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The game was all gathered and saved for the katsina at the house of Antelope clan. After this had been done, the men who had been taught the hunting songs, made songs of their own, rejoicing over the hunt, and put on a dance in honor of the Eagle Man and proclaimed him leader of the hunt. Then Iatiku said, "Let us try again to call the katsina." So she asked the Antelope Man to call the katsina again. Antelope Man notified the people to pray for the katsina to visit them again and for them to bring their prayer sticks to his altar. Antelope Man took the baskets of prayer sticks, prayed, and buried them in the ground. They were received at Wenimats.

So it happened again as before. The messenger Gomaiowish was again sent out to notify the people that the katsina were coming on the fourth day. So four women from the Antelope clan were selected to prepare the food that had been brought in by the Eagle Man for a feast. And every household was asked to bring some flour to the Antelope clan altar. The four women also prepared this for the katsina. The other time, Iatiku saw that the people had to bring food to the door where the katsina were staying. This was why she called the community hunt so the people would not have to come around again. Now only the Antelope clan were permitted to serve the katsina. So everything happened all right. They were taken care of at the Antelope elan altar and Iatiku said, "All is well. Now it does not seem to me that we are playing with the katsina; they are now to be regarded as sacred." (The first visit had been rather informal; the katsina were treated much as human visitors.)

Iatiku was satisfied that everything worked well with the katsina part. But she saw that the Antelope clan was carrying too much of the burden, so she thought of making another officer to be called tsa'tia hochani, 60 the war chief. She selected the first man in the Sky clan, because he was to rule on the outside. He was to be above the Eagle Man, that is, to rank above him and above all other officers. Whatever he says goes. In the old days this office was always from the Sky clan. 61 Iatiku called this man and said, "I am going to make you tsa'tia hochani." So she made for him what is called hachamoni kaiok 62 (broken prayer stick) (pl. 5, fig. 2). It has the four trails

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marked on the four sides. This would extend from the earth up to the sky. 63 She gave it to him and told him, "When you hold it clasped in your hands, you are drawing all the people together so they will not be scattered. With this you will have great power over all the rest of the people. You will have them tucked under your arms, 64 and their minds will be tucked in your temples" (meaning "you will do their thinking for them and speak for them; you will be their mind"). Then Iatiku taught him his prayers. His prayers should always start from Shipapu. After coming up from Shipapu, they should start from the north and take in the west, south, and east. This is a very long prayer.

He was told that he would rule [officiate] around these places but he was not to be paid for his services; 65 he would represent the people and pray for them. (This is still done.)

Before this the Antelope clan was ruling everything. The Country Chief took the burden of all rule outside the pueblo. Iatiku told him. that he was to have the hardest work, that he was the one to go out and meet the katsina and bring the message to the Antelope clan, and that it was his duty to notify the people by crying out all matters of importance relating to outside.

Now Iatiku said, "Let's try to call the katsina." (They were still at Shipapu.) All was done as before and when all was over Iatiku said things worked out better. But she saw that Country Chief was carrying too much of the burden so she thought of giving him two helpers. She selected the first two sons (or maybe brothers) of Country Chief. She called the oldest one who was to be next in rank Shuti mut (wren youth). 66 The other was to be called Shpa'ti mut (mocking bird youth). 67 In this order they were to rank. Iatiku named them thus because they were to represent these birds, to make their sounds, and to bring messages to the people, thus relieving Country Chief. (It is very different now. Today they call them the two cooks because they serve the head man. They prepare his corn meal and pollen so he will always have plenty. Now they have Spanish names.)

Country Chief had to go out and pray every fourth day to the north, another 4 days to the west, another 4 days to the South, and 4 more days to the east. (Now they take turns, and the three of

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them do it, making the burden easier. These helpers also help as town criers.) Everything was tried out again and Iatiku was satisfied.

Country Chief was also instructed to watch the seasons. He was to go out in the country each day to watch the plants. At this time the only way they could tell the seasons was by the growth of the plants. Country Chief was to tell the people what season they were ending or approaching. (It is told in later tradition that Country Chief started to watch the stars and moon and, being able to tell seasons more accurately in this way, he abandoned the method of watching the plants. Country Chief also watched the sun to determine the time for the solstices. Now the Antelope chief does this.) 68 (Sun is male, Moon female; hence men are strong, women weaker.) The katsina that live in the east come for the winter solstice and the katsina that live in the west come for the summer solstice. 69

They lived for a long time with these officers. Finally, when everything seemed all right with the katsina of the west, Iatiku decided to try the katsina of the east. (These are not called katsina but Kopishtaiya. The first was Tsiukiri (pl. 4, fig. 2) who went with his mate and reproduced. His mate is Hi'waii'tsa.) 70 So Iatiku told Country Chief to tell the Antelope Man that they were going to try and call the Kopishtaiya (pl. 6, fig. 2), who live where the sun comes up, and to make preparations. So the Antelope Man said, "It is all right. Go and tell the people to wait for them and prepare for them by gathering material to make prayer sticks."

So Country Chief told his two helpers to go out and before cutting sticks for prayer sticks they should say the prayer, "Come and help us, Yellow Flint! Come, Red Flint, come White Flint! Help us! You are the ones who are really going to cut the prayer sticks." Thus he taught them the song they were to sing when they started to cut the prayer sticks with the flints. These that they brought in were to be used at the broken prayer stick of Country Chief. So Country Chief came out to meet them as they brought in the sticks. (They would stop outside and cry gaiya' (inside), so as not to interrupt any ceremony that might be going on. Nowadays they knock on the door.) So Country Chief made a trail for them to come inside and they brought their sticks in. They were instructed to bring them on the fourth day.

On the fourth day all the prayer sticks were brought in. They made a prayer stick that was to look like the ones given to the kopishtaiya by Iatiku so they would recognize them. So the prayer sticks were brought in and Antelope Man went out to the east with them in baskets, prayed, and buried them. Four days from that

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time, he said, the people were to wait for the Kopishtaiya. They had no messenger like the messenger of the katsina, but the people were sure they would come. Just before sun-up Country Chief heard them singing in the east, so he sent messages in the village that the Kopishtaiya were coming near. The Kopishtaiya were not dancers, they came only to circle the outside of the village. At intervals they went around the village, prayed, and put up dapi'năshtimĭt, 71 spiritual fortifications or protections. After circling the town they came into the plaza. The people saw that they had seeds in bags with them. They were all naked save for breech clouts made of rabbit skins. They wore no moccasins even though it was very cold, for they represented strong, hardy men. They gave presents of seed to the people and told them to plant these seeds. After they had finished distributing them they left. They thanked the people for praying with prayer sticks and food (as is daily custom) and then they left. Iatiku saw that they were real and that all went well so she told the people to believe in them also.

Some time after this the evil spirit (Pishuni) came to the people of Iatiku in the form of disease. It had by this time grown of itself into a big power, and the people were stricken with a plague. It is not known what form of disease it was for the people had never known sickness before. They were panic stricken. They tried by every way, gathering plants and making drinks, to relieve themselves but nothing helped them. So Iatiku thought of choosing a man to be known as chaianyi (medicine man). So she called Country Chief and told him what she was thinking of doing. Country Chief said, "All right." So Iatiku told him, "I have told you to watch your people and to know them, so I will leave it up to you to select the man." Iatiku wished the Antelope clan man and the Eagle man to be present at a council together with the three Country Chiefs. The meeting was held. Country Chief stood up and told the others that he would select the first man from the Oak clan to be first chaianyi, and his altar would be named hakan chaianyi (fire medicine man). He chose this man because he represented a strong wood for making fire, and he called it [the altar] fire medicine man because it was one of the first strong things given to Iatiku. (Fire was one of the most powerful forces and oak was the best wood for it.) So everyone in the council agreed upon the one who was chosen, so Country Chief gave the name of the altar to Iatiku, and said, "This is the man we have chosen."


25:60 Usually translated "outside chief, country chief."

25:61 Nowadays the war chiefs are selected without reference to clan affiliation in all Keresan pueblos.

25:62 Cf. White, 1932, p. 46; Boas, 1928, pt. 1, p. 288.

26:63 Informant's note: It is the center pole, four earths down and four sides up, which holds the skies and the earths in place so they will not give way or slip aside. Skies and earths are meant to last forever and this keeps them in place. Every year when prayer sticks are made, the broken prayer stick is renewed, and asked to start the new year fresh again and strong. For 4 days Kapina chaianyi renew it, and repaint it. The beads are taken off and buried and new beads put on by the new war chief.

26:64 This is a common figure of speech for officers among the Keresan pueblos. It is, of course, equivalent to our "under your wing."

26:65 Cf. White, 1932, p. 50.

26:66 Canyon wren (Catherpes mexicanus conspersus, Ridgway).

26:67 Western mocking bird (Mimus polyglottos leucopterus, Vigors) (White, 1942).

27:68 Cf. White, 1932, p. 41.

27:69 Cf. White, 1932, pp. 84-88.

27:70 Cf. White, 1932, p. 86 and pl. 8, b.

Next: Wanderings, Part II