1. The king saw Bhikkhus in the forest, lone
And far away from men, keeping hard vows.
And then he saw too householders, at home,
Eating the sweet fruits of the Noble Path 1.
Considering both of these, deep doubts he felt.
'If laymen also realise the Truth
Then surely vowing vows must be in vain.
Come! let me ask that best of teachers, wise
In the threefold basket of the Buddha's words,
Skilled to o'erthrow the arguments of the foe.
He will be able to resolve my doubts!'
2. Now Milinda the king went up to the place where Nâgasena was, and bowed down before him, and took his seat on one side. And when so seated, he said to Nâgasena: 'Venerable Nâgasena, is there any layman living at home, enjoying the pleasures of sense, occupying a dwelling encumbered with wife and children, enjoying the use of sandal wood from Benares, and of garlands, perfumes, and ointments, accepting gold and silver, with an embroidered head-dress on, set with diamonds and pearls and gold-is there any such who has seen face to face the calm, the supreme good, Nirvâna
'Not one hundred only, O king, nor two nor
three nor five nor six hundred, not a thousand only, nor a hundred thousand, nor ten millions, nor ten thousand millions, not even only a billion laymen (have seen Nirvâna)--not to speak of twenty or thirty or a hundred or a thousand who have attained to clear understanding (of the four Truths) 1. By
what kind of exposition shall I lay before you evidence showing that I know this 1?'
'Do you yourself tell me 2.'
3. 'Then, O king, I will explain it. All those passages in the ninefold word of the Buddha that deal with holiness of life,  and attainment of the path, and the divisions of the excellent habit of living under vows, shall be brought to bear in this connection 3. Just, O king, as water which has rained down upon a country district, with both low-lying and high places, level land and undulations, dry ground and wet, will-all of it-flow off thence and meet together in the ocean of great waters; so will all those passages meet together, and be brought into connection, here. And a manifestation of reasons out of my experience and knowledge shall be also brought to bear. Thus will this matter be thoroughly analysed, its beauty will be brought out 4, it will be exhausted 5, brought home
to rest 1. It will be, O king, as when an able writing-master, on exhibiting, by request, his skill in writing, will supplement the written signs by an explanation of reasons out of his experience and knowledge, and thus that writing of his becomes finished, perfect, without defect. So will I also bring to bear a manifestation of reasons out of my experience and knowledge; and thus shall this matter be thoroughly analysed, its beauty shall be brought out, it shall be exhausted, set at rest 2.
4. 'In the city of Sâvatthi, O king, about fifty millions of the disciples of the Blessed One, devout men and devout women, were walking in the paths, and out of those three hundred and fifty-seven thousand 3 were established in the fruit of the third path. And all of them were laity, not members of the Order. And there too, at the foot of the Gandamba tree, when the double miracle took place 4, two hundred millions of living beings 5 penetrated to an understanding (of the four Truths). And again on the delivery of the Râhulovâda 6 discourse, and of the Mahâ Mangala 7 discourse, and of the Samakitta 8 exposition, and of the
[paragraph continues] Parâbhava 1 discourse, and of the Purâbheda 2 discourse, and of the Kalaha-vivâda discourse, and of the Kûla-vyûha 1 discourse, and of the Mahâ-vyûha 1 discourse, and of the Tuwataka 1 discourse, and of the Sâriputta 1 discourse, an innumerable number of celestial beings penetrated to knowledge (of the four Truths). In the city of Râgagaha three hundred and fifty thousand devout laymen and devout laywomen, disciples of the Blessed One, were walking in the Paths. And there again at the taming of Dhanapâla the great elephant 3 nine hundred million living beings, and again at the meeting at the Pâsânika Ketiya on the occasion of the Pârâyana discourse 4 one hundred and forty million living beings, and again at the Indasâla cave eight hundred millions of gods, and again at Benares  in the deer park Isipatana at the first preaching of the Dhamma 5 one hundred and eighty million Brahmâ gods and innumerable others, and again in the heaven of the Thirty-Three at the preaching of the Abhidhamma on the Pandu Kambala Rock 6 eight hundred millions of the gods, and on the descent from the world of the gods at the gate of the city of Sankassa 6, at the miracle of the manifestation to the world 7,
three hundred millions of believing men and deities penetrated to a knowledge (of the four Truths). And again at Kapila-vatthu among the Sakyas, at the preaching of the Buddhavamsa 1 in the Nigrodha Arâma, and again at the preaching of the Mahâ Samaya Suttanta 2, gods in numbers that cannot be counted penetrated to a knowledge of the Dhamma. And again at the assemblies on the occasions of Sumana the garland maker 3, and of Garahadinna, and of Ânanda the rich man, and of Gambuka the naked ascetic 4, and of Mandûka the god, and of Matta-kundali the god, and of Sulasâ the courtesan 1, and of Sirimâ the courtesan, and of the weaver's daughter, and of Subhaddâ, and of the spectacle of the cremation of the Brahman of Sâketa, and of the Sûnâparantas, and of the problem put by Sakka 6, and of the Tirokudda Sutta 7, and of the Ratana Sutta 8--at each of these eighty-four thousand penetrated to a knowledge of the Dhamma. So long, O king, as the Blessed One remained in the world, so long wheresoever in the three great divisions
(of India) 1 or in the sixteen principal countries (in them) 2 he stayed, there, as a usual thing, two, three, four, or five hundred, or a thousand, or a hundred thousand, both gods and men, saw face to face the calm, the supreme good, Nirvâna. And all of those who were gods, O king, were laymen. They had not entered the Order. So these and many other billions of gods, O king,--even while they were yet laymen, living at home, enjoying the pleasures of sense,--saw face to face (realised in themselves) the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvâna 3.'
5. 'If so, venerable Nâgasena,--if laymen, living at home and enjoying the pleasures of sense, can see Nirvâna,--what purpose then do these extra vows serve? That being so, rather must  the vows be workers of mischief. For, Nâgasena, if diseases would abate without medicine, what would be the advantage of weakening the body by emetics, by purges, and other like remedies?--if one's enemies could be subdued with one's fists only, where would be the need of swords and spears, of javelins and bows and cross-bows, of maces and of clubs?--if trees could be climbed by clambering up them with the aid of the knots and of the crooked and hollow places in them, of the thorny excrescences and creepers and branches growing on them, what would be the need of going in quest of ladders long and strong?--if sleeping on the bare ground gave
ease to the limbs 1, why should one seek after fine large beds, soft to the touch?--if one could cross the desert alone, inaccessible though it be, and full of danger and fear, why need one wait for a grand caravan, well armed and well equipped?--if a man were able by his own arms to cross a flowing river, what need he care for firm dykes or boats?--if he could provide board and lodging for himself out of his own property, why should he trouble to do service to others, to flatter with sweet words, to run to and fro?--when he can get water from a natural pool, why should he dig wells and tanks and artificial ponds? And just so, venerable Nâgasena, if laymen, living at home and enjoying the pleasures of sense, can realise in themselves the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvâna, what is the need of taking upon oneself these vows?'
6. 'There are, O king, these twenty-eight good qualities in the vows, virtues really inherent in them; and on account of these all the Buddhas alike have longed for them and held them dear. And what are the twenty-eight? The keeping of the vows, O king, implies a mode of livelihood without evil, it has a blissful calm as its fruit, it avoids blame, it works no harm to others, it is free from danger, it brings no trouble on others, it is certain to bring with it growth in goodness, it wastes not away, it deludes not, it is in itself a protection 2, it works the satisfaction of desires and the taming of all beings, it is good for self-control,
it is appropriate 1, (he who keeps the vows) is self-dependent 2, is emancipated 3, the keeping of them is the destruction of lust; and of malice, and of dullness; it is the pulling away of pride, the cutting off of evil thoughts, the removal of doubts, the suppression of sloth, the putting away of discontent; it is long-suffering, its merit is beyond weight, and its virtue beyond measure, and it is the path that leads to the end of every grief. These, O king, are the twenty-eight good qualities in the vows;  and it is on account of these that all the Buddhas alike have longed for them and held them dear.
7. 'And whosoever, O king, thoroughly carry out the vows, they become completely endowed with eighteen good qualities. What are these eighteen? Their walk is pure, their path is accomplished, well guarded are they in deed and word, altogether pure are they in manners and in mind, their zeal flags not, all their fears are allayed, all delusions (as to the permanence and as to the degree) of their individuality have been put away, anger has died away while love (to all beings) 4 has arisen in their hearts, in taking nourishment they eat it with the three right views regarding food 5, they are honoured of
all men, they are temperate in eating, they are full of watchfulness, they need no home, wheresoever is a pleasant spot there do they dwell, they loathe to do ill, they take delight in solitude, they are in earnest always. These, O king, are the good qualities with which they who carry out the vows are completely endowed.
8. 'And these ten, O king, are the individuals worthy of those advantages inherent in the vows--the man full of faith, ashamed to do wrong, full of courage, void of hypocrisy, master of himself, not unstable 1, desirous to learn, glad to undertake the task that is hard, not easy to take offence, of a loving heart. These, O king, are the ten individuals worthy of those advantages inherent in the vows.
9. 'And all they, O king, who as laymen, living at home and in the enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, realise in themselves the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvâna,--all they had in former births accomplished their training, laid the foundation, in the practice of the thirteen vows, had purified their walk and conduct by means of them; and so now, even as laymen, living at home and in the enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, do they realise in themselves the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvâna. Just, O king, as a clever archer first in regular succession teaches his pupils at the training ground the different kinds of bows, the manner of holding the bow up, and of keeping it in a firm grasp, and of bending the fingers, and of planting the feet, and of taking up the arrow, and of placing it on
the string, and of drawing it back, and of restraining it, and of aiming at the mark, and thus of hitting 1 a man of straw, or targets made of the Khanaka plant 2, or of grass, or of straw, or of masses of clay, or of shields 3--and after that, introducing them to the service of the king, he gains the reward of high-bred chargers and chariots and elephants and horses and money and corn and red gold and slave girls and slaves and wives and lands.  Just so, O king, all they who as laymen, living at home in the enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, realise in themselves the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvâna,--all they had in former births accomplished their training, laid the foundation, in the practice of the thirteen vows, had purified their walk and conduct by means of them; and so now, even as laymen, and living at home in the enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, do they realise in themselves the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvâna.
10. 'And there is no realisation of Arahatship, O king, in one single life, without a previous keeping of the vows. Only on the utmost zeal and the most devoted practice of righteousness, and with the aid of a suitable teacher, is the realisation of Arahatship attained. just, O king, as a doctor or surgeon first procures for himself a teacher, either by the payment of a fee or by the performance of service, and then
thoroughly trains himself in holding the lancet, in cutting, marking, or piercing with it, in extracting darts, in cleansing wounds, in causing them to dry up, in the application of ointments, in the administration of emetics and purges and oily enemas, and only when he has thus gone through training, served his apprenticeship, made himself skilful, does he visit the sick to heal them. Just so, O king, all they who as laymen, living at home in the enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, realise in themselves the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvâna,--all they had in former births accomplished their training, laid the foundation, in the practice of the thirteen vows, had purified their walk and conduct by means of them; and so now, even as laymen, and living at home in the enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, do they realise in themselves the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvâna.
11. 'And there is no perception of the truth to those who are not purified by the virtues that depend on the keeping of the vows. just as without water no seed will grow, so can there be no perception of the truth to those not purified by the practice of the vows. just as there is no rebirth in bliss to those who have done no meritorious actions, no beautiful deeds, so is there no perception of the truth for those not purified by the practice of the vows.
12. 'Like the broad earth, O king, is the character resulting from the keeping of the vows, to serve as a basis to those who desire to be pure 1. Like water is it, O king, to wash away the stain of all things
evil in those who desire to be pure. Like the fire is it, O king, to burn out the lust of all evil in those who desire to be pure . Like the wind is it, O king, to carry away the dust of all evil in those desiring to be pure. Like medicine is it, O king, to allay the disease of evil in those desiring to be pure. Like ambrosia is it, O king, to act as an antidote to the poison of evil in those desiring to be pure. Like arable land is it, O king, on which to grow the crop of 'all the virtues of renunciation to those desiring to be pure. Like a wishing-gem 1 is it, O king; for conferring all the high attainments they long and crave for upon those who desire to be pure. Like a boat is it, O king, for carrying to the further shore of the mighty ocean of transmigration all those who desire to be pure. Like a place of refuge is it, O king, where those who desire to be pure can be safe from the fear of old age and death. Like a mother is it, O king, to comfort those who desire to be pure when afflicted with the sorrows of sin. Like a father is it, O king, to raise up in those who desire to be pure and to increase in goodness all the good qualities of those who have renounced the world. Like a friend is it, O king, in not disappointing those who desire to be pure in their search after the good qualities of those who have renounced the world. Like a lotus flower, O king, is it, in not being tarnished by the stain of evil. Like costly perfume (of saffron and of jasmine and the Turkish incense and the Greek) 2
is it, O king, for counteracting the bad odour of evil for those who desire to be pure. Like a lofty mountain range is it, O king, for protecting those who desire to be pure from the onslaught of the winds of the eight conditions to which men are subject in this world (gain and loss, and fame and dishonour, and praise and blame, and happiness and woe) 1. Like the space of heaven is it, O king, in the freedom from all obstruction, in the magnitude, in the great expanse and breadth it gives to those who desire to be pure. Like a stream is it, O king, in washing away for those who desire to be pure the stain of all evil. Like a guide is it, O king, in bringing safe out of the desert of rebirths, out of the jungle of lusts and sins, those who desire to be pure. Like a mighty caravan is it, O king, for bringing those who desire to be pure safe into that most blessed city of Nirvâna, peaceful and calm, where no fear dwells,  Like a well-polished spotless mirror is it, O king, for showing to those who desire to be pure the true nature of the constituent elements of all beings. Like a shield is it, O king, for warding off from those who desire to be pure the clubs and the arrows and the swords of evil dispositions. Like a sunshade is it, O king, for warding off from those who desire to be pure the scorching heat of the threefold fire 2. Like
the moon is it, O king, as being longed and hoped for by those who desire to be pure. Like the sun is it, O king, as dispelling the blackness of the darkness of ignorance for those who desire to be pure. Like the ocean is it, O king, as causing to arise in those desiring to be pure the costly treasures of the virtues of those who have renounced the world, and by reason too of its immensity, of its being beyond measure and beyond count,
13. 'Thus is it, O king, of great service to those desiring to be pure, a remover of all sorrow and lamentation, an antidote to discontent; it puts an end to fear, and individuality, and imperviousness of mind; to evil, and to grief, and to pain, and to lust, and to malice, and to dullness, and to pride, and to heresy, and to all wrong dispositions; it brings with it honour and advantage and bliss; it fills them with ease and with love and with peace of mind; it is free from blame; it has happiness here as its fruit; it is a mine and treasure of goodness that is beyond measure and beyond count, costly above all things, and precious.
14. 'Just, O king, as men for nourishment seek after food, for health medicine, for assistance a friend, for crossing water a boat, for pleasant odours a perfume, for security a place of refuge, for support the earth, for instruction a teacher, for honours a king, and for whatever they desire a wishing-gem--just so, O king, do the Arahats seek after the virtues of the keeping of the vows for the attainment of all the advantages of renunciation of the world.
15. 'And what water is for the growth of seeds,  what fire is for burning, what food is for giving strength, what a creeper is for tying things up, what
a sword is for cutting, what water is for allaying thirst, what a treasure is for giving confidence, what a boat is for crossing to the further shore, what medicine is for allaying disease, what a carriage is for journeying at ease, what a place of refuge is for appeasing fear, what a king is for protection, what a shield is for warding off the blows of sticks and stakes, of clubs, of arrows, and of darts, what a teacher is for instruction, what a mother is for nourishing, what a mirror is for seeing, what a jewel is for ornament, what a dress is for clothing, what a ladder is for mounting up, what a pair of scales is for comparison 1, what a charm is for repetition, what a weapon is for warding off scorn, what a lamp is for dissipating darkness, what a breeze is for allaying fever, what knowledge of an art is for the accomplishment of business, what medicinal drugs are for the preservation of life, what a mine is for the production of jewels, what a gem is for ornament, what a command is for preventing transgression, what sovranty is for dominion--all that, O king, is the character-that-comes-of-keeping-the-vows for the good growth of the seed of renunciation, for the burning out of the stains of evil, for giving the strength of Iddhi, for tying up one's self in self-control and presence of mind, for the complete cutting off of doubt and mistrust, for allaying the thirst of craving, for giving confidence as to perception of the truth, for crossing to the further shore of the fourfold stream (of sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance), for allaying the disease of evil dispositions,
for attaining to the bliss of Nirvâna, for appeasing the fears that arise from birth, old age, decay and death, grief, pain, lamentation, woe, and despair, for being protected in the possession of the advantages of renunciation, for warding off discontent and evil thoughts, for instruction in all the good involved in the life of those who have renounced the world, for nourishment therein, for explaining to men quietude and insight, and the path and the fruits thereof and Nirvâna, for bestowing upon men a costly ornament high in the praise and admiration of the world, for closing the doors of all evil states, for mounting up to the peaks of the mountain heights of renunciation, for distinguishing crooked and cunning and evil intentions in others, for the proper recitation of those qualities which ought to be practised and those which ought not, for warding off as one's enemies all evil dispositions, for dissipating the darkness of ignorance, for allaying the fever arising from the scorching of the threefold fire, for the accomplishment of the attainment of the Condition of Peace--so gentle and so subtle,--for the protection of the virtues of the life of a recluse, for the production of the precious jewels of the sevenfold wisdom--self-possession, investigation of the truth, energy, joy, calm contemplation, and serenity,--for the adornment of the recluses, for the prevention of any transgression against that blameless, abstruse, delicate bliss  that comes of peace, for dominion over all the qualities that recluses and Arahats affect. Thus, O king, is it that keeping the vows is one and the same thing as attaining to all these qualities. And the advantage thereof, O king, cannot be weighed, neither measured; it has no equal, no rival, no
superior, great is it and glorious, extensive and abundant, deep and broad, and large and wide, full of weight and worth and might.
16. 'And whosoever, O king, having evil cravings in his heart, being hypocritical, greedy, a slave to his stomach 1, seeking after material gain or worldly fame and glory, unfit (for the outward signs of Arahatship), not having reached the attainments, whose conduct is inconsistent (with membership in the Order), unworthy of it, inappropriate to it--whosoever being such shall take upon himself the vows, he shall incur a twofold punishment, suffering the loss of the good that may be in him. For in this world he shall receive disgrace, and scorn 2, and blame, and ridicule, and suspension, and excommunication 3, and expulsion, and he shall be outcast, rejected, dismissed; and in his next life he shall suffer torment in the great Avîki purgatory that is a hundred leagues in depth, and covered, as with a garland, with hot and scorching, fierce and fiery blazing flames; therein shall he rise and fall for myriads of years, upwards and downwards and across,--a foam-bubble, as it were, cast up and thrown from side to side in a boiling sea 4. And, when released from thence, then as a mighty Preta (ghost), in the outward form of a monk, but with
body and limbs lean and rugged and dark, with head swollen 1, bloated, and full of holes, hungry and thirsty, odd and dreadful in colour and form, his ears all torn, and his eyes ever winking, his limbs a mass of mortifying sores 2, his whole body the prey of maggots, his stomach all scorching and hot like a fiery furnace blazing in the breeze, yet with a mouth no larger than a needle so that his thirst can never cease, with no place of refuge to fly to, no protector to help him, groaning and weeping and crying out for mercy, shall he wander wailing o'er the earth!
17. 'Just, O king, as whosoever, being unfit for royalty, without having properly attained to it, being inappropriate to it, unworthy of it, unsuitable for it, a low-born man and base in lineage, should receive the consecration of a king, he would suffer mutilation, having his hands or his feet, or his hands and feet cut off, or his ears or his nose, or his ears and nose cut off,  or he would be tortured, being subjected to the Gruel Pot, or to the Chank Crown, or to the Râhu's Mouth, or to the Fire Garland, or to the Hand Torch, or to the Snake Strips, or to the Bark Dress, or to the Spotted Antelope, or to the Flesh Hooks, or to the Pennies, or to the Brine Slits, or to the Bar Turn, or to the Straw Seat 3, or he would be anointed with boiling oil, or be eaten by dogs, or be impaled alive, or be beheaded, or be subjected to punishments of various kinds. And why? Because he being unfit for it, without having properly attained to it, being inappropriate to it, unworthy of it, unsuitable for it, a low-born man
and base in lineage, he had placed himself in the seat of sovranty, and thus transgressed beyond his right limits. Just so, O king, whosoever having evil cravings in his heart, being hypocritical, greedy, a slave to his stomach, seeking after material gain or worldly fame and glory, unfit (for the outward signs of Arahatship), not having reached the attainments, whose conduct is inconsistent (with membership in the Order), unworthy of it, inappropriate to it--whosoever being such shall take upon himself the vows, he shall incur a twofold punishment, suffering the loss of the good that may be in him. For in this world he shall receive disgrace, and scorn, and blame, and ridicule, and suspension, and excommunication, and expulsion, and he shall be outcast, rejected, dismissed; and in his next life he shall suffer torment in the great Avîki purgatory that is a hundred leagues in depth, and covered, as with a garland, with hot and scorching, fierce and fiery blazing flames; therein shall he rise and fall for myriads of years, upwards and downwards and across,--a foam-bubble, as it were, cast up and thrown from side to side in a boiling sea. And, when released from thence, then as a mighty Preta (ghost), in the outward form of a monk, but with body and limbs lean and rugged and dark, with head swollen, bloated, and full of holes, hungry and thirsty, odd and dreadful in colour and form, his cars all torn, and his eyes ever winking, his limbs a mass of mortifying sores, his whole body the prey of maggots, his stomach all scorching and hot like a fiery furnace blazing in the breeze, yet with a mouth no larger than a needle so that his thirst can never cease, with no place of refuge to fly
to, no protector to help him, groaning and weeping and crying out for mercy, shall he wander wailing o'er the earth!
18. 'But whosoever, O king, is fit, who has reached the attainments, whose conduct is consistent with membership in the Order, who is worthy of it, appropriate to it, who desires little and is content, given to seclusion, not fond of society, alert in zeal, resolute of heart, without guile, without deceit, not a slave to his stomach, seeking neither material gain nor worldly fame or glory, full of faith, who has entered the Order from belief (in the doctrine, and not from worldly motives), and is full of desire for release from old age and death--whosoever being such shall take upon himself the vows with the idea of upholding the faith, he is deserving of twofold honour. For he is near and dear to, loved and longed for by both gods and men, dear as rare jasmine flowers to the man bathed and anointed, as sweet food to the hungry, as cool, clear, fragrant water to the thirsty, as a healing drug to a poisoned man, as a costly chariot drawn by high-bred steeds to the hurrying traveller, as a wishing-gem to the greedy for gain, as the pure white sunshade of sovranty to one ambitious for a throne, as the blessed attainment of the fruits of Arahatship to the seeker after holiness. It is he who attains to the fullest mastery over the four Earnest Meditations, the fourfold Great Struggle, the four Roads to Saintship, the five Organs of the moral sense, the five moral Powers, the seven forms of Wisdom, and the Noble Eightfold Path 1, quietude and insight reign in his heart, attainment
through study becomes easy to him, and the four fruits of the life of a recluse 1,  the four kinds of Discrimination 2, the threefold Knowledge 3, the sixfold higher Wisdom 4, in a word, the whole religion of the recluses becomes his very own, an anointed king is he, and over him is borne the pure white sunshade of emancipation!
19. 'Just, O king, as all the citizens and country folk in the land, the soldiers and the peons (royal messengers), wait in service upon a Kshatriya king, born to the purple, and on both sides of lineage high, when he has been consecrated with the inauguration ceremonies of the Kshatriyas 5; the thirty-eight divisions of the royal retinue, and the dancing men, and acrobats, and the soothsayers 6,
and the heralds 1, and Samanas and Brahmans, and the followers of every sect, frequent his court, and he becomes the lord of every seaport, and treasure-mine, and town, and custom-house 2--giving instructions as to the fate of every foreigner and criminal 3--just so, O king, whoever is fit, who has reached the attainments, whose conduct is consistent with membership in the Order, who is worthy of it, appropriate to it, who desires little and is content, given to seclusion, not fond of society, alert in zeal, resolute of heart, without guile, without deceit, not a slave to his stomach, seeking neither material gain nor worldly fame or glory, full of faith, who has entered the Order from belief (in the doctrine, and not from worldly motives), and is full of desire for release from old age and
death--whosoever being such shall take upon himself the vows with the idea of upholding the faith, he is deserving of twofold honour. For he is near and dear to, loved and longed for by both gods and men, dear as rare jasmine flowers to the man bathed and anointed, as sweet food to the hungry, as cool, clear, fragrant water to the thirsty, as a healing drug to a poisoned man, as a costly chariot drawn by high-bred steeds to the hurrying traveller, as a wishing-gem to the greedy for gain, as the pure white sunshade of sovranty to one ambitious for a throne, as the blessed attainment of the fruits of Arahatship to the seeker after holiness. It is he who attains to the fullest mastery over the four Earnest Meditations, the fourfold Great Struggle, the four Roads to Saintship, the five Organs of the moral sense, the five moral Powers, the seven forms of Wisdom, and the Noble Eightfold Path, quietude and insight reign in his heart, attainment through study becomes easy to him, and the four fruits of the life of a recluse, the four kinds of Discrimination, the threefold Knowledge, the sixfold higher Wisdom, in a word, the whole religion of the recluses becomes his very own, an anointed king is he, and over him is borne the pure white sunshade of emancipation!
20. 'Such, O king, are the thirteen vows purified by which a man shall bathe in the mighty waters of Nirvâna, and there indulge himself, as one sporting in the waves, with the manifold delights of religion, he shall addict himself to the eight modes of transcendental ecstacy, he shall acquire the powers of Iddhi, distant sounds, human and divine, shall greet his ear, he shall divine the thoughts of others, he
shall be able to call to mind his own previous births, and to watch the rise and fall from birth to birth of others, and he shall perceive the real nature and the origin of, he shall perceive the means of escape from sorrow, and from lust, individuality, delusion, and ignorance, the stains of life!
'And what are these thirteen? Wearing raiment made up of pieces taken from a dust-heap--Wearing three robes, and three robes only--Living on food received by begging--Begging straight on from house to house--Eating only once a day, at one sitting--Eating from one vessel only--Refusing food in excess of the regulations--Dwelling in the woods--Dwelling at the root of a tree-Dwelling in the open air--Dwelling in or near a cemetery--Not altering the mat or bed when it has once been spread out to sleep on--and sleeping in a sitting posture. It is he, O king, who, in former births, has undertaken and practised, followed and carried out, observed, framed his conduct according to, and fulfilled these thirteen vows, who acquires all the results of the life of a recluse, and all its ecstacy of peace and bliss becomes his very own 1.
21. 'Just, O king, as a shipowner who has become wealthy by constantly levying freight in some seaport town, will be able to traverse the high seas, and go to Vanga, or Takkola, or China, or Sovîra, or Surat, or Alexandria, or the Koromandel coast, or Further India, or any other place where ships do congregate--just so, O king,  it is he who in former births has undertaken and practised, followed and carried out, observed, framed his conduct according to, and fulfilled these thirteen vows, who acquires all the results of the life of a recluse, and all its ecstacy of peace and bliss becomes his very own.
22. 'And just, O king, as a husbandman will first remove the defects in the soil-weeds, and thorns, and stones-arid then by ploughing, and sowing,
and irrigating, and fencing, and watching, and reaping, and grinding, will become the owner of much flour, and so the lord of whosoever are poor and needy, reduced to beggary and misery--just so, O king, it is he who in former births has undertaken and practised, followed and carried out, observed, framed his conduct according to, and fulfilled these thirteen vows, who acquires all the results of the life of a recluse, and all its ecstacy of peace and bliss becomes his very own.
23. 'And again, O king, just as an anointed monarch is master over the treatment of outlaws, is an independent ruler and lord, and does whatsoever he desires, and all the broad earth is subject to him--just so, O king, is he who has undertaken, practised, and fulfilled in former births these vows, master, ruler, and lord in the religion of the Conquerors, and all the virtues of the Samanas are his.
24. 'And was not Upasena, the Elder, he of the sons of the Vangantas 1, from his having thoroughly practised all the purifying merits of the vows, able to neglect the agreement arrived at by the members of the Order resident at Sâvatthi, and to visit with his attendant brethren the Subduer of men, then retired into solitude, and when he had bowed down before him, to take his scat respectfully aside? And when the Blessed One saw how well trained his retinue was, then, delighted and glad and exalted in heart, he greeted them with courteous words, and said in his unbroken beautiful voice:
Most pleasant, Upasena, is the deportment of
these brethren waiting upon you. How have you managed thus to train your followers?"
'And he, when so questioned by the omniscient Buddha, the god over all gods, spake thus to the Blessed One as to the real reason for the goodness of their nature: "Whosoever, Lord, may come to me to ask for admission to the Order or to become my disciple, to him do I say : 'I, Sir, am a frequenter of the woods, who gain my food by begging, and wear but this robe pieced together from cast-off rags. If you will be the same, I can admit you to the Order and make you my disciple.' Then, if he agree thereto with joy, and abase himself 1, I thereupon admit him to the Order and to the company of my pupils. But if not, then neither do I admit him to the one nor to the other. Thus is it, Lord, that I train them 2." And thus is it, O king, that he who has taken upon himself the vows becomes master, ruler, and lord in the religion of the Conquerors; and all its ecstacy of peace and bliss becomes his very own.
25. 'Just, O king, as a lotus flower of glorious, pure, and high descent and origin is glossy, soft, desirable, sweet-smelling, longed for, loved, and praised, untarnished by the water or the mud, graced with tiny petals and filaments and pericarps, the resort of many bees, a child of the clear cold
stream--just so is that disciple of the Noble Ones who in former births has undertaken and practised, followed and carried out, observed and framed his conduct according to, and fulfilled these thirteen vows, endowed with the thirty graces. And what are the thirty? His heart is full of affectionate, soft, and tender love, evil is killed, destroyed, cast out from within him, pride and self-righteousness are put an end to and cast down, stable and strong and established and undeviating is his faith, he enters into the enjoyment of the heart's refreshment, the highly praised and desirable peace and bliss of the ecstacies of contemplation fully felt, he exhales the most excellent and unequalled sweet savour of righteousness of life, near is he and dear to gods and men alike, exalted by the best of beings the Arahat Noble Ones themselves, gods and men delight to honour him, the enlightened, wise, and learned approve, esteem, appreciate, and praise him, untarnished is he by the love either of this world or the next 1, he sees the danger in the smallest tiniest offence, rich is he in the best of wealth--the wealth that is the fruit of the Path, the wealth of those who are seeking the highest of the attainments,--he is partaker of the best of the four requisites of a recluse that may be obtained by asking, he lives without a home addicted to that best austerity that is dependent on the meditation of the Ghânas,  he has unravelled the whole net of evil, he has broken and burst through, doubled up and utterly destroyed both the possibility of rebirth in any of the five future states, and the five obstacles to the
higher life in this one (lust, malice, sloth, pride, and doubt), unalterable in character, excellent in conduct 1, transgressing none of the rules as to the four requisites of a recluse, he is set free from rebirths, he has passed beyond all perplexity, his mind is set upon complete emancipation, he has seen the truth 2, the sure and stedfast place of refuge from all fear has he gained, the seven evil inclinations (to lust, and malice, and heresy, and doubt, and pride, and desire for future life, and ignorance) are rooted out in him, he has reached the end of the Great Evils (lust, individuality, delusion, and ignorance), he abounds in the peace and the bliss of the ecstacies of contemplation, he is endowed with all the virtues a recluse should have. These, O king, are the thirty graces he is adorned withal.
26. 'And was not Sâriputta, the Elder, O king, the best man in the whole ten thousand world systems, the Teacher of the world himself alone excepted? And he who through endless ages had heaped up merit, and had been reborn in a Brahman family, relinquished all the delights of the pleasures of sense, and gave up boundless wealth 3, to enter the Order according to the teaching of the Conqueror, and having restrained his actions, words, and thoughts by these thirteen vows, became in this life of such exalted virtue that he was the one who, after the Master, set rolling on the royal chariot-wheel
of the kingdom of righteousness in the religion of Gotama, the Blessed One. So that this was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in that most excellent collection, the Anguttara Nikâya 1:
"I know, O brethren, of no other man who in succession to me sets rolling on the glorious chariot-wheel of the kingdom of righteousness so well as Sâriputta. Sâriputta, O brethren, sets rolling that wheel the best of all."'
'Most excellent, Nâgasena! The whole ninefold word of the Buddha, the most exalted conduct, the highest and best of the attainments to be gained in the world,--all these are wrapped up together in the virtues that result from the keeping of the vows.'
Here ends the Ninth Chapter 2
Here ends the Solving of Puzzles.
244:1 'Standing in the Fruit of the Anâgâmins.' So they had already reached the third stage in the Excellent Way.
245:1 I take this to mean, 'Not to speak of comparatively small numbers who have experienced Abhisamaya, an innumerable host of laymen have reached Nirvâna--that is, have reached, and during their lives remained in, the third stage of the Path, and attained Arahatship just before they died. Abhisamaya is used either absolutely or in composition. Mânâbhisamaya (A. IV, 38, 5 = M. I, 12) certainly, and perhaps Atthâbhisamaya, is used of Arahats, but they do not occur in our author. He uses occasionally Dhammâbhisamaya (see pp. 255, 350, &c., of the Pâli) and Katu-sakkâbhisamaya (see pp. 171, 334, &c.), but more frequently Abhisamaya absolutely. Dhammâbhisamaya, 'penetration into, clear understanding of, the Dhammas or Dhamma,' may refer to the four Dhammas of Anguttara IV, i (= M. P. S., IV, 2, 3), or to the comprehension of the qualities (Dhammas) of things, or (what is very much the same) to the comprehension of the principal doctrine (Dhamma) of the impermanence of all things. In the last case it would be the same thing, looked at from a slightly different point of view, as the Dhamma-kakkhu, the Eye for the Truths (see Sumangala Vilâsinî I, 237), or as that insight (Vipassanâ) which is the entrance to the Path. But the four Truths (as to sorrow, &c.) are also important Dhammas, and as the expression Katu-sakkâbhisamaya clearly refers to them and them only, this may also be the meaning of dhammâbhisamaya, or at any rate of abhisamaya standing above. So at least I take the latter here. We know that the 'Eye for the Dhamma,' the perception of the first only of the tîni lakkhanâni (impermanence), implies and involves the entrance into the Path. Oddly enough there is as yet no evidence to show whether the perception of the cardinal doctrine of the four Truths necessarily does so too; or can do so alone, without the Dhammakakkhu. If the latter, then there are two gates to the Path. And this is not only quite possible, but is the inference one might fairly draw from the constant phrase 'After the exposition of the Truths had concluded so and so attained to' one or other of the phalâni.
246:1 Literally 'shall I give you anuyoga,' which the Simhalese renders 'opportunity for speech'(!). Above, at p. 10 of the Pâli, the rendering is quite different, 'pâdam dî samugena.' The only translation that fits the context in both of these places (the only ones in which the idiom has, so far, been found) is 'lay before you (proofs of my) mastery (over the subject),' or something of that sort. It is a disappointing satisfaction to find that the phrase was as unintelligible in Ceylon as it is to us. In my version above I should now prefer to write instead of 'repeated his lesson to his teacher for the last time,' 'gave his teacher proofs that he had understood what he had taught him.'
246:2 Hînati-kumburê, p. 508, puts these words into the mouth of Nâgasena.
246:3 Literally 'will come into connection here.'
246:4 Vikitto, which the Simhalese only repeats.
246:5 Paripunno; literally 'filled' (paripûra wanneya).
247:1 Samânîto, treated with respectful affection,' says Hînati-kumburê.
247:2 I cannot hope to have solved all the difficulties with which the last two paragraphs bristle. But I think the general sense is clear, and the way smoothed for future translators.
247:3 This curious number (like others below) must have a history and a meaning.
247:4 See Sumangala Vilâsinî, p. 57; Gâtaka I, 77, 78; IV, 263-266.
247:5 Mostly gods of one sort or another.
247:6 See the note above on I, 32 (p. 20 of the Pâli).
247:7 In the Sutta Nipâta II, 4.
247:8 See the note above, loc. cit.
248:1 In the Atthakavagga of the Sutta Nipâta.
248:2 Sutta Nipâta I, 6.
248:3 See the note above on IV, 4, 44 (p. 207 of the Pâli), also below, p. 410 of the Pâli.
248:4 Sutta Nipâta, pp. 185, 205 (of Professor Fausböll's edition for the Pâli Text Society).
248:5 See 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 154, and the note above on I, 38.
248:6 Gâtaka IV, 265.
248:7 Loka-vivarana-pâtihâriye, referred to at Dâthavamsa II, 120. The exact meaning of the second word, literally' uncovering,' p. 249 is doubtful. Alwis, in another connection, renders it 'prosperity.' See his quotation from Buddhaghosa's Papañka Sûdanî quoted by Childers sub voce. The Simhalese has rûpa-kâya-sampat dakwâ dakwâ, 'continually manifesting (to all the world) the glory of his outward form.'
249:1 See the commentary on that work quoted by Dr. Morris in his edition for the Pâli Text Society, pp. viii-x.
249:2 See the opening words of that discourse, No. 20 in the Dîgha, in Grimblot.
249:3 See above, pp. 115, 291 of the Pâli. Compare Thera Gâthâ 283-286.
249:4 Her whole story is given, Gâtaka III, 435 foll.
249:6 The account of which is in the Dîgha, No. 21.
249:7 In the Khuddaka Pâtha.
249:8 In the Sutta Nipâta and Khuddaka Pâtha.
250:1 That is, Pâkîna, Avanti, and Dakkhinâpatha (say the East, the Upper Ganges Valley, and the Dekkan).
250:2 The full list is given in the note at 'Vinâya Texts,' II, 146.
250:3 This Buddhist way of looking on the gods as laymen has been already referred to above in the note on p. 20 of the Pâli, I, 32 of the translation.
251:1 Dhâtu-samatâ, for which Hînati-kumburê (p. 511) has Dhâtu-samanaya.
251:2 Hînati-kumburê, p. 512, takes ârakkhâ-patthitadadam as one compound.
252:1 Patirûpam, probably 'to the life of a recluse,' but the Simhalese takes it to mean 'to the doctrine' (sâsana).
252:2 Anissitam. See the note above on the translation of p. 321 of the Pâli. 'Independent of craving' (trishnâ), says the Simhalese.
252:3 Vippamuttam. Of trishnâ, says the Simhalese again.
252:4 Mettâ, which always has the connotation. Hînati-kumburê accordingly renders it sakala-satwayan kerehi maitreya.
252:5 Âhâro pariññâto. The three right views are, 1 as to its nature, 2 as to its impurity, 3 as to the lust of taste.
253:1 Alolo, 'not greedy after the four requisites of a recluse,' says the Simhalese, p. 514.
254:1 Vedhe. I follow Mr. Trenckner, but the Simhalese translation is based on the reading Vede.
254:2 The Simhalese takes this word in composition with the following tina and spells it Ganakaya. Compare Kanaka, 'a chick pea.'
254:3 Phalaka. But Hînati-kumburê, p. 514, takes it in the technical sense of a kind of rough roller, made of the wood apple tree (dimbul porû), and used for levelling rice-fields.
255:1 Visuddhi-kâmânam, which Hînati-kumburê characteristically renders, 'who desire to attain to Nirvâna' (p. 516).
256:1 Manoharo. Childers does not give this meaning to the word, but it is confirmed by the passages above and below, pp. 118, 358 of the Pâli, and by the Simhalese.
256:2 Katu-gâtiya-gandho. The two last are Yavana and Tarukkha. Böhtlingk-Roth explain both as Olibanum. Our p. 257 author does not give the details, but it is unlikely that he meant other perfumes than those usually comprised in the term 'perfume of four kinds.' The expression is not found in the Pitakas, though it occurs in Buddhaghosa; and its use by our author may help to settle his date when we know its history, and the exact composition of the two foreign perfumes it includes.
257:1 The eight Loka-dhammas.
257:2 That is, of lust, malice, and dullness--that fire the 'going out' of which (in one's heart) is Nirvâna.
259:1 Nikkhepana; not in Childers, but compare Samyutta Nikâya XX, 22, 6.
261:1 Odarika; not in Childers, and only found as yet at this, passage and at the Thera Gâthâ, verse 101. It is the Sanskrit: audarika. 'Who enters the Order for the sake of his stomach' says the Simhalese, p. 521.
261:2 Khîlanam. Compare khîlito above, pp. 229, 288 of the Pâli.
261:3 Compare the rules at Kullavagga I, 25, 1, &c.
261:4 On Phen-uddehakam compare Gâtaka III, 46; on samparivattakam above, p. 253 of the Pâli.
262:1 Sûna (for sûna). See Kullavagga X, 1, 2, 3.
262:2 Aru-gatto pakka-gatto. See Magghima Nikâya I, 506.
262:3 On all these see the notes above, I, 276, 277.
264:1 For the details of these constituent elements of Arahatship, see my note in 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 60-63.
265:1 These are the four stages of the path to Arahatship.
265:2 Patisambhidâ--in worldly things, and in religion, in intuitive knowledge, and in exposition.
265:3 Tisso Viggâ. One explanation of this term is the knowledge of the three limitations of individuality,--its impermanence, the pain involved in the struggle to maintain it, and the absence of any permanent principle (any soul) in any individual. But it is also explained in the Anguttara Nikâya III, 58, as meaning the knowledge firstly of one's own former births, secondly of other people's former births, and thirdly of the nature, the origin, and the right method of subduing sorrow and the âsavas (that is, lust, individuality, delusion, and ignorance). The first triplet is identical with the three lakkhanas, the second with the last three of the Dasabalas, the ten powers of a Buddha. So in the Sutta Vibhanga (Pârâgika I, 1-8) the last of these three is called tatiyâ vigga. Compare also 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 162.
265:4 The Abhiññâs.
265:5 Some details of this are given in the Simhalese, p. 524.
265:6 Mukha-mangalikâ, which the Simhalese repeats, and which apparently means 'panegyrists.' The exact connotation of both these terms has yet to be settled. Sotthi vâkâkâ may correspond with the people who throw rice after a departing wedding pair; p. 266 and Mukha-mangalikâ may be those who prophesy the lucky days on which a thing is to be commenced. But this is the only passage in which the phrases occur in Pâli, and in Sanskrit we have only much later authorities. See the Commentary on Sakuntalâ, quoted in the note on p. 152 of Sir M. Monier-Williams's edition, and Wilson's explanation in his Sanskrit Dictionary of swasti-vakânâ.
266:1 Sotthi-vâkakâ, 'utterers of blessing.' The Simhalese has sôbhana-vâkanikayo (perhaps 'augurs').
266:2 Sûnkatthâna, 'taxing-place.' But the Simhalese, p. 524, has only samasthâna.
266:3 I can only guess at the meaning of this enigmatical phrase, which the Simhalese again merely repeats, but a precisely similar passage occurs in the Sumangala Vilâsinî, p. 246; and though the exact course of proceedings in the ancient law courts of India is still, in many details, uncertain, it is yet clear that the actual apportionment of punishment (as well as the execution of it) was always held to be the sole prerogative of the king. This was more especially the case where mutilation or a death sentence was concerned. Minor punishments the judges could, no doubt, order without reference to the king. See jolly, 'Beiträge zur indischen Rechts-geschichte,' in the 'Zeitschrift der deutschen morg. Gesellschaft,' 1890, pp. 344 foll.
268:1 The Simhalese, pp. 525-531, goes at great length into the details of all these vows, each of which it divides into stages of greater or less severity, specifying the practice to be followed in each stage. As a matter of fact the members of the Buddhist Order have not observed them in any completeness. Like the Buddha himself, the majority have undertaken only the second of the thirteen-the wearing of three robes; and the others have only been occasionally practised, and then usually only one or more at a time, by isolated members. It is true that the Gâtaka Commentary (Fausböll, vol. ii, p. 449) says that Upasena Vangantaputta kept the whole thirteen of the Dhutangas. But this is at variance with the older text (in the Vinaya, Nissaggiya, No. XV) giving that account of the same episode on which the story in the p. 269 Gâtaka Commentary is based. The thirteen vows are not referred to at all in the rules of the Order, as translated in the three volumes of the Vinaya Texts, nor are they mentioned as a whole in any Pitaka text yet published. But the thirteen names are given together in a different order in a passage twice repeated in the Parivâra, a late book, probably written in Ceylon (pp. 131, 193). It is there declared of each of the thirteen vows that five sorts of people undertake them--those who do so from stupidity, those who do so from vain desire, those who are mad, those who do so because the vows have been exalted by the Buddhas and their followers, those who do so from high motives. It is clear therefore that our author's doctrine of the thirteen Dhutangas is at variance with primitive Buddhism. It would require, however, a separate note on each of the thirteen to show the exact degree of this variance. The basis on which each of these observances rests can be found in the older teaching, and nearly all of them have been praised or followed, in a greater or less degree, from very early times,--not indeed as general rules binding on all members of the Order, but as supplementary or extra vows, conducive, but subsidiary to the ethical self-culture of the Arahat.
270:1 According to the Simhalese this was a Brahman clan. But the derivation suggests the borders of Bengal, where it is somewhat strange to find Brahmans so early.
271:1 Oramati. See Gâtaka I, 492, where it is also used intransitively in the sense of 'abase oneself;' and Gâtaka I, 498, where it is transitive, 'to lower' (the water in the ocean). But Hînati-kumburê, p. 533, has simply lêda, 'and adheres thereto.'
271:2 As remarked in the note, p. 268, this episode is taken from the introduction to the 15th Nissaggiya.
272:1 Compare 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 10, and the note there.
273:1 Abhinîta-vâso, 'having the ten ariya-vâsas,' says the Simhalese.
273:2 Dittha-dhammo, 'seen the Four Truths,' says the Simhalese, p. 535.
273:3 For sankha Hînati-kumburê has sahassa.
274:1 Anguttara I, 13, 7.
274:2 The ninth, because the numbering of the Vaggas is carried on from the last book. But according to the divisions enumerated at the beginning of the work (translated at p. 4 of the previous volume) it is one of the principal divisions of the book that is here closed, and the chapters ought not to run on.