fashions him, or makes him slender. A fanciful derivation of sastra (sams, to recite, praise, cf. carmen), from the root sâ (so), to sharpen (? or from sas, to cut, carve). 'Yathâyam purovartî purushas tîkshnakritah, avaya(va)vibhâgena spashtîkritas tathâ sastrenaitad retah syati spashtam karoti,' Sây.

328:2 Upanimadati, 'cheers;' the Kânva text (W.) has 'upanivadati.'

328:3 Or, intoxication, intoxicating drink. See paragraph 10, and p. 330, note 1

329:1 Or perhaps, successful, samsiddhâ [svakîyâny aksharâny aparityagyâvikritâ (? avikrittâ), Sây.]. The response (pratigara) here alluded to, is probably the one ordinarily used by the Adhvaryu, whenever the Hotri pauses in his recitation, at the end of half-verses p. 330 (or pâdas), nivids, &c., viz. 'Othamo daiva,'--or, Othâvo daivom, whenever the Hotri puts in the sacred syllable 'om.' 'Tasmât kâranâd gâyatra-prâtahsavane samsiddham avikritam vidhâsyamânam omantam prati-grihnîyât,' Sây. For the Adhvaryu's response, 'samsâmo daiva,' to the Hotri's summons (âhâva), see p. 326, note 1.

330:1 When the first verse of the trishtubh hymn, Rig-veda X, 73, is recited by the Hotri in the Marutvatîya Sastra at the midday feast, the Adhvaryu's response is 'madâmo daiva' (we rejoice, O divine one). Kâty. X, 3, 8; cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, p. 37.

330:2 According to Kâty. X, 6, 6 'madâmo daiva' is optionally the Adhvaryu's response at the recitation in the Âgnimârutra Sastra of three of the so-called Anupânîya (or Svâdushkilîya) trishtubh verses VI, 47, 1-4 (see note on IV, 4, 2, 18). Possibly the present paragraph may refer to those verses, in which case the words 'when trishtubh verses are recited' would begin a fresh paragraph. Sâyana, however, seems to take it in the same way as above; cf. also the Kânva reading in next note.

330:3 This is the (Gagatî) hymn I, 159 recited in the Vaisvadeva Sastra. According to Kâty. X, 6, 5, the response is to be thrice (after each of the three first verses) 'madâmo daiva.' The Kânva has for paragraphs 10-12, 'At the morning feast he responds by a complete (formula), for complete Gâyatrî returned. At the midday feast he responds once with one containing "mad," when he p. 331 recites trishtubh verses, for she (Trishtubh) returned leaving one syllable behind: hereby now he completes her, makes her whole. At the evening feast with something containing thrice "mad," for she (Gagatî) returned leaving three syllables behind: hereby now he completes her, makes her whole. At the (hymn) to Heaven and Earth he responds with one that contains "mad;" when he recites (the hymn) Heaven and Earth--these creatures subsisting on those two, Heaven and Earth--he thereby puts juice into them, and upon those two, thus rendered juiceful, these creatures subsist. He responds with "Om," for that is truth, that the gods know.'

331:1 That is, instead of 'vâk,' hence 'Othâmo daivom.' 'Om' pure and simple is the response at the end of the sastra.

Next: IV, 3, 3. Third Brâhmana