1. Now Milinda the king went up to the place where Nâgasena was, and bowed down before him, and took his seat on one side. And when so seated he, longing to know, to hear, and to remember, and longing to make the light of knowledge arise and to break in pieces his ignorance, roused up in himself courage and zeal, and, full of self-possession and thoughtfulness, spake thus to Nâgasena:
2. 'Venerable Nâgasena, tell me, have you ever seen the Buddha 1?'
'No, O king.'
'Then have your teachers ever seen the Buddha?'
'So you say, venerable Nâgasena, that you have never seen the Buddha, and that your teachers have never seen the Buddha. Therefore, Nâgasena, the Buddha did not exist. There is no clear evidence, in that case, of a Buddha.'
'But did those Kshatriyas of old exist, who were the founders of the line of kings from which you come?'
'Certainly, Sir. How can there be any doubt about that?'
'Well, O king. Have you ever seen them?'
'And those who instructed you--the family chaplains, and officers of the staff, and those who lay down the law, and ministers of state--have they ever seen those Kshatriyas of old?'
'If then neither have you seen them, nor your teachers, where are they? There is no clear evidence, in that case, of those Kshatriyas of old!'
3. 'But, Nâgasena, the royal insignia they used are still to be seen-- the white sunshade of state, and the crown, and the slippers, and the fan with the yak's tail, and the sword of state, and the priceless throne--and by these can we know and believe that the Kshatriyas of old lived once.'
'Just so, O king, can we know that Blessed One and believe in him. For there is a reason for our knowledge and belief that the Blessed One was. And what is that reason?--The royal insignia used by that Blessed One, by him of knowledge and insight, the Arahat, the Buddha Supreme, are still to be seen-the four Means of keeping oneself ready and mindful, and the fourfold Great Struggle, and the four steps to Iddhi, and the five Organs of the moral sense, and the five moral Powers, and the seven forms of the wisdom of the Arahats, and the Noble Eightfold Path 1--and by these can the whole
world of gods and men know and believe that that Blessed One existed once. By this reason, on this ground, by this argument, through this inference, can it be known that the Blessed One lived.
He who, himself set free in that bless'd state
In which the Upadhis have ceased to be,
--Lusts, sin, and Karma,--has brought safe ashore,
Saved from the sea of woe, great multitudes--
Only by inference can it be known
That he, the best of men, existed once 1."'
4. 'Venerable Nâgasena, give me an illustration.'
'Just, O king, as the architect of a City 2, when he wants to build one, would first search out a pleasant spot of ground, with which no fault can be found, even, with no hills or gullies in it, free from rough ground and rocks, not open to the danger of attack. And then, when he has made plain any rough places there may still be on it, he would clear it thoroughly of all stumps and stakes, and would proceed to build there a city fine and regular, measured out into suitable quarters 3, with trenches and ramparts thrown up around it 4, with strong gateways, watch-towers, and battlements, with wide squares and open places and junctions (where two roads meet) and cross-ways (where four
roads meet) 1, with cleanly and even high roads 2, with regular lines of open shops (bazaars), well provided with parks, and gardens, and lakes, and lotus-ponds, and wells, adorned with many kinds of temples to the gods, free from every fault. And then when the city stood there in all its glory, he would go away to some other land. And in course of time that city might become mighty and prosperous, filled with stores of food,  peaceful, glorious, happy, free from distress and calamity, the meeting-place of all sorts and conditions of men. Then nobles and brahmans, merchants and work-people; soldiers mounted on elephants, and on horses, and on chariots; infantry, and bowmen, and swordsmen; standard-bearers, officers, and camp-followers 3; highborn warriors whose delight is in war, fighting champions, men mighty as elephants, heroes, men who fight in buckskin 4, devoted fighting-men born of slaves in great houses or of the privates in the royal army 5; troops of professional wrestlers 6;
cooks and curry makers, barbers and bathing attendants, smiths and florists, workers in gold and silver and lead and tin and copper and brass 1 and iron, and jewellers; messengers; potters, salt gatherers 2, tanners, carriage builders, carvers in ivory 3, rope makers, comb makers, cotton-thread spinners, basket makers, bow manufacturers, bowstring makers, arrow fletchers, painters, dye manufacturers, dyers, weavers, tailors, assayers of gold 4, cloth merchants 5, dealers in perfumes, grass cutters ` hewers of wood, hired servants 6, people who live by gathering flowers and fruits and roots in the woods, hawkers of boiled rice, sellers of cakes, fishmongers, butchers, dealers in strong drinks, play actors, dancers, acrobats 7, conjurors, professional bards 8, wrestlers
[paragraph continues] (boxers), corpse burners, casters out of rotten flowers 1, savages 2, wild men of the woods 3, prostitutes, swingers and jumpers 4, and the slave girls of bullies--people of many countries, people from Scythia, Bactria, China, and Vilâta; people of Uggeni, of Bhârukakkha, of Benares, of Kosala, and of the border lands; people from Magadha, and Sâketa, and Surattha, and the West; from Kotumbara and Madhura, from Alexandria, Kashmîr, and Gandhâra 5,--all these coming to take up their residence there, and finding the new city to be regular, faultless, perfect, and pleasant, would know: "Able indeed must that architect have been by whom this city was built!"
5. 'Just so, O king that Blessed One, peerless, unequalled, unapproached, incomparable, admirable beyond all measure by weight or calculation, of infinite virtue, full of virtue and perfection, boundless in wisdom and glory and zeal and power, who, when he had attained to the summit of all the perfections
of the Buddhas,  overthrew Mâra and all his hosts,--he, bursting asunder the net of heresy, and casting aside ignorance, and causing wisdom to arise, and bearing aloft the torch of Truth, reached forward to Buddhahood itself, and so, unconquered and unconquerable in the fight, built this city of Righteousness. And the Blessed One's City of Righteousness, O king, has righteousness for its rampart, and fear of sin for its moat, and knowledge for the battlement over its city gate, and zeal for the watch-tower above that, and faith for the pillars at its base, and mindfulness for the watchman at the gate, and wisdom for the terrace above, and the Suttantas for its market-place, and the Abhidhamma for its cross-ways, and the Vinaya (the Canon Law) for its judgment hall, and constant self-possession for its chief street. And in that street, O king, these bazaars are open--a flower bazaar, and a fruit bazaar, and an antidote bazaar, and a medicine bazaar, and an ambrosia bazaar, and a bazaar for precious stones, and a bazaar for all manner of merchandise.'
6. 'But what, venerable Nâgasena, is the flower bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha?'
'There are certain subjects for meditation, O king, that have been made known by the Blessed One, by him of knowledge and insight, by the Arahat, the Buddha Supreme. And they are these. The idea of the impermanence (of every thing and of every being), the idea of the absence of any abiding principle (any soul in any thing or any being), the idea of the impurity and the idea of the danger connected with the body, the idea of getting rid of evil dispositions, the idea of freedom from passion, the idea of peace, the idea of dissatisfaction with the
things of the world, the idea of the transitory nature of all conditions, the idea of ecstatic trance, the ideas of a corpse in the various stages of decay, the ideas of a place of execution in all its various horrors, the idea of love to all beings, the idea of pity for all beings, the idea of sympathy with all beings, the idea of equanimity in all the changing circumstances of life, the idea of death, and the idea of the body 1. These, O king, are the subjects for meditation prescribed by the Blessed One. And of these, whoever, longing to be delivered from old age and death, takes any one as the subject of his meditation, by that meditation does he become set free from passion, set free from malice, set free from dullness, set free from pride, set free from wrong views, by that does he cross the ocean of Samsâra, and stem the torrent of cravings, and cleanse himself of the threefold stain 2, and destroy within himself all evil; and so, entering that glorious city, spotless and stainless, pure and white,  ageless and deathless, where all is security and calm and bliss--the city of Nirvâna--he emancipates his mind in Arahatship! And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's bazaar of flowers."
"Take with you Karma as the price,
And go ye up to that bazaar,
Buy there an object for your thought,
Emancipate yourselves. Be free 3!"'
7. 'And what, venerable Nâgasena, is the perfume bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha?'
'There are certain categories of virtue, O king, that have been made known by the Blessed One, and anointed by the perfume of that righteousness the children of the Blessed One fill with the fumes of the fragrant incense of the perfume of goodness the whole world of gods and men, in every direction, and to windward and to leeward, continuing to pervade it again and yet again. And which are those categories? The virtue of taking refuge 1,
the virtue that is fivefold and eightfold and tenfold 1, and the virtue of self-restraint tabulated in the five recitations that compose the Pâtimokkha 2. And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's bazaar of perfumes." For it has been said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all gods:
"No flower's scent can go against the wind,
Not sandal wood's, nor musk's, nor jasmine flower's:
But the sweet perfume of the good doth go
Against the wind, and the good man pervades,
On every side, the sweetness of his life 3."
"Red sandal wood, musk, and the lotus, and jasmine--
The perfume of goodness surpasseth them all.
Abundant the sweet scent of musk and of sandal wood--
Still stronger, the scent of the good mounts to heaven 4!"'
8. 'And what, venerable Nâgasena, is the fruit bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha?'
'Certain fruits have been made known, O king, by the Blessed One. And they are these:--The fruit of the first stage of the Excellent Way (conversion),
and of the second stage, and of the third stage, and of the fourth (Arahatship) 1,--the fruit of the attainment of emptiness 2--the fruit of the attainment of the absence of the three signs (of an unconverted life, lust, malice, and dullness)--and the truth of the attainment of that state in which no low aspirations survive.  And whosoever desires any one of these, he gives his Karma as the price, and buys the fruit he longs for--either conversion or any other.
9. 'Just, O king, as any man who has a mango-tree bearing fruit all the year round, he does not knock down the fruits until buyers come. But when a buyer has come, and the fruit-grower has taken the price, then he says: "Come, my good man, this tree is always in bearing (it has therefore fruits in all stages of growth), take from it the kind of fruit you prefer, whether unripe, or decayed 3, or hairy 4, or sour, or ripe 5." And the buyer, for the price paid, takes the kind he likes the best-if that be unripe fruit then he takes that, if it be decayed fruit then that, if it be hairy fruit then that, if it be sour fruit then that, if it be ripe fruit then he takes a ripe one. Just so, O king, whosoever desires any one of those other fruits, he gives his Karma as the price, and buys the fruit he longs for-
either conversion or any other. And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's bazaar of fruits."
"Men give their Karma as the price,
And buy the fruit ambrosia;
And happiness is theirs, and peace,
Who've bought the fruit ambrosia 1."
10. 'And what, venerable Nâgasena, is the antidote bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha?'
'Certain drugs, O king, have been made known by the Blessed One; drugs by which the Blessed One delivers the whole world of gods and men from the poison of evil dispositions. And what are these drugs? The four Noble Truths made known by the Blessed One, that is to say, the truth as to sorrow, and the truth as to the origin of sorrow, and the truth as to the cessation of sorrow, and the truth as to that path which leads to the cessation of sorrow 2. And whosoever, longing for the highest insight (the insight of Arahatship) 3, hear this doctrine of the four truths, they are set quite free from rebirth,  they are set quite free from old age, they are set quite free from death, they are set quite free from grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair. And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's bazaar of antidotes."
"Of all the drugs, in all the world,
The antidotes of poison dire,
Not one equals that Doctrine sweet.
Drink that, O brethren. Drink and live 1!"'
11. 'And what, venerable Nâgasena, is the medicine bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha?'
'Certain medicines, O king, have been made known by the Blessed One, medicines by which he cures the whole world of gods and men. And they are these:--"The four Means of keeping oneself ready and mindful, and the fourfold Great Struggle, and the four Steps to Iddhi, and the five Organs of the moral sense, and the five moral Powers, and the seven Forms of the Wisdom of the Arahats, and the Noble Eightfold Path 2." By these medicines the Blessed One purges men of wrong views, purges them of low aspirations, purges them of evil speaking, purges them of evil deeds, purges them of evil modes of livelihood, purges them of wrong endeavours, purges them of evil thoughts, purges them of erroneous meditation; and he gives emetics to the vomiting up of lusts, and of malice, and of dullness, and of doubt, and of self-righteousness, and of sloth of body and inertness of mind, and of shamelessness and hardness of heart, and of all evil. And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's bazaar of medicine."
Of all the medicines found in all the world,
Many in number, various in their powers,
Not one equals this medicine of the Truth.
Drink that, O brethren. Drink, and drinking, live! p. 219
For having drunk that medicine of the Truth,
Ye shall have past beyond old age and death,
And--evil, lusts, and Karma rooted out--
Thoughtful and seeing, ye shall be at rest 1!"'
12. 'And what, venerable Nâgasena, is the ambrosia bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha?'
'An ambrosia, O king, has been made known by the Blessed One, that ambrosia with which he besprinkles the whole world of gods and men--as men anoint a king on his coronation day-- and men and gods, when sprinkled with that ambrosia, are set free from rebirths, old age, disease, and death, from grief, and lamentation, and pain, and sorrow, and despair. And what is that ambrosia? That meditation which consists in active attention to, and leads to a true grasp of, the real conditions of corporeal things 2. For it has been said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all gods:
"They, O brethren, feed on ambrosia who feed on active attention directed to corporeal things 3." This, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's ambrosia bazaar."
"He saw mankind afflicted with disease,
He opened freely his ambrosia shop;
Go, then, O brethren, give your Karma for it,
And buy, and feed on, that ambrosial food 1."'
13. 'And what, venerable Nâgasena, is the jewel bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha?'
'Certain jewels, O king, have been made known by the Blessed One, and adorned with those jewels the children of the Blessed One shine forth in splendour, illuminating the whole world of gods and men, brightening it in its heights, in its depths, from horizon to horizon, with a brilliant glory. And those jewels are these--the jewel of right conduct, and the jewel of meditation, and the jewel of knowledge, and the jewel of emancipation, and the jewel of the insight which arises from the assurance of emancipation, and the jewel of discrimination, and the jewel of the sevenfold wisdom of the Arahats 2.
14. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's jewel of right conduct 3? The right conduct which follows on self-restraint according to the rules of the Pâtimokkha, the right conduct which follows on
restraint of the bodily organs and the mind 1, the right conduct which results from a pure means of livelihood, the right conduct in relation to the four requisites of a recluse 2, the right conduct presented in the Short, and Middle, and Long Summonses 3, the right conduct of those who are walking in the Path, and the right conduct of those who have attained each of the various fruits thereof (beginning at conversion and ending at Arahatship) 4. And all the beings in the world, O king, gods 5 and men, and the Mâras too (the spirits of evil), and the Brahmas (the very highest of the gods), and Samanas and Brahmans are filled with longing and desire for a man who wears, as his ornament, this jewel of right conduct. And the Bhikkhu, O king, who puts it on shines forth in glory all around, upwards and downwards, and from side to side, surpassing in lustre all the jewels to be found from the Waveless Deep 6, below to the highest heavens above, excelling them all, overwhelming them all. Such, O king, are the jewels of right conduct set out for sale in the Blessed One's bazaar of gems. And this is what is called "The Blessed One's jewel of righteousness."
"Such are the virtues sold in that bazaar,
The shop of the Enlightened One,
the Blest; Pay Karma as the price, O ye ill-clad!
Buy, and put on, these lustrous Buddha-gems!"
 15. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's jewel of meditation? The meditation that consists of specific conceptions, and of investigation regarding them 1;--the meditation that consists of reflection only, specific conceptions being lost sight of 2;--the meditation that continues after specific conceptions and reflection on them have both ceased 3;--the meditation that is void (of lusts, evil dispositions, and Karma);--the meditation from which three signs (of an unconverted life-lust, malice, and dullness) are absent;--the meditation in which no low aspirations remain 4. And when a Bhikkhu, O king, has put on this jewel of meditation (Samâdhi), then ideas of lust, and ideas of anger, and ideas of cruelty, and all the various bad thoughts that have their basis in the evil dispositions of pride, self-righteousness, adhesion to wrong views, and doubt--all these, since they come into contact with meditation, flow off from him, disperse, and are dispelled, they stay not with him, adhere not to him. just, O king, as when water has fallen on a lotus leaf it flows off from it, is dispersed and scattered
away, stays not on it, adheres not to it 1--so when a Bhikkhu has put on this jewel of meditation, then ideas of lust, and ideas of anger, and ideas of cruelty, and all the various bad thoughts that have their basis in the evil dispositions of pride, self-righteousness, obstinacy in wrong views, and doubt--these all, as soon as they come in contact with meditation, flow off, disperse, and are dispelled, stay not with him, adhere not to him. And why not? Because of the exceeding purity of the habit of meditation. This, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's jewel of meditation," and such are the jewels of meditation set out for sale in the Blessed One's bazaar of gems.
"Bad thoughts can ne'er arise beneath the brow
Encircled by this coronet of gems.
It charms away perplexed and wandering thought.
Make it your own, buy it, put on the crown!"
16. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's jewel of knowledge? That knowledge by which the disciple of the noble ones knows thoroughly what is virtue, and what is not; what is blameworthy, and what is not; what should be made a habit of, and what should not; what is mean, and what is exalted;  what is dark, and what is light, and what is both dark and light;--the knowledge by which he truly knows what sorrow is, and what the origin of sorrow is, and what the cessation of sorrow is, and what is the path that leads thereto. This, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's jewel of knowledge."
"He who has knowledge as his jewelled wreath,
Will not continue long in outward form 1.
Soon will he reach Nirvâna, in rebirth
In any world 2 no longer take delight!
17. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's jewel of emancipation? Arahatship is called the jewel of emancipation, and the Bhikkhu who has reached Arahatship is said to have decked himself with the jewel of emancipation. And just as a man, O king, who is decorated with ornaments made of strings of pearls, of diamonds and gold and corals; whose limbs are anointed with akalu 3, and with frankincense 4, and with Talis 5, and with red sandal wood; who is adorned with a garland of Ironwood blossoms, and Rottleria flowers, and flowers from the Sal tree, and the Salala 6, and the champak, and yellow jasmines 7, and Atimuttaka flowers 8, and
trumpet flowers, and lotuses, and white and Arabian jasmines 1--just as, with all this finery of garlands and perfumes and jewelry, he would outshine all other men, overwhelming them with brilliant glory and splendour--just so, O king, does he who has attained to Arahatship, he in whom the Great Evils (lusts, and becoming, delusion, and ignorance) are rooted out, he who has put on the diadem of emancipation of heart, just so does he outshine all other Bhikkhus from the lowest in attainment up to those even who are themselves emancipated 2, overwhelming them in brilliant glory and splendour. And why is that so? Because, O king, there is one diadem that is the chief of all, and that is this diadem of emancipation of heart! And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's jewel of emancipation."
"All the people that dwell in a house look up
To their Lord when he wears his crown of gems--
The wide world of the gods and of men looks up
To the wearer of Freedom's diadem!"
18. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's jewel of the insight that follows on the assurance of emancipation? The knowledge arising out of looking back over the course 3--that knowledge by
which the disciple who is walking along the Excellent Way passes, from time to time, both the Way itself and the Fruits thereof up to Nirvâna, in review, and is aware what evil dispositions he has got rid of, and what evil dispositions remain to be conquered--that is what  is called "The jewel of the assurance that follows on the knowledge of emancipation."
"The knowledge by which the Noble Ones know
The stages they've passed, and the road yet untrod;--
Strive, O ye sons of the Conqueror, strive
That jewel--'Assurance'--yourselves to obtain!"
19. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's jewel of discrimination? The discrimination of the sense of, and the discrimination of the deeper truths underlying the sense of the sacred writ, and the discrimination of philological peculiarities, and the discrimination of correct and ready exposition 1. And the Bhikkhu, O king, who is adorned with these four jewels of discrimination, whatsoever company he enters into, whether of nobles, or brahmans, or merchants, or workpeople, enters it in confidence, neither put out nor shy; undaunted and undismayed, he enters the assembly without excitement or fear. just, O king, as a warrior, a hero in the fight, when accoutred in all his harness
of war 1, goes down undismayed to the battle, in the confident thought: "If the enemy should remain afar off I can knock them down with my arrows, should they come thence towards me I can hit them with my javelins, should they come yet nearer I can reach them with my spear, should they come right up I can cleave them in two with my sabre 2, should they come to close quarters I can pierce them through and through with my dagger 3"--just so, O king, does the Bhikkhu, when he wears the fourfold jewel of discernment, enter any assembly undismayed, in the confident thought: "Should any one put to me a puzzle turning on the discrimination of the sense, I shall be able to explain it, comparing sense with sense, explanation with explanation, reason with reason, argument with argument 4--and thus shall I resolve his doubts,
dispel his perplexity, and delight him by my exposition of the problem raised. Should any one put to me a puzzle turning on discrimination of the deeper truths, I shall be able to explain it by comparing truth with truth, and the various aspects and phases of Arahatship each with each 1,  and thus his doubts too shall I be able to resolve, and, dispelling his perplexity, to delight him with my exposition of the problem raised. Should any one put to me a puzzle turning on the discrimination of philological peculiarities, I shall be able to explain it by comparing derivation with derivation 2, and word with word, and particle with particle, and letter with letter, and one modification of a letter by contact (sandhi) with another, and consonant with consonant, and vowel with vowel, and accent (intonation) with accent, and quantity with quantity, and rule with rule, and idiom with idiom;--and thus his doubts too shall I be able to resolve, and, dispelling his perplexity, to delight him with my exposition of the problem raised. Should anyone put to me a puzzle turning on the discrimination of expositions, I shall be able to explain it by comparing metaphor with metaphor, and characteristic with characteristic 3, and sentiment with sentiment--and thus his doubts too shall I be able to resolve, and, dispelling his perplexity, to delight him with my exposition of the
problem raised. And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's jewel of discrimination."
First buy the jewel of discrimination,
Then cut 1 it with your knowledge and your skill;
So, free from all anxiety and fear,
Shall you illuminate both earth and heaven!
20. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's jewel of the sevenfold wisdom of the Arahats? It is self-possession, and investigation of the system of doctrine, and zeal, and joy, and tranquillity, and contemplation, and equanimity 2. And the Bhikkhu, O king, who is adorned with this sevenfold jewel of the divisions of the higher wisdom 3 shines forth over the whole world of gods and men, brightens it, illuminates it, and dispersing the darkness makes the light arise. This, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's jewel of the sevenfold wisdom."
"The gods and men in reverence stand up
To him who wears this wisdom-diadem.
Show your good actions then,--that is the price,--
And buy, and wear, this wisdom-diadem!"'
 21. 'And what, venerable Nâgasena, is the bazaar for all manner of merchandise set up by the Blessed One, the Buddha?'
'The Blessed One's bazaar for all manner of
merchandise, O king, is the ninefold word of the Buddha; and the relics remaining of his body, and of the things he used; and the sacred mounds (Ketiyâni, Dâgabas) erected over them 1; and the jewel of his Order. And in that bazaar there are set out by the Blessed One the attainment (in a future birth) of high lineage, and of wealth, and of long life, and of good health, and of beauty, and of wisdom, and of worldly glory, and of heavenly glory, and of Nirvâna. And of these all they who desire either the one or the other, give Karma as the price, and so buy whichever glory they desire. And some buy with it a vow of right conduct, and some by observance of the Uposatha day, and so on down to the smallest Karma-price they buy the various glories from the greatest to the least. just, O king, as in a trader's shop, oil, seed, and peas and beans can be either taken in barter for a small quantity of rice or peas or beans, or bought for a small price decreasing in order according to requirement--just so, O king, in the Blessed One's bazaar for all manner of merchandise advantages are to be bought for Karma according to requirement. And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's bazaar of all manner of merchandise."
"Long life, good health, beauty, rebirth in heaven,
High birth, Nirvâna-all are found for sale--
There to be bought for Karma, great or small--
In the great Conqueror's world-famed bazaar.
Come; show your faith, O brethren, as the price,
Buy and enjoy such goods as you prefer 2!"
22. 'And the inhabitants that dwell in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness, O king, are such as these: Masters in the Suttantas, and masters in the Vinaya, and masters in the Abhidhamma; preachers of the faith; repeaters of the Gâtakas, and repeaters of the Dîgha, and repeaters of the Magghima,  and repeaters of the Samyutta, and repeaters of the Anguttara, and repeaters of the Khuddaka Nikâya;--men endowed with right conduct, men accomplished in meditation, men full of knowledge, men taking delight in contemplation of the sevenfold wisdom of the Arahats, men of insight 1;--men who frequent the woods for meditation, or sit at the roots of trees, or dwell in the open air, or sleep on heaps of straw, or live near cemeteries, or lie not down to sleep,--men who have entered the Excellent Way 2, men who have attained one or more of the four fruits thereof, men who are still learners (have not yet reached Arahatship, but are close upon it), men enjoying the Fruits, that is, either Sotâpannas, or Sakadâgâmins, or Anâgâmins, or Arahats;--men of the threefold wisdom 3, men of the sixfold transcendental wisdom 4, men of the power of Iddhi, men who have reached perfection in knowledge, men
skilled in the maintenance of constant self-possession, in the Great Struggle, in the Steps to Iddhi, in the Organs of their moral sense, in the sevenfold wisdom, in the Excellent Way, in Ghâna, in Vimokkha, and in the attainment of the exalted and tranquil bliss that is independent of form or the absence of form--yea! like a forest full of bamboos, full of reeds, that City of Righteousness has been ever crowded and frequented by such Arahats as these! For it is said 1:
(1) "Men devoid of passion, and of malice, and of dullness, men in whom the Great Evils (lust, becoming, delusion, and ignorance) are not, men who have neither craving thirst, nor grasping desires,--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(2) "Men whose home is the forest, men who have taken on themselves the extra vows, men full of joy, men who are wearing rough garments, men rejoicing in solitude, heroes--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(3) "Men who sleep sitting, or on any sleeping-place that comes, or spend their time standing or walking up and down in meditation, men who clad themselves in cast-off raiment--all these dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(4) "Men wearing the full set of three robes, tranquil, with a skin for the fourth, who rejoice in taking but one meal each day, the wise-these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(5) "The earnest and prudent, heroes who feed on little and know no greed, content whether they receive an alms or receive it not-these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(6) "The meditative, delighting in Ghâna, heroes of tranquil minds, and stedfast, looking forward to Nirvâna--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(7) "Men walking in the path, and standing in the fruits thereof, those who have attained some fruits thereof but are yet learners as to the last, whose hope is directed to the utmost goal--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(8) "Those who have entered the stream, and those who, free from stains, will only be reborn once more on earth, those who will never return again, and Arahats--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(9) "Those skilled in the means of attaining undisturbed self-possession, and rejoicing in contemplation on the sevenfold wisdom, those who are full of insight, and bear the words of the Dharma in their hearts--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
 (10) "Those skilled in the Steps to Iddhi, and rejoicing in the meditations of Samâdhi, those who are devoted to the Great Struggle--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(11) "Those perfect in the sixfold wisdom of the Abhiññâs, delighting in the sphere that is theirs by rightful inheritance 1, those having the power of flying through the air--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(12) "Those of downcast eyes, and measured speech, the doors of whose senses are guarded, who
are self-restrained, who are well trained according to the supreme Dhamma--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness.
(13) "Those of the threefold wisdom, and of the sixfold wisdom, those who have become perfect in Iddhi and perfect in knowledge--these are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness."
23. 'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who carry in their hearts the words of the excellent knowledge that is immeasurable, who are free from bonds, whose goodness and fame and power and glory no man can weigh, who (in imitation of their Master) 1 keep the royal chariot-wheel of the kingdom of righteousness rolling on, who have reached perfection in knowledge-such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "The Commanders of the Faith in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus, who have the power of Iddhi, who have learned the discriminations 2, who are full of confidence, who travel through the air, who are hard to oppose, hard to overcome, who can move without support, who can shake the broad earth and the waters on which it rests, who can touch the sun and the moon, who are skilful in transforming themselves and in making stedfast resolutions and high aspirations, who are perfect in Iddhi--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "The royal chaplains in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who have taken upon themselves the extra vows,
who desire little and are content, who would loathe any breach of the regulations as to the manner of seeking an alms 1, and beg straight on from hut to hut, as a bee smells flower after flower 2, and then go away into the loneliness of the woods, those who are indifferent as to their body and as to life, those who have attained to Arahatship, those who place the highest value on the virtues of the practice of the extra vows--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "The judges in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who are pure and stainless, in whom no evil dispositions are left, who, skilful in the knowledge of the fall and rise of beings 3, have perfected themselves in the Divine Eye--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "The givers of light 4 in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus  who are learned in the traditions, who hand on what has been handed down, the repeaters of the Discourses, and of the Canon Law, and of the tables of contents, those who are skilled in the exact determination of letters into surds and sonants, into
longs and short, as to lightness and heaviness 1, those who know by heart the ninefold word--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "The peace officers 2 in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who are learned in the Vinaya (Rules of the Order, Canon Law), wise in the Vinaya, skilled in detecting the source of offences. 3, skilled in deciding whether any act is an offence or not, whether an offence is grievous or slight, whether it can be atoned for or not, skilled in deciding questions as to the rise, the acknowledgment, the absolution, or the confession of an offence 4; as to the suspension, or the restoration, or the defence of an offender 5, who are perfect Masters in the Vinaya--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "The Rûpa-dakshas 6 in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who wear on their brows the lotus garland of that noble Emancipation, who have attained to that
highest and best and most exceeding excellent of all conditions, who are loved and longed for by the great multitudes--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "Flower-sellers in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who have penetrated to the comprehension of the four Truths, and have seen them with their eyes, who are wise in the teaching, who have passed beyond doubt as to the four fruits of Samanaship, who having attained to the bliss thereof, share those fruits with others who have entered the paths 1--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "Fruit-dealers in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who, being anointed with that most excellent perfume of right conduct, are gifted with many and various virtues, and are able to dispel the bad odour of sin and evil dispositions--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "Perfume dealers in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus whose delight is in the Dhamma, and whose converse is pleasant, who find exceeding joy in the higher subtleties of the Dharma and the Vinaya 2, who either in the forest, or at the foot of trees, or in empty
places, drink the sweet sap of the Dharma, who plunging themselves, as it were, in body, speech, and mind into the sweet juice 1 of the Dharma, excel in expounding it, in seeking and in detecting the deeper truths in the various doctrines, who--wheresoever and whensoever the discourse is of wishing for little, of contentment, of solitude, of retirement, of the exertion in zeal, of right conduct, of meditation, of knowledge, of emancipation, of the insight arising from the assurance of emancipation thither do they repair, and drink in the sweet savour of that discourse-such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "Thirsty and drunkards in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who are addicted to the habit of wakefulness from the first watch of the night to the last, who spend day and night in sitting, standing, or walking up and down in meditation, who, addicted to the habit of contemplation, are devoted to their own advancement by the suppressing of evil dispositions--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "Watchmen in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who in the spirit and in the letter, in its arguments and explanations, in its reasons and examples, teach and repeat, utter forth and recapitulate the ninefold word of the Buddha-such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "Lawyers (dealers in Dharma 2) in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who are wealthy and rich in the wealth of the treasures of the Doctrine, in the wealth of the traditions, and the text, and the learning thereof, who comprehend the signs, and vowels, and consonants thereof, in all their details, pervading all directions with their knowledge--such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "Bankers of the Dhamma 1 in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
'And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus who have penetrated to the sublimer teaching, who understand exposition and the divisions of objects of meditation to be practised, who are perfect in all the subtler points of training 2--Such Bhikkhus are called, O king, "Distinguished masters of law in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness."
24. 'Thus well planned out, O king, is the Blessed One's City of Righteousness, thus well built, thus well appointed, thus well provisioned, thus well established, thus well guarded, thus well protected, thus impregnable by enemies or foes. And by this explanation, O king, by this argument, by this reason, you may by inference know that the Blessed One did once exist.
(I) "As when they see a pleasant city, well planned out,
Men know, by inference, how great the founder was;
So when they see our Lord's 'City of Righteousness'
They know, by inference, that he did once exist.
 (2) "As men, seeing its waves, can judge, by inference,
The great extent and power of the world-embracing sea;
So may they judge the Buddha when they see the waves
That he set rolling through the world of gods and men--
He who, unconquered in the fight, allays all griefs,
Who rooted out, in his own heart, Craving's dread power,
And set his followers free from the whirlpool of rebirths--
'Far as the waves of the Good-Law extend and roll,
So great, so mighty, must our Lord, the Buddha, be.'
(3) "As men, seeing its mighty peaks that tower aloft,
Can judge, by inference, Himâlaya's wondrous height;
So when they see the Buddha's Mount-of-Righteousness--
Stedfast, unshaken by fierce passion's stormy blasts,
Towering aloft in wondrous heights of calm and peace,
Where lusts, evil, and Karma cannot breathe or live,--
They draw the inference: 'Great as this mountain high
That mighty Hero's power upon whose word it stands.'
(4) "As men, seeing the footprint of an elephant king,
Can judge, by inference: 'How great his size must be!'
So when they see the footprint of the elephant of men,
Buddha, the wise, upon the path that men have trod,
They know, by inference: 'How glorious Buddha was 1!'
(5) As when they see all living things crouching in fear,
Men know: ''Tis the roar of the king of the beasts that frightens them.'
So, seeing other teachers break and fly in fear,
They know: ''Tis a king of the truth hath uttered words sublime!'
(6) Seeing the earth smiling, well watered, green with grass,
Men say: 'A great and pleasant rain hath fallen fast.'
So when they see this multitude rejoicing, peaceful, blest,
Men may infer: 'How sweet the rain that stilled their hearts!'
(7) Seeing the wide earth soaked, boggy, a marsh of mud,
Men say: 'Mighty the mass of waters broken loose. p. 242
So, when they see this mighty host, that once were dazed
With the mud of sin, swept down in Dhamma's stream, and left
In the wide sea of the Good-Law, some here, some there,
All, gods and men alike, plunged in ambrosial waves,
They may infer, and say: 'How great that Dhamma is!'
(8)  "As when men, travelling, feel a glorious perfume sweet
Pervading all the country side, and gladdening them, infer at once,
'Surely, 'tis giant forest trees are flowering now!'
So, conscious of this perfume sweet of righteousness
That now pervades the earth and heavens, they may infer:
'A Buddha, infinitely great, must once have lived!'"
25. 'And it would be possible, O king, to show forth the Buddha's greatness, by a hundred or a thousand such examples, such reasons, such arguments, such metaphors. just, O king, as a clever garland maker will, from one heap of all kinds of flowers, both following the instruction of his teacher, and also using his own individuality as a man, make many variegated and beautiful bouquets,--just so, O king, that Blessed One is, as it were, an infinite, immeasurable, heap of variegated flowers of virtue. And I now, a garland maker, as it were in the
church of the Conqueror, stringing those flowers together,--both following the path of our teachers of old, and also using such power of wisdom as in me is,--could show forth by inference the power of the Buddha in innumerable similes. But you, on the other hand, must show a desire to hear them 1.'
'Hard would it be, Nâgasena, for any other men thus to have shown by inference, drawn from such examples, the power of the Buddha. I am filled with satisfaction, venerable Nâgasena, at your so perfectly varied exposition of this problem.'
Here ends the problem of Inference 2.
206:1 A similar question has been already asked above, III, 5, 1 109).
207:1 These are the famous thirty-five constituent qualities that make up Arahatship (that is, that state of mind which, from another point of view and by another of its numerous names, is also called Nirvâna). They formed the subject of the last discourse delivered by Gotama before his death to his disciples ('Book of the Great Decease,' III, 61), and on my translation of that passage ('Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 60-63) I have added a note giving all the details.
It is perhaps worthy of remark that both here and twice else p. 208 where, at pp. 37, 335 (of the Pâli), our author reverses the order of Nos. 4 and 5--the five moral Powers and the five Organs (of the higher sense)--which are really only the same mental qualities looked at from two different points of view.
208:1 These verses have not been traced as yet in the Pitakas.
208:2 There is another parable of the architect above, p. 34 of the Pâli (I, 53 of the translation).
208:3 Bhâgaso mitam, an expression constantly recurring.
208:4 Ukkinna. See Gâtaka IV, 106.
209:1 According to the dictionaries each of those four words (kakkara, katukka, sandhi, and singhâtaka) means either a square, or a place where four roads meet. The Simhalese has âpana-katushka-sandhi ti, omitting the last and certainly inexact in its rendering of the first word. Sandhi I have only met with here in this sense.
209:2 Râga-maggam; literally 'the king's highways,' which also only occurs here.
209:3 For pinda-dâvikâ Hînati-kumburê (who at p. 475 gives the Pâli of all this) reads pinda-dayakâ.
209:4 Vammino yodhino. But both Hînati-kumburê here, and the parallel passage in the Samañña Phala Sutta (D. II, 14), read Kamma-yodhino.
209:5 For Bhatti-putta Hînati-kumburê reads Bhata-puttâ.
209:6 These two (Bhatti-putta and Malla-ganâ) are omitted in the Dîgha.
210:1 Vattakârâ. See the note above on IV, 7, 11 (p. 267 of the Pâli).
210:2 Lonakârâ, 'salt makers.' But Hînati-kumburê reads lohakârâ and translates lokuruwo, 'workers in metal.'
210:3 'Dantakârâ, which in the Simhalese is simply repeated. There is no such word in Clough.
210:4 Heraññikâ. Childers says 'royal treasurer,' and Hînati-kumburê 'coiners of silver mâsakas' (ran masu tanannoya), but Subhûti (in his Simhalese gloss on Abhidhâna Padîpikâ, verse 343) renders it 'judgers of gold' (ran balannâ); and that this is right is shown by the context in the passage of the Sumangala Vilâsinî (p. 315), where the probably identical word heññaka is used.
210:5 Dussika. Hînati-kumburê renders this word here by pili welendo, 'cloth-sellers,' but above (p. 262 of the Pâli) by sâyam kârako, 'dice manufacturers.'
210:6 It is instructive that men working for hire are put here among the lowest sort of work-people, while the slave born in the house stands in the best company.
210:7 Langhakâ. Pinum kârayo, 'turners of summersets' in the Simhalese. See Gâtaka I, 431, and above, pp. 31, 191 of the Pâli.
210:8 Vetâlikâ. Vetâliyehi mangalâshtaka kiyannâwû in p. 211 the Simhalese (Wandi-bhattayo according to Subhûti on Abhidhâna Padîpikâ 369).
211:1 Pupphakkhadakâ. A well-known low caste whose duty it was to remove flowers offered on the shrines of the gods after they had faded. At Thera Gâthâ, verse 620, this is called one of the meanest of occupations.
211:2 Venâ. Hînati-kumburê has 'lute makers,' but this must be wrong.
211:3 The Simhalese says simply Weddahs (Wddas), the well-known interesting wild men of Ceylon.
211:4 Lâsikâ, 'those,' says the Simhalese, 'who as if intoxicated with joy jump about and leap and dance.' But I think it is connected with the ancient usages to which the lascivious swinging of the Saivites and Vallabhâkâryas owes its origin.
211:5 On all these names see the Introduction to part I, pp. xliii, xliv. Aparântaka and Pâtheyyaka might there have been added, as well as puratthimo ganapado (from p. 42).
213:1 Hînati-kumburê devotes a paragraph to each of these subjects for meditation.
213:2 Of râga, dosa, and moha.
213:3 This stanza has not yet been found in the Pitakas. In the first line it does not seem quite clear at first sight why Karma, of all things, should be the price. That Indian word being too p. 214 full of meaning to be translateable, is necessarily retained, and hence the phrase 'taking Karma as the price' may convey no meaning at all. If so, in trying to escape Scylla the unhappy translator has fallen into Charybdis. But it must mean one of two things, either something to be abandoned, given up; or something good which the buyer possesses, and may exchange for the good he wants to buy. If our author means the first it must be Karma (as one of the Upadhis), as a basis for continued individuality, and be much the same as egoism. If he means the other, then Karma, though standing alone, must be here used in the sense of kusala-kamma, good Karma, that is, the effect of good deeds done in a former life. Now our author never elsewhere uses kamma, without any qualifying adjective, in the sense of good Karma. On pp. 7, 20, 67, 108 foll., 134, 151, 189, 302 of the Pâli the unqualified word means throughout bad Karma, the effect of bad deeds done in a former birth. In a few passages it is used of former deeds in a way that apparently includes both good and bad. See especially pp. 3, 10, 146, 268. Now a buyer, in the case put, could not give up either the bad or the good deeds he had already done in a former life--that would be beyond his power. He could only offer, in exchange for the good he wanted to buy, good Karma (that is, in the sense of good deeds) either in the present, or in the immediate future. Below, V, 21 (p. 341 of the Pâli), will be found instances given by our author himself. It is forced, no doubt, to call this 'a price,' but it is probably the sense intended, and so Hînati-kumburê takes it.
214:1 Taking the threefold refuge in the Buddha, the Doctrine (Dharma), and the Order.
215:1 These are respectively the first five, the first eight, and the whole ten, of the Precepts set out in my 'Buddhism,' p. 160.
215:2 The whole of this text is translated in vol. xiii of the 'Sacred Books of the East.' The sîlas here enumerated are only the lower morality. The higher ethics come below in § 12.
215:3 From Anguttara Nikâya III, 79. The verse is quoted in the Dhammapada, verse 54, and also in the Gâtaka Book, III, 291.
215:4 It is not known where these lines originally stood. But they are quoted in the Dhammapada, verses 55, 56, and also in the Gâtaka Book loc. cit., and in the Sumangala Vilâsinî, p. 56.
216:1 The details of these 'fruits' will be found in 'Buddhism,' pp. 108-110.
216:2 As to in respect of what, see the note above on IV, 8, 69 (p. 219 of the Pâli).
216:3 Dovilam, nilâta says the Simhalese, p. 484.
216:4 Kesika. Hînati-kumburê merely repeats this word.
216:5 The mango is used in all stages--when ripe for eating, and for pickles, curries, &c., in other stages.
217:1 These lines have not been traced as yet in the Pitakas, and are probably not meant as a quotation. 'Ambrosia' is of course the ambrosia of Arahatship.
217:2 For the full text of these 'Truths' see 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 148-150.
217:3 Aññâ. The Simhalese, p. 486, has awabodhaya. The word is rare, but it occurs at Gâtaka I, 140; II, 333; and at Dhammapada, verses 57, 96, always in this sense.
218:1 Not traced as yet.
218:2 See the note above on V, 3 (p. 330 of the Pâli).
219:1 Nibbutâ, with allusion to the freedom and calm of Nirvâna. The verses have not been traced as yet in the Pitakas.
219:2 Kâya-gatâ-sati-bhavanâ, where each term really requires a long commentary.
219:3 It will be noticed that Nâgasena is here really going an inch beyond his text. In that text (which has not been traced) amata, ambrosia, means no doubt as elsewhere, the ambrosia of Nirvâna. And the text does not say that the active attention and the ambrosia are the same, but only that they who feed on the one feed also on the other. Even if we translate 'are feeding' instead of 'feed' (which is grammatically possible) a similar argument would hold good. But though it is impossible to say for certain, without knowing the context of the passage, the rendering above is more in accord with Pâli usage, and more likely therefore to be right.
220:1 Not traced as yet. All these stanzas seem to belong together, and will doubtless be found in the same Sutta or poem.
220:2 These seven jewels (or treasures, ratanâni) of the Buddha are intended of course to correspond to the seven treasures (also ratanâni) of the king of kings (the kakkavattî). They are different from the seven Treasures of the Noble Ones' (Ariyadhanâni) which are ethical qualities, whereas these jewels are means to the attainment of Arahatship.
220:3 Sîla, a most difficult word to translate, as it includes so much that in English would be expressed by the varying phrases: goodness, virtue, righteousness, uprightness, morality, &c.
221:1 Indriya; no doubt here the six organs, that is the usual five, and bhavango or mano as the sixth.
221:2 Clothing, food., lodging, and medicine for the sick.
221:3 Translated in 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 189-200.
221:4 What we have here are the two higher stages of the three into which Buddhist ethics naturally falls. The morality of laymen has been included above, V, 7, where it already passes over into that of the ordinary, unconverted member of the Order. Here we begin with that, starting with the last item of the previous list, and go on, through the sîlas, to the highest ethics of Arahatship.
221:5 The devas, those gods dwelling in Sakka's heaven, and, I think, the devatâs also (fairies, nyads, dryads, &c.).
221:6 Avîki, the lowest of the purgatories.
222:1 I think the first Ghâna (see 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 272) is meant.
222:2 Apparently the passage over from the first to the second Ghâna.
222:3 But insight, and the resulting bliss, remain. Compare above, II, 2, 3 (I, 67).
222:4 Compare above, V, 8, on the last three.
223:1 See the note upon IV, 8, 65.
224:1 Bhavo here equal to pañka skandha, according to Hînati-kumburê, p. 491.
224:2 Bhave, here tri-widha-bhawa in the Simhalese.
224:3 Akalu; only found here. The Simhalese has agaru kalu, and agaru according to Clough is Dalbergia.
224:4 Tagara. Agil tuwaralâ, 'logwood frankincense.'
224:5 Tâlîsaka. Clough says the Talis tree is Flacourtia cataphracta.
224:6 Not in the Pâli dictionaries. But it is mentioned in Buddhavamsa II, 51 (there spelt salala). This verse is quoted at Gâtaka I, 13, verse 51, and the word is there spelt salala. The Simhalese has salala, and the Sanskrit lexicons have sarala. Clough identifies it, no doubt wrongly, with the last, the Anglo-Indian Hal tree, which the botanists call the Shorea robusta.
224:7 Yûthikâ; sînidda, says Hînati-kumburê, p. 492, and Clough thinks this is oleander. But Böhtlingk-Roth say a sort of jasmine, Jasminum auriculatum.
224:8 Yohombu in the Simhalese. Clough says this is a creeper called Borago Zeylanica. But does that grow in the North-West of India? According to Böhtlingk-Roth, Atimuttaka is the p. 225 name of three plants, one of which is the Gaertnera Racemosa, much cultivated for the beauty and perfume of its flowers.
225:1 The last four are the Pâtalî, Uppala, Vassika, and Mallikâ, all of which are well known. Our author's flora and fauna are so numerous that one ought, if one had the necessary knowledge, to be able to draw conclusions as to his own 'habitat.'
225:2 On the use of upâdây' upâdâya see above, p. 182, and below, p. 341 of the Pâli.
225:3 Pakkavekkhana-ñânam. That is, in looking back over the p. 226 course he has followed along the Excellent Way, he becomes conscious of having got beyond each of the obstacles (the Samyoganas) that can beset him. It is the doctrine of 'final assurance' from the Buddhist point of view. Compare ñânadassana at Dîgha II, 83.
226:1 1 Patisambhidâ. Hînati-kumburê merely repeats the ambiguous technical terms of the Pâli. Childers, sub voce, gives the various interpretations of other authorities. Compare above, I, 29, 34) 36. The third and fourth seem to me to be doubtful.
227:1 Pañkâvudho; literally 'with the five weapons on.' The expression is not infrequent; compare pañkâvudha-sannaddha, used of a hunter, at Gâtaka III, 467; IV, 283, 437; and sannaddha-pañkâvudhâ, used of sailors fighting, at Gâtaka IV, 160. But it is quite possible that weapons different from those here described are there meant, as they are not suited, for instance, to the hunter.
227:2 Hînati-kumburê translates this weapon (mandalagga) simply by kaduwa, sword; but 'bent blade' must mean a sabre.
227:3 Khurikâ. Childers has only 'knife.' The Simhalese, p. 493, has kirisaya, which is not in Clough, but is doubtless the Malay kreese. These five weapons are not mentioned elsewhere, and as three of the five words are rare, are probably those in special use in the country where our author lived. In this respect it is noteworthy that the Sanskrit kshurikâ is only mentioned, according to Böhtlingk-Roth, in the Râga Taranginî of Kashmir, and in the title of a late Upanishad. We shall therefore scarcely go far wrong if we understand by our author's khurikâ the famous Afghan knife.
227:4 Arthayen arthaya galapâ, &c., says the Simhalese. He p. 228 will reply by adducing parallel passages, much in the style of modern scholarship.
228:1 He gives the principal ones, as set out in his previous arguments.
228:2 Nirutti. Hînati-kumburê unfortunately simply repeats all these technical terms.
228:3 Lakkhana. As for instance above, I. 51-62.
229:1 Phaseyya; literally 'he who having bought patisambhidâ shall touch it with his ñâna.' The Simhalese, p. 494, has sparsakota, which does not help us.
229:2 The Simhalese again only repeats these seven technical terms, except the second Dhamma-vikaya, which it renders by pragñâ.
229:3 Bodhi. Childers says, 'the supreme knowledge of a Buddha.' But this is wrong, as is evident even from the context here. The whole exposition is of Arahatship, not Buddhahood.
230:1 Hînati-kumburê, characteristically enough for a Ceylon man, adds, 'and the Footprint and the Bo-tree.'
230:2 The first line only of these verses is in the Samyutta III, 2, 7.
231:1 Vipassakâ, not necessarily the insight of the Arahats, as Childers says. We have seen Vipassanâ ascribed above, p. 16 (of the Pâli), to a Sotâpanno.
231:2 Patipannakâ; so the Simhalese, p. 496 (but see otherwise below, V, 21, p. 344 of the Pâli).
231:3 Teviggâ, having the pubbe-nivâsânussati-ñâna, the ketopa-riya-ñâna, and the âsavânam khaya-ñâna. See Dîgha Nikâya II, 91-94 and 97.
231:4 These are the last three, and besides them the so-called Divine Eye, and Divine Ear, and also the power of Iddhi. See Dîgha Nikâya II, 87-90, 95-96.
232:1 It is not known in what text.
233:1 Pettike gokare ratâ. That is in the four Sati-patthânas. See the passage quoted below at VII, 1, 7, p. 368 of the Pâli.
234:1 Anuppavattakâ. See below, p. 363 of the Pâli.
234:2 See above, V, 19.
235:1 Importunity, or even attracting attention in any way. See above, p. 229 of the Pâli.
235:2 Compare Sigalovâda Sutta, p. 365, and Dhammapada, verse 49: 'As a bee, injuring not the flower or its colour or its scent, flies away, taking the nectar, so let a sage go through the village.'
235:3 That is the fall of beings from one state of existence--their death in that state in other words--and their rise, their rebirth, in another.
235:4 Gotaka, as a city official, is something akin to torchbearer, lamplighter.
236:1 These are six out of the ten divisions of Vyañgana-vuddhi, mentioned in the verse at Sumangala Vilâsinî I, 177. Hînati-kumburê, p. 501, merely repeats the words.
236:2 Dhamma-rakkhâ, 'dharmikawû âraksha-grahanayehi niyuktawû' in the Simhalese.
236:3 Nidâna-pathana-kusalâ; 'Âpatti gena hra dkwîmehi dakshawû,' says the Simhalese.
236:4 One word, vutthâna, is here doubtful.
236:5 See Mahâvagga IX, 4, 9. 10, &c.
236:6 Literally 'skilled in form, shape, beauty.' The Simhalese repeats this ambiguous expression, adding the qualification amâtyayo, 'ministers, officials.' One would think that these would have been the judges, but our author has already made the Arahats the judges in his Dhamma-nagara. This only leaves him some minor official post to give away to those learned in Canon Law, and he has chosen one as unintelligible in Ceylon as it is to me.
237:1 Patipannâ, which Hînati-kumburê takes here to mean Arahats, but see the note above, V, 20 (p. 341 of the Pâli).
237:2 Abhidhamme abhivinaye. A phrase very instructive as to the correct rendering of the much misunderstood word abhidhamma. As I pointed out already in the 'Hibbert Lectures' for 1881, it is a blunder to translate it, as is usually done, by 'metaphysics.' The whole context is taken from the Sangîti Sutta.
238:1 'The ambrosia of the Saddharma,' says Hînati-kumburê, p. 502.
238:2 Dhammâpanikâ. The Simhalese has Dhârmikâpanikayo.
239:1 Dhamma-setthino, which the Simhalese repeats.
239:2 Adhisîla, adhikitta, and adhipaññâ, says Hînati-kumburê.
241:1 It is perhaps such poetical figures as this that have afforded foundation for the legend of Buddha's footprint.
243:1 The Simhalese is here much expanded.
243:2 Mr. Trenckner reads 'Anumâna pañham,' the Simhalese has 'Mahâ Anumâna Prasnayayi.'