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1. The Story of Asdi-wâ'l; 1

or, The Meeting on the Ice.

Well, when a great famine reached [touched] the people of the Skeena, then a chieftainess was also among the starving people, and a young woman who had married a man of a town way up the river. Her mother, however, was in her own village at Canyon. That town is way down the river, that was when the great famine reached [touched] the villages.


Then the husband of the chieftainess died, and the husband of the young woman also died of starvation, for the starvation in the villages was really great: therefore many died.

Then one day the chieftainess talked to herself when she was hungry: therefore she said, "I remember when I used to meet my daughter." Then the young woman also said, "I remember (think) when I meet my mother when I go down the river, when I go near her, then I shall eat food, then I shall have enough to eat."

(Well, the famine struck [the people] every year in the winter, when it was very cold. It was that which cleared off all the people: therefore they died.)

Therefore one day the chieftainess arose to go on the ice to the young woman. On the same day the young woman also arose to go also to her mother. Therefore she also went on the ice.

Then they met between the two towns on the ice.

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[paragraph continues] They were both very hungry, (she) and her daughter. There was nothing to eat. Both were left (alone) by death, (she) and her mother. Then they sat down and wailed and wept because of their husbands, who had died of starvation.

When they had cried for some time, they stopped wailing. Then they went ashore to make a camp at the foot of a large tree. Then the young woman went about. Then she found one rotten hawberry. Then she gave to her mother one half of the rotten hawberry, and she herself ate (the other) half.

Then she made a small house of branches, and they began to drill fire to make a fire in a small house of branches, where they lay down. Before they lay down, they made a great fire to lie down warmly. Then they slept well. On one side of the fire the old woman, on her part, lay down with her back to the fire; and on (the other) side the little noble woman, on her part, lay down; they were with their backs towards the fire.

When it was midnight, a man entered (and went) to the little noble woman. He went to her and lay down, and they lay down together. The old woman did not notice it. Early in the morning, the young man arose and went out. Then they, on their part, saw that their fire was about to be extinguished.

Then the young noble woman arose again (and went) to get bark. When she went out, she heard the one sing whose name is Hats!Enâ's. (It is like a robin, but it is not he. When somebody hears Hats!Enâ's speak, he has good luck with whatever he wishes. That is the reason why the name of that bird is Hats!Enâ's ["Good Luck"]).

Then the young noble woman went out to gather bark.

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[paragraph continues] Then she went to the place where a large rotten spruce-tree was standing. She took a very long stick as a means of breaking off the bark. When she began to break off the bark, the bark of the great spruce-tree fell down. Then when she gathered up [among what she was going to gather up], behold! she found a little squirrel among the bark. Then she returned to her little house of branches, being of good heart. Then she made a large fire. Then she roasted the little squirrel. Then they ate it; it was enough for one day for them.

When it was morning again she went again to the place where she had been before to get bark. She took again a very long means of breaking off bark. Then the bark fell down again. Then she gathered it up again. Behold! she found [again] a large grouse among the bark that she was gathering. She returned happy. Then she roasted it also; it was enough for them for one day.

It was morning again, and the little noble woman went again; she went again to the foot of the large spruce-tree where she had been before to gather bark. Again she took a very long stick to break off the bark. The bark fell down again, and she put it together again. Then she found a large porcupine. She took it down and gave it to her mother. Then her mother took the large porcupine. Then she burnt it over, and it was enough for them for two days.

It was morning again, and she went again to gather bark. Then she found a large beaver among the bark. She took it down and gave it to her mother. Then her mother dried the meat of the beaver.

It was morning again, and she went again to get bark. Then she found a large mountain-goat among the bark.

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[paragraph continues] She called to her mother to help her, and they took down the large mountain-goat. Then they increased (the size) of the house they had made of branches to dry the meat of the mountain-goat.

It was morning again, and she went again to gather bark. Then she broke off again the bark. The bark of the large spruce-tree fell down again. Verily, she saw a large black bear (falling) down with it. Again she called to her mother to help her. Then they took the large black bear down to their house. Then they increased again (the size) of their house for [a house for] drying meat.

It was morning again, and she went again to the place where she had been before to gather bark. Then she found a large grizzly bear. Again she called her mother to come and [towards] help her, because she could not move the large grizzly bear. It was very fat. Therefore they cut it up [spread it]. Then they just took down the meat. Then their house was full [inside across] of dried meat.

Every morning before she went to gather bark, she heard [again] Hats!Enâ's speak on the top of the large rotten spruce-tree. One morning she went up again to gather bark. Then she found a large caribou. Before she was about to call her mother, she heard a man going up to her from behind: therefore she suddenly turned around. Behold! a handsome young man stood near, behind her. All of a sudden she was much afraid.

Then the handsome young man asked her, "What are you doing here?" Then the woman said to him, "O supernatural one! I (am beginning to) gather bark here. That is where I find animals every morning. Then I gather bark." Then the young man continued, and questioned the young woman: "Do you not know whence all the animals come that you have found?" Then the woman

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said, "No." Then the young man said to the woman, "I am the one who has given to you the animals that you always find among the bark that you are gathering, and I am [he is] also the one who entered (your house) when you were beginning to sleep in your camp." That was when the young noble woman was glad [hollow in her heart].

Then she was pregnant. He said, "Go and tell your mother that I desire to marry you." Then the young man promised every thing good to the woman. When he finished speaking, he suddenly disappeared. However, her mother came up to where she was, for she had been away [lost] for a long time. Then her mother asked her, "Why have you been away so long?" Then the young woman related to her mother that a young man had shown himself to her. "Then he told me," she said to her mother, "it was he who has given all the animals that I found every morning when I gathered [made] bark. He also asked me to say that he desires to marry me if you should agree; and he has also (finished and) promised that we shall be rich, and that he will help us with everything. When he finished speaking this, he disappeared suddenly."

Then the mother agreed; and when her mother began to agree, they suddenly heard the voice of Hats!Enâ's on top of the large rotten tree,--that one, where she had gone before to gather bark, at its foot. Then two large grizzly bears fell down, and two black bears, and two large mountain-goats came down from the top of the large rotten spruce-tree. Then the young man suddenly stood there again. The mother of the princess was very happy [good at heart], and the young man accompanied the women down. Then he married the princess, and the young man took down the animals.

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Then they built [made] two large houses to dry the meat. After a good while a boy was born. Then the child grew up. His father was very glad: therefore one day he called his child to himself. Then he took hold of his forehead and pulled it. Then the young man was of good size. The father of the child was this Hats!Enâ's, that one who came to the women at their camp. That one was a handsome young man, that Hats!Enâ's.

Then all the people of the Skeena heard what the two women were doing who had found Hats!Enâ's. Their house was full of all kinds of dry meat. Therefore all the people up the Skeena assembled to buy dry meat from the women: and (after) some time, [then] they were very rich from trading dry meat with all the villages all around. There was a famine: therefore they bought meat.

Before the starving people came to trade, Hats!Enâ's gave to his son--after he had finished pulling him, and when he had become a young man--he gave him his bow and four arrows and a lance and a hat and a cane and a basket and a bark rain-coat. That is what he gave to his son. Then he gave him advice. "Whenever you get into difficulty or among dangers, I shall come to help you, and you shall be stronger than your enemies." Then he stopped speaking here. He talked to his son. Then he suddenly disappeared, and they did not see him again.

Behold! however, it increased (the number of those) who came to trade all kinds of things. Then the old

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[paragraph continues] (woman) died. Therefore the princess gave a great potlatch, and called together all the different villages. Then she called the name of her son. Asdi-wâ'l was what the father gave him to be his name. He was a great hunter, and he hunted the animals of the woods. He knew how to hunt all the animals of the woods and all kinds of birds. Then his mother, on her part, returned to her relatives at Canyon, and her son accompanied her. All the people knew that the prince was a great hunter; and his fame was all over the world, and the animals also knew him.


One day in winter, when the ice was spread out again, a white bear ran out of the woods in front of the town. Then it went down, the river on the ice. Then the hunters along the upper course of the river pursued it; but they missed it when they shot at it, and their lances broke, and the white bear continued going down the river.

It was then, when the white bear came to another village, that the hunters went out again to try to kill it. Again it ran out of the woods at a camp. Again the hunters went out to kill it, but they could not do it; they were unable to hit it, and the white bear continued to go down the Skeena River on the ice. Then all the hunters from the villages really pursued it.

Then the white bear also reached the town in which Asdi-wâ'l lived. Then he got ready, and put on his hunting-apparel. He took his quiver and his lance, bow and arrows, hat, mat, and his little basket. He put on his snowshoes. Then he, on his part, ran in pursuit, as though a bird were flying. However, the great white

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bear, on its part, also ran very quickly, and it ran down the river; but he, on his part, was in close pursuit.

When the great white bear became tired, it went up the mountain. Asdi-wâ'l was in close pursuit of it, (going) up. Then the great white bear suddenly arrived on the crest [surface extending along] of the great mountain; but he, on his part, was in close pursuit. Both of them suddenly arrived on the crest (of the mountain).

Then the great white bear was very tired, and the white bear verily kicked the top of the (great mountain. Then the great one suddenly split, and suddenly there was a gorge. The great white bear was suddenly on the other side for a while, and refreshed itself. Asdi-wâ'l, however, could not get across. Then he took his lance and placed it end to end with his quiver, and he laid them across the great gorge. Then he went across.

When he got across to the other side of the gorge, he took back his quiver and his lance, and he ran quickly again, like a bird flying in the air. He almost overtook it.

When he really was about to overtake it, the white bear again kicked the top of the mountain, and the rocks split again, and suddenly there was a great gorge. Then Asdi-wâ'l again took his bow and his arrows and put them end to end. Then he laid them again across the great gorge. That was again where he went across. When he got across, he took his arrows and bow and ran again.

When he saw the white bear running before him, he suddenly reached a great plain at the very end of the top of the mountain. After a good while, behold! Asdi-wâ'l suddenly saw a large ladder standing on our world. It stood on the top of the mountain (ridge) towards the sky. Behold! the white bear went up, and he followed

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it on the ladder. Then the man also went up. The white bear reached the top of the great ladder, and Asdi-wâ'l also suddenly reached the top. That was where the young man also reached the top of the great ladder. Then he found a great prairie. It was quite green with grass, and there were all kinds of flowers. Everything sweet-smelling was on the great prairie. It was that among which the little path lay. This was the one that the great white bear followed.

Then Asdi-wâ'l also followed in the path. He kept the same distance; and behold! the path led to the outside of a great house, which stood across the way in the middle of the great prairie. The white bear suddenly went in, and Asdi-wâ'l also suddenly reached [against] it. He stood against the door and looked in through a little hole. Behold! it was a young woman whom he had followed, and who took off her white-bear blanket and put it really away.

Then the great chief questioned the young woman, and said, "Did you not get what you went for, child?"

"It is standing outside, behind the house," said the young woman. "I am almost dead with fatigue." Then said the chief, "Accompany him in."

Then they went out and took in Asdi-wâ'l. The great slave of the chief, however, took her white-bear skin blanket and shook off the ashes. Then he took it away from the fire to the rear of the house. This chief was the Sun. That one said to the young woman while the young man was sitting down on the other side of the great fire, "My child, you may come towards the fire and sit down where this prince is sitting. He shall marry you." Then the princess went towards the fire and sat down with the young man.


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Then the woman loved her husband very much. Therefore, when they were lying down, the woman said to her husband, "Prepare yourself for everything with which my father will try to kill you, for there have been many who were going to marry me whom my father killed with his own supernatural power. Therefore prepare yourself. Don't you see that great mountain standing behind the house? Numbers of bones of people are at the foot of it, of my husbands, whom my father sent up, ordering them to go up for mountain-goats on that great mountain; when the people would get up to the top of the mountain, a thick fog would come, and that mountain also would shake. It did so on account of his supernatural power. Then the men would fall off and die." This said the princess to Asdi-wâ'l.

Then Asdi-wâ'l laughed. "Don't be afraid, [but] I myself have also great supernatural power." Thus he said to his wife. "Take care of yourself!" said his wife again. "This is what my father always does whenever I get married." Then Asdi-wâ'l only laughed again.

Then on the next morning the chief spoke, and said to his son-in-law, "My dear, say that I wish my son-in-law to go up for the mountain-goats there in the woods, because I desire mountain-goat meat and mountain-goat tallow." Then the princess said to her husband, "Do not go there. You will make a mistake if you do." Then Asdi-wâ'l just laughed.

Then Asdi-wâ'l arose and took his quiver and his bow, his arrows, and his cane, and his lance, mat, basket, (and) hat. Then he put on his snowshoes, and went up the mountain. Verily, Asdi-wâ'l ran like a bird flying. When he reached the top of the great mountain, he put up his

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cane, and he spread over it his rain-coat. He put his hat on it; he, however, got across the top of the mountain.

Then a thick fog came up on the one side of the great mountain. However, when he reached the back of the great mountain, the great mountain began to move, shaking itself much.

When the thick fog disappeared, the heavenly throng came out to watch what the one was doing who had gone up. The heavenly throng all came out. Those were the stars. Then all the stars were outside, and they saw where, Asdi-wâ'l was standing on the side of the mountain. He wore his rain-coat and had on his hat. Then they thought that Asdi-wâ'l could not move: therefore all the stars shouted, saying, "Asdi-wâ'l cannot move, hâu!" Thus they all said.

Then just one star said, "No," he said, "only his cane is standing there. It has on his rain-coat and it has on his hat, but he has gone over the top of the mountain." All the stars, however, disbelieved him. (That was the star that we call "The Kite," for we give names to all kinds of stars. It does not often twinkle, as several other stars do.) Then said the Kite star, "Asdi-wâ'l has gone across." Thus he said when the others began to say, "He cannot move." We will stop here.


When Asdi-wâ'l went over the ridge, behold! he saw a large house standing there in the middle of the great plain on top of the mountain. Then he heard a great noise of drums and a great noise of shamans. Then he went very slowly towards the great house. He looked in. Behold! a shaman mountain-goat was dancing [floating]

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around in a circle to see the future: therefore all the many mountain-goats had gone into the large house to hear what the shaman mountain-goat was going to say (about) what unfortunate event it was going to foresee. Then it ran around the fire [in the house] which was made to burn in the house, and all the many mountain-goats were beating time. One of them had a wooden drum in the corner.

When it was running around, it suddenly said, "Hi! I don't know why people disappear." When the shaman mountain-goat jumped over the great fire again, a little female lamb that followed behind the shaman mountain-goat also jumped over the fire; but all the mountain-goats beat time vigorously. Then they started their song.

Asdi-wâ'l was standing in the doorway, and he held his weapons ready. When the first song was ended, they began another song, Then the shaman mountain-goat said again, "Hi! the people vanish, hau!" When he jumped over the fire again, then the lamb also did so behind him.

"Smell of Asdi-wâ'l and smell of shamans, hê!"

When the song said "Smell of Asdi-wâ'l! smell of shamans!" the shaman mountain-goat jumped right over his head, and the little lamb jumped right over the head of Asdi-wâ'l; but then Asdi-wâ'l clubbed all the mountain-goats. Not one was saved.

Then he cut them open [spread them] and took out the fat of the belly and of the kidneys. He killed [made] several hundred mountain-goats. After he had cut them open, he took all of the fat of the belly and of the kidneys and wrapped the fat of the belly around his lance. When it was full, he squeezed it [again], and he wrapped more belly-fat around it. He did so many times. Behold!


he finished all the belly-fat. Just one lance was filled with it.

Then he took his little basket and put in the kidney-fat. When it was full, he pressed it down. Then it was much, and he just pressed it down. Then again he finished all the large amount of kidney-fat of the mountain-goats. Then he took his lance, around which he had wrapped the belly-fat, and also his basket, and he put his quiver across the place in the woods where the mountain-goats just lay dead. Then he pushed them down, and there was a great slide of mountain-goats to the place all along the one side of the great mountain. Then Asdi-wâ'l ran down as before, like a bird flying. He used his snowshoes. Verily, he flew where first the meat of the mountain-goats slid down.

While the stars were dumfounded, the Kite star was glad because he had returned. (Asdi-wâ'l) went to his wife. He put up his lance and the basket behind his house. His wife was very glad when she saw him again.


Then the young man said to his wife, "My lance and my little basket are standing outside. They are full of fat." Then the chief sent out his companions to bring them in. Four men could not even move the lance and the little basket. They did not even move the lance and the little basket, and they could not even drag them along.

Then Asdi-wâ'l himself went out and took the lance and the little basket. He carried then-i in, one on each side. Then his father-in-law said to his companions, "Spread mats in the house!" They did so. Then Asdi-wâ'l shook the belly-fat from the lance, and threw it on the mats that had been spread out. Then one side of the house was very full of belly-fat which had been wrapped

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around the lance. Then he also took the little basket and took out kidney-fat and threw it on the mats on the other side of the house. Then the other side of the house was also very full of kidney-fat when he had emptied the little basket. Then the house of his father-in-law was very full of tallow, and he gave it to his father-in-law. That was all to be his.


Then she loved her husband very much. Her love increased now. One morning his father-in-law said again, "Tell my son-in-law that I order him to draw water in the mountain. I want to drink it." It was this that the father-in-law Sun said to his son-in-law.

Then the wife of Asdi-wâ'l said to her husband, "Don't go there! You might die of it. Many were they who have drawn water. They tried it. Then they could not do it, for the living mountain closed and crushed them entirely to pieces in a little while." Thus said the woman to her husband. (The mountain) always closed because it was alive; therefore it did so. That was where the spring was in the mountain, it was way in. Then Asdi-wâ'l said, "Don't be afraid!" thus he said to his wife, "for I myself have also supernatural power." Thus said Asdi-wâ'l to his wife.

Then Asdi-wâ'l arose again, and requested the great slave of his father-in-law to point out to him where the spring as. That was where they went. Then the great slave spoke, when they were to go to the spring. "Didn't you sometimes get water in the mountain?" Then the great slave said, "No, but I know where the spring is." Then they continued to go.

Suddenly they arrived at the great cave where the spring was. Then he showed Asdi-wâ'l where the water

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was flowing out. The great slave pointed [in] to the place where the spring was in the cave. Then the great cave closed again, and Asdi-wâ'l counted again how often the rock closed, when it slowly opened again, and when it did so again.

When Asdi-wâ'l counted, (he found that) it closed four times. Then Asdi-wâ'l said to his companion, "Go ahead! You go in first, and I will go in afterward." When the rock closed again suddenly, verily, he suddenly pushed in the great slave, when the rock closed; but then he was crushed. Then, however, Asdi-wâ'l counted again. He stood quite ready to draw water in his little basket. At the fourth time Asdi-wâ'l verily flew in. Then he drew the water in the spring of the mountain.

Then he returned and went to his house, and he told his father-in-law that his companion was crushed; that the rock had closed upon him. Then Asdi-wâ'l gave the basket (with the water) that he had drawn to his father-in-law. It was full of the water of the mountain that his father-in-law had ordered him to draw. Then he was suddenly much ashamed, because his supernatural power had been unfortunate and Asdi-wâ'l had won twice over his supernatural powers. Then (Asdi-wâ'l) went to his wife, and his wife rejoiced much because he had come to her again.

His father-in-law, however, was very heavy at heart on account of what had happened, that his great slave was dead. That was why the chief did this. He took his net, and he opened the end of the fireplace at the door. That is what he opened, and that is where he put down his great net. Then he drew up the bones of the great slave who had died in the mountain. When all the bones had been drawn up, he put them down carefully on a great board. Then the chief called towards the fire the

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wife of Asdi-wâ'l, and the young woman stepped over the bones of the great slave of her father. Then the great slave arose again suddenly, and he was alive again. Then she went again to her husband.


One morning the chief said again, "Tell my son-in-law that I order him to get fire-wood." Then the wife of Asdi-wâ'l said again, "Don't go, for many people were lost. As soon as the axe touches (the tree,) the bark falls down and falls on the people. Then it kills them." Thus said the young woman to her husband. Asdi-wâ'l only laughed again at what she said. "Don't be afraid! I have supernatural power myself."

Then he arose. Then he called the great slave to accompany him. When they were about to reach the place where the great tree stood, Asdi-wâ'l saw that the foot of the tree was full of bones. Then he questioned his companion. Then the slave said, "Maybe, I don't know." Then they continued really to go towards it; and when they reached it, Asdi-wâ'l looked up to the top of the great tree. Behold! the great one was leaning over to one side. Then he said to his companion, "You stand here, but I there." Then, when he was quite ready, he struck it; but the great tree fell and (broke into pieces) of the right length. Again it had fallen on the great slave, and the great one was dead.

Then Asdi-wâ'l returned and related that the tree had fallen on the great slave. Thus he said when he entered. Then the chief went to where the tree, his supernatural power, was standing. Behold! the great one was all broken into pieces of the right length, and his great slave was dead among the broken fire-wood. Then he picked out from among the fire-wood the bones of the great slave.

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[paragraph continues] Then he again found them, and he put them well too-ether as they had been before. Then the chief called the young woman to come out. Then the princess stepped four times over (the bones,) and (the slave) was alive again. Then the chief put up again the great rotten tree and returned.


When, however, Asdi-wâ'l lay down with his wife, she said to him, "Only one (thing) is left with which my father is going to try you. That is his very last supernatural power. He will bake you in his fire, and will put you in the fire on stones when they are hot, and place you on them." Then Asdi-wâ'l did not say anything, and cried the whole length of the night.

Very early in the morning the chief ordered his companions to make a fire. He made them heat stones. Then his companions did so. When they had finished making the great fire, they went out to get stones and put them on the fire. After a little while the stones were red-hot.

Then the chief said to the young woman, "My dear, order your husband to go to the fire, the stones are hot. I have heated the stones that he may lie down. That is why I have really heated the stones, that I may cook him."

Then the princess spoke strongly to her husband. "Don't do it." Thus she said to her husband. "I don't want you to die, for I really love you." Then the chief spoke again. "Order my son-in-law to go to the fire while the stones are hot." But the wife of Asdi-wâ'l would not permit it. She really held him around the waist, and she would not permit her father to bake her husband. Therefore she held him.

Then the chief spoke again and called his son-in-law

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to the fire. Then Asdi-wâ'l arose and went away from his wife. First he went out of the house for a while. While he was walking about behind the house of his father-in-law, he went into the woods. Behold! Asdi-wâ'l's father, Hats!Enâ's, came to him.

Then Father Hats!Enâ's asked him, "Why, do you cry, child "' Thus said Father Hats!Enâ's to him. Then Asdi-wâ'l spoke to his father. "My father-in-law tries everything to kill me." Thus said Asdi-wâ'l to his father. "Now he has again finished heating the stones to bake me in his fire. Therefore I have been crying all night until now. This time I cannot be saved." That is what he said to Father Hats!Enâ's.

Then his father said to him, "Why do you cry? Don't, don't be afraid!" Thus said his father to him. Then he gave a little broken piece of ice to his son, and he instructed him, "When you enter, go right into his oven. Then lie down in it and put this ice in your armpits on both sides." Thus he said.

Then he also took dried bones and gave them to him. "When you feel cold on the hot stones, shove the bones out on top of the oven. Then they will think that you are done, when they see your bones sticking out." Then, when he finished speaking, he left.

Then Asdi-wâ'l entered and wrapped his blanket around himself. Then he lay down in the oven, and the chief said to his companions, "Cover him over." Then they did so. Then he made the fire burn on top. After some time the companions of the chief saw the bones sticking out.

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Then the great chief was glad, and said, "Shame! you have greater supernatural power than I, miserable little slave, that one!" When the wife of Asdi-wâ'l heard her father speak and deride her husband, she wept bitterly. Then the chief said, "You may take him out of the fire." Then his companions took him out of the fire.

When they had removed the, hot ashes, Asdi-wâ'l arose from the hot stones and shook the ashes off from his blanket. Then he went along to his wife, who was crying bitterly. Then he embraced her. Then his wife was very glad because her husband got through all the difficulties.

When the companions of his father-in-law looked down [in] to where Asdi-wâ'l had lain, all the stones were full of ice. Then they were much astonished when they saw the ice on the stones.

The chief said to his companions, "My son-in-law shall go to the fire. Make him sit in the rear of the house." Then Asdi-wâ'l went to the fire and sat down with his wife in the rear of the house. Then the chief said, "Indeed, you have really greater supernatural power than I, son-in-law." Thus said the chief, who is the Sun, to his son-in-law. Now he liked his son-in-law much, and he respected him.

Then he loved Asdi-wâ'l much. For some time he staid with his wife in the house of the chief, and the whole tribe of his father-in-law loved him because he had really supernatural power, and he had greater supernatural power than their master. Therefore all the stars loved Asdi-wâ'l.


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Then one day again Asdi-wâ'l was homesick for those whom he had left behind on our world. Then he was downhearted and thought how it was. Then he told his wife. After some time the chief saw how his son-in-law was, that he was heavy at heart. Therefore he questioned him. Then the young woman told him that her husband was homesick; and the chief said, "The place you left behind is not far, son-in-law. You shall go there." Thus he said.

Then the chief showed him the names of the stars and told them to him; those were the Kite and the Dipper and the Halibut-Fishing-Line and the Stern-Board-in-the-Canoe and the Old-Bark-Box; and the young woman was Evening-Star. She was the wife of Asdi-wâ'l.

When the chief had finished showing them to him, he spoke to the young woman. "O child! show your husband the way to follow, that he may find quickly those whom he left behind." Then the princess arose and accompanied her husband. When he came to the edge of the prairie with his young wife, the woman took along four little baskets,--one basket full of mountain-goat meat, and another one full of belly-fat, and another one full of fresh salmon-berries; and the fourth one she carried as a bucket. That was when they reached the edge of the prairie.

Then the young woman said to her husband, "When we slide down, follow behind me." Thus she said to her husband. Then she went down on the rays [feet] of the sun, and the man followed right behind his wife. Then they suddenly arrived behind the house in which the mother of Asdi-wâ'l was living. It was winter again, and the people were starving again. Then they entered the house, and his mother was glad when she saw him, because she had thought that Asdi-wâ'l, who was her child, was dead.

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[paragraph continues] Behold! he came back with a nice wife. Therefore his mother was glad. Therefore she gave a potlatch again, and she named him with a chief's name, Potlatch-Giver [Waxayê'0k], for he was to be one to give potlatches; and they staid there for a while.

And every morning and evening the princess sent her husband again, and ordered him to draw fresh water for her to drink. Every time she put a plume between her ear (and her head); and as soon as her husband entered with his water, she put the plume in and took it away from where she had put it on between her ear (and her head); and before she would drink she would do so for a while. Then she looked (to see) if the water was clear. That was how she knew if her husband continued to love her. For a while they staid that way.

For a good while he did so. Once, when the sun [day] went down, the woman sent her husband again and ordered him to draw water: therefore the man took a little basket. When Potlatch-Giver came near to where the water was flowing that he was going to draw, behold! a [little] pretty young woman saw him approaching. She was sitting on the edge of the drinking-place. Then she smiled at the man. Then the man went across to her and embraced her. After he had done so, he washed the inside of the little basket and drew water. Then he returned, and placed the vessel with water before his wife.

Then she took off again the plume which was standing up, and she put it again into the bucket of her husband. Then the plume was full of something like the fluid slime of frogs. Then she struck her husband right in the face with the plume, which was all full of dirty stuff. Then she arose suddenly, being very angry. Her husband followed her out of the house. "Go back! Go to the

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one whom you love, whom you embrace." Thus she said. Then she went up again on the rays [feet] of the sun, and her husband went with her. Then she said again to her husband, "Go back., lest I look back upon you!"

Potlatch-Giver did not mind what his wife said to him, because he desired to take back his wife to his house. He followed his wife, crying. Then she said again, "Go back, lest I look back upon you!" Then both went up along the rays [feet] of the sun. The woman went first. While the man was still going up, the woman looked back when she arrived on top of the ladder that led up. Then he sank, and was entirely gone.

Then, however, the princess went on crying. She entered the house of her father. She went in crying. Therefore her father asked her, "My dear, why do you cry?" Thus said the chief. Then she told her father that she had looked back on her husband, and that he was dead. Thus said the princess to her father. Therefore the chief rebuked the young woman, and said, "Why were you angry, and why did you do so to my son-in-law?"

He at once took his net, which was hanging up in the house, and opened the front end of the fire to haul up his bones. He put down (the net) where it was open (inside downward). Then he hauled up the bones with all the flesh on them. He put it down again. He did so four times, then all the bones and all the flesh had been taken up. Then he put them to rights; and he swung the great plume four times over the place where the dead body of his son-in-law lay,--that plume which the daughter of the chief was wearing on her head. Then the son-in-law of the chief was alive again, and

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they were of good heart. Then Potlatch-Giver loved his wife again, and the woman did the same to him.

They staid there for some time; then the man became homesick again for those whom he had left behind, therefore he cried. Therefore the father of the young woman inquired why his son-in-law was crying. "He says he is homesick for those whom he has left behind," said she to her father. One day they arose again, and bade farewell [for a while about good heart] to their father-in-law, intending to leave in time. Then they went down again on the rays [feet] of the sun. They arrived again behind the houses. Then the woman embraced her husband at once, and she kissed him, and for a while they were happy. After she had done so, they parted, and she suddenly disappeared, and he did not see her again. He, however, entered at his mother's. Behold! [but] his mother was dead, she had died before he returned. Then Potlatch-Giver continued to go down Skeena River.


He came out at a camp, a town of the Tsimshian, G*inaxang*i'0gEt. When he came out of the woods, he met a noble-woman behind the houses. At once she smiled at him, therefore Potlatch-Giver went to her. He questioned her, and therefore she told him, "I am the chief's daughter. He is the master of the town. I have four brothers." Then Potlatch-Giver said, "Do you agree to marry me?"

Then the princess agreed; and therefore she asked him, "Where do you come from?" Then he explained to her: "First my name was Asdi-wâ'l; now I have the new name Potlatch Giver." Thus he said to the noble-woman. Therefore she loved him very much. She said to him,

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[paragraph continues] "Marry me now," for she had long ago heard people mention [say] the name of Asdi-wâ'l; therefore the woman was very glad to be his wife. When the day went down, he accompanied the woman down (to the village). They staid in (the house) on the platform of the princess.

When morning came, the chief knew that his daughter was staying with some one until the morning. Therefore he said, "My dear, who is with you?" Thus he said to his daughter. Therefore the woman said, "It is Asdi-wâ'l, who is Potlatch-Giver, who has married me." Thus she said to her father. Then the chief said, "My dear, accompany my son-in-law to the fire." Then the woman went to the fire with her husband, and they sat down at one side of the fire with all his brothers-in-law. Then they were [together] good at heart, the son-in-law and all his little brothers-in-law. They went together into the house, and they were happy.

They had not been married long when the people broke up to move. When they moved, he gathered all his little brothers-in-law, and said, "Come, let us go hunt mountain-goats [enjoy the mountain]! We have no meat."

Early in the morning they arose. They went up; and when they reached the crest of the mountain, behold! the mountain-goats were like fly-blows over one side of the mountain. Then Potlatch-Giver put on his snowshoes, took his lance and his bow and his arrows, and ran and speared the mountain-goats, and he hit others with his arrows. He killed all of them. Then he let them slide down towards his brothers-in-law. Then he divided them among his brothers-in-law, but he also took a few himself to give them to his father-in-law. Then they carried down the meat and the fat, and they finished (carrying) down all the meat.

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Then they started to move, to go to Metlakahtla. When they moved, the princess was with child. Then the people started again to move to Nass River. Therefore one day all the Tsimshian started to move. The little brothers-in-law went also aboard, but they left their father behind at Metlakahtla. All the little brothers-in-law had each his own canoe when they moved. The eldest one had Potlatch-Giver aboard. They all went together. The woman, however, loved her husband dearly. They came from Metlakahtla, and camped at the town KsE-mâ'ksEn. They camped for a little while there, because they had a head wind. Therefore they could not move their camp at once.

When they were sitting around the fire late at night in their house, cutting fish, they talked about what the sea-hunters were doing and what the mountain-hunters were doing. Therefore Potlatch-Giver said, "I think the mountain-hunter, however, is better than the sea-hunter." Then his little brothers-in-law derided him. Therefore one of them said, "Let us hunters go out to-morrow, that we may see who is best."

When morning began to appear, they launched their canoes to go out hunting on the water, and they went seaward together in one canoe. Then Potlatch-Giver, on his part, went up the mountain on his snowshoes. He held his lance and his bow and his arrows. He found two bear-dens. Then he made a smoke in the bear-den. When the bears smelled the smoke, they came out, and he killed them while they were coming. Then he went to another bear-den and made smoke in it. Behold! two of them came out again, and he killed all of them while they were coming out. He killed four, in all. Then he carried them down, those which were fat bears; and he

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left some behind. Therefore he carried them down until night [down, enjoying the night].

He came out of the woods at their camp. Behold! there was nobody there, because his little brothers-in-law were much ashamed because they came home empty-handed [even without a little foam]. They, on their part, had killed little when out hunting in their canoe. Therefore they were angry, and therefore they left him. Then Potlatch-Giver was heavy at heart. Therefore he was sitting up at the foot of a tree and was crying. He felt cold and was hungry, and his beloved wife was gone again. He sat up all night.


When it was morning, a canoe came to where he was sitting at the empty camp. People who were moving came from G*îtxâ'la. They were also really going to Nass River for the olachen-run. Then they camped at the empty camp. When they started a fire, Potlatch-Giver went towards them, and said, "May I come in to you for a while?" Then they assented.

These were also four brothers, and among them was one little sister. Then Potlatch-Giver told them what had happened to him. Then they pitied him, when they heard what he said. They placed their little sister (near him), that he should marry her. Then Potlatch-Giver told them where his name was. "I killed four bears yesterday. They are there." Therefore they arose and went there; and they came to the place where the bears were. Then they were glad at heart. Therefore the next day they moved again; and they were happy, going up the river.

They steered towards Nass River, and in the evening they camped at Olachen Place. However, the Tsimshian

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were hungry again. They were starving. Then they heard the news that the G*îtxâ'la were camping at their olachen-fishing camp. Then they went to those who, it was said, had salmon in their canoes, and fresh meat. Therefore they came to buy meat, and the little brothers-in-law sold the meat.

Then Potlatch-Giver went up again into the woods, and he killed two bears. He gave one to the eldest one, and distributed one among the three (other) brothers-in-law. Next morning he went again and killed two grizzly bears. Then he invited to a feast all the chiefs of the Tsimshian. Those are the ones whom he invited in, and whom he feasted with the meat of the bears and of the large grizzly bears. Then he made known his chief's name to all the people. Therefore the people knew his name.

They camped for a good while at Nass River. Behold! at once they tried out the olachen-oil; and when they finished what they had been working at, they all returned down the river and started to go to their own towns, all the Tsimshian; and they also returned to their own town at Metlakahtla; and the G*îtxâ'la also did the same: they started to their own town at Lax-alâ'n. Then Potlatch-Giver went out to sea aboard (the canoe) of his little brothers-in-law to those whom they had left behind.

He was there for some time; and behold! Potlatch-Giver's wealth increased among the G*îtxâ'la, although they were a strange tribe. Then his fame spread among all the camps, because he was a great hunter. That was his fame among the people. He was very rich in the strange country. Then the child of Potlatch-Giver was born, a little boy.

When it was mid-winter, they piled up a fire, and his little brothers-in-law sat around it, talking about the difficulties

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of the sea-lion hunters in going up the rocks. It is very difficult on account of the great waves going seaward. While they were speaking about this, Chief Potlatch-Giver said, "My dear, maybe I have to put on only my snowshoes at (the place) you are talking about. I'll put on my snowshoes, and I'll run up the rocks you are talking about." Therefore all his little brothers-in-law said together, "Oh, go aboard with us, and to-morrow we will see how you go up the sea-lion rock." He agreed.

Early, when morning came, the little brothers-in-law arose and started in their four canoes. Potlatch-Giver was aboard with the eldest one. That was the one who desired him very much to be in his canoe. The), started out together, and steered for the sea-lion rock. It was way out to sea. They came right to the rock where the sea-lions were. When the sun was right in the middle of the sky, the rock was there distinctly in the distance. Then they paddled as strong as possible [emptied out paddling]; and when they were near the rock, behold! it was full of sea-lions,

Then Potlatch-Giver stood up in the bow of the canoe of his brother-in-law, ready to jump, and he had all his hunting-clothes on. He wore his snowshoes and held his lance and his bow, and he wore on both sides around his neck two quivers. He had his blanket around his shoulders. Then he stood ready. When the canoe went up with the wave, and came near, he jumped out of the canoe. He flew up the rock, and he finished all [around] his quivers shooting the sea-lions, and he speared several sea-lions. He had killed all the sea-lions. Several jumped down with the arrows and rushed into the water.

After he had done so, he went about to where the canoes of his little brothers-in-law were. Behold! however,

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the one aboard of which he had been had started ashore and left him on the big rock, because the eldest one was much ashamed; but three were floating about, waiting for him. Then Potlatch-Giver stood on the edge of the rock and did not say anything. All his three brothers-in-law said that he should come aboard. He said softly, "Go ashore and let me stay here!"

Then the one next to the eldest left him and went ashore, and two canoes were left waiting. After a little while, the next one went away; but his youngest brother-in-law was not in a hurry to leave him, and drifted about near by. He waited a long time, until the sun was about to set [go in]. He desired to take him aboard. Then he said, "My dear, do go ashore!" Thus he said to the one who was waiting. "I know that your heart lies rightly towards me, that you love me; but your eldest brother has really left me."

Then the youngest one only cried, and he left him, slowly going towards the shore. Then he staid all alone on the rock way out to sea. He had no fire to keep him warm. He had nothing to eat. He sat up all night. When morning came, he arose. Then he pulled out his arrows, which were in the sea-lions, and he filled one of his quivers. When night came again, he lay down and slept.

At midnight a wind arose; and as morning came, a strong gale arose and blew against the great rock. The waves dashed over the sea-lion rock, and the top was covered with foam. Then Potlatch-Giver put up his lance on the rock, and at the very top he put on to it his bow and all his arrows, and he placed one arrow across the top. Then his father, the bird, came and gave him his blanket. Therefore he sat on the top of the lance and on what he had put end to end on it. That is what he

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sat on. When a great calm suddenly came, he again took off his hunting-tools. For two nights and two days the gale was blowing.


Now it was very calm, and the foam was gone. When the sun rose [touched outward], Potlatch-Giver lay down, for he was tired. While he was sleeping, a person poked him, and said, "My grandfather invites you in." Thus he heard some one say. Therefore he arose and looked about. No, he did not see anything, only the great surface of the rock, and again the surface of the rock. He lay down again, and thought he had dreamed.

He slept again, and again he heard something coming; and it poked him, and said again, "My grandfather invites you in." Thus it said. Then he suddenly took off [struck over] his blanket and looked about where he was lying. He did not see anything, and he lay down again, doing so the third time. Then he made a hole through his mink blanket and looked through it, and he wrapped his blanket around his face. Then he looked through at the place where he had made the hole. Then he waited until the one came who had poked him.

It happened again. Behold! a little mouse came towards the place where Potlatch-Giver was lying. It poked him, and said, "My grandfather invites you in." Thus said the little Mouse. Then it went away under (ground) at the base of a bunch of grass there. Therefore he arose and went to where the bunch of grass was, and pulled it out. Behold! the top of a ladder stretched down in (the ground). Then all the people who were in the house said, "Oh, now he has entered I" Then they spread out mats for him to sit down on one side of the house close to the fire. He went down into the house on the ladder.

As soon as he sat down where they made him sit, the

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[paragraph continues] Mouse-Woman came to him, and asked him, "My dear, don't you know who does this to you?" Thus said the Mouse-Woman to him, questioning him; therefore he said, "No." That was why she said again, "Oh, my dear! take off your ear-ornaments and throw them into the fire, because I want to take them." Then he did what the Mouse-Woman said.

Then Potlatch-Giver looked about around in the house. Behold! his arrows were sticking [across] in the great house. Then the Mouse-Woman said again, "This is the town of the sea-lions, and this is the house of the chief. Those are your arrows which stick [stand] about in all people. Really this happened to the whole town. They are suffering [lost] on account of your arrows. They say that they really die of an epidemic."

Then Potlatch-Giver heard the people in the house groaning. Therefore Potlatch-Giver questioned a slave of the chief who served food. When he had finished eating, he told them that he knew how to cure the epidemic that they [you] had. Thus he said. Then all the sea-lions were good at heart on account of what they heard, what Potlatch-Giver said, that he could cure the epidemic.

Then Potlatch-Giver began first with the chief and pulled out his arrow. When he got it out, he was saved from his sickness. Then he went about in the house among the people, and pulled out his arrows; and really all the people [every one] were saved from the epidemic. Then all the sea-lions loved Potlatch-Giver because he had saved them from the epidemic. He staid for some time in the house of the sea-lions. Now we will go no further with what Potlatch-Giver did.


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As soon as the great storm subsided, the four brothers-in-law desired to visit the rock to see whether their brother-in-law was dead or alive. Therefore one morning they arose and went to the rock. They stood on it, but they did not find him. Therefore they thought that the waves had knocked him off, when the great waves went along all day during the great storm. Then they returned to the shore. The wife of Potlatch-Giver cried all the time because her husband was dead. Every morning she carried her child on her back and went with it into the woods, crying all day long. And when it was really dark, she entered again.


Now we will return again to Potlatch-Giver. The love of the master of the sea-lions and of his whole tribe increased very much. One day Potlatch-Giver was homesick for his wife and child. Therefore he told the master of the sea-lions. Therefore the chief said to his attendants, "Go and say that I want to borrow the canoe of Self-Stomach (All-Stomach)." Thus said the chief to his attendants. Then they left. When they came (back), they said to the chief, "He says the canoe that you want to borrow is cracked."

Then he said again, "Go and tell Self-like-Sea-Lion that I want to borrow his canoe." They went again; and when they came again, they said, "O chief! the canoe that you want to borrow is also cracked." The arrows of Potlatch-Giver stuck in the stomachs of the sea-lions.

Therefore the chief said, to his attendants, "Take my own canoe to the fire. I will loan it to my son, and also my ballast." Then the attendants of the chief did so. His attendants took down a great sea-lion's stomach

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and two loads of ballast. Then he advised Potlatch-Giver, "Go into this great stomach; and when the ballast is in it, then tie it up yourself, when you have gone in. When the wind sets you afloat, then say, 'Blow me ashore, west wind!' Thus you shall say. When you feel that you reach the shore, then you will hear the noise when the waves strike the shore of the water. The wind will blow you ashore on a sandy beach. When you feel that you are left on the dry (ground), untie what has been tied across. Go out and tie it up again. Then set it afloat again, and say again, '(East wind,) drive it out to sea.' Thus you shall say." Then the chief stopped speaking to Potlatch-Giver.

Then Potlatch-Giver entered the great stomach, and he himself tied it up. Then the companions of the chief took the great stomach and set it afloat. Then Potlatch-Giver said what he had been told: "(West wind,) drive it ashore." Thus he said. "Only (west wind) drive it ashore.' Thus he said to the great stomach. When he felt that the wind had blown it ashore inland, he heard the waves striking the sand on the shore of the water. Then he felt that he was left on the dry (ground). Then he untied what had been tied across, and he went out. He tied it up again [around], and he set it afloat again. Then it stood out seaward from the sandy beach, and he said, "(East wind,) drive it seaward." Thus he said. Then, however, there was a little wind seaward. When it stood out to sea, behold! it went away from him.

Then he went inland. While he was there among the trees, crying and weeping were in his ears. He heard also a child crying. Therefore he went slowly, and went near it. Behold! his wife was sitting there crying. He sat down near her, embraced her, and said, "Do not cry,

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[paragraph continues] I am still alive! Did you not keep my tool-box?"

"Yes," said his wife. "Then bring up my box with my adze and my hammer."

When it was going to be evening, the woman went down and entered [near] (the house of) her youngest brother. Very early in the morning she arose. Then she took along her husband's tools, the hammer and adze. Therefore her brother asked her, "What are you going to do?" Therefore she told him that she was going to burn them. Then she went out and went up inland.

She came to her husband again. Therefore he asked his wife, "Have those who are your brothers looked after you well?" Thus he said. Therefore the woman said, "No, only the youngest one sympathizes with me; but his elder brother hates him because he loves me." Then they went way up inland, and they came to the shore of a lake. There they camped, and he made a fire.

Then he said to his wife, "Go down for food." Then the woman went down, and she came up with much food. Then Potlatch-Giver chopped down a cedar-tree, and he worked and made a killer-whale, because he was an expert worker at carving. Then he began to work, and made (another) killer-whale. When he had finished, he rubbed charcoal on the backs of the killer-whales that he had made out of red cedar, making them black. Then he rubbed lime over the bellies of the killer-whales that he had made. Then he took them down into the lake, and the killer-whales which he had made began to float. He launched them on the lake and put his hands on each one. Then they began to swim: and suddenly the killer-whales began to move. They went and dived in the lake.

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[paragraph continues] Suddenly, after a while, they came up again to blow. They turned over, and their bellies were on top; they drifted and were dead.

Then Potlatch-Giver went out towards the water and took them ashore, and chopped them to pieces and burned them. He tried [went to the end with] all kinds of trees. The wife of Potlatch-Giver, however, did this. Once when she went up, she told her husband that all his brothers-in-law were going out to sea again to go to the sea-lion rock on the day after the following day. Thus she said to her husband.

At last now he cut down a great yellow cedar and began to work on it, making killer-whales. When he had finished them, he blackened the back of each and put lime on the belly of each; and (his wife) did not stop for a long time putting food and fat and tobacco and down of birds and red ochre into the fire as a sacrifice, that her husband might succeed; that is why she sacrificed to the supernatural beings.

Then he took down again the killer-whales which he had made, and set them adrift, and he put his hands on each of them. Then they began to swim again, and the two killer-whales moved at once. They dived. They spouted and blew. They spouted and blew again. Then they spouted and blew again, and they swam about in the lake and spouted about. After a while, Potlatch-Giver went down, stood near the water on the shore of the lake, and whistled. Then the killer-whales came ashore to him, and he took them up ashore.

The next day the brothers-in-law took their canoes down to go to the rock. Then Potlatch-Giver took down the two killer-whales that he had made, and set them adrift in the sea. First he put his hands on them; and

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after a while he gave them advice, saying, "When you see my eldest brother-in-law, upset (his canoe) near [around] the rocks. And the next one, when he is a little nearer shore after leaving the rock, upset him also. And the next one, when his canoe is well towards shore, then go and upset him. And the youngest one, when he really has reached the shore of the water, then go upset him." After he had given advice to them, he let them go. Then they also went out to the brothers.

When they had caught the right number of sea-lions, they returned to the shore very good at heart because they had good luck, therefore they were happy. Behold! large sea-lions pierced the canoe of the eldest brother with their fins. Therefore it upset. His canoe split entirely, and all were drowned. The other three canoes, however, paddled and made for the shore. When they were some distance from the rock, the two killer-whales came again to the three canoes.

Then they pierced the canoe of the next eldest brother with their fins and broke it up, and they all were drowned. Then they paddled as hard as possible for the shore, When they were a short distance from the shore of the water, the two killer-whales came again and pierced the canoe of the next eldest one with their fins, and they broke his also. Their companions came towards them and took them aboard the canoe of the youngest brother. It was he who took them aboard.

Then the (people in the) canoe of the youngest brother went ashore as quickly as possible. Then they came again, and they pierced his canoe with their fins, and broke it near the shore, and they all got ashore. Then they were all heavy at heart because the eldest ones were

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drowned. Then Potlatch-Giver went down, coming from the lake, and staid with the youngest brother-in-law for some time.


After one year, one day he wished to return to those whom he had left behind on the Skeena River. Therefore he started, and left his wife and his child. He was alone in his canoe. He steered for a town G*înadâ'0s; that was where he staid for a while. There he made again a great potlatch. Then he took again a chief's name. Stone-Slinger (Da-huk-dz'an) 1 was his new name.

After he had given his potlatch, his eldest son by his first wife came. He was a young man and a very great hunter. He asked for the bow and the arrows of his father. Therefore Stone-Slinger gave them to him, and the boy also gave a little dog to his father. Then they parted. The boy was an expert hunter.

When it was fall again, Stone-Slinger arose and went up to the lake of G*înadâ'0s to hunt mountain-goats. When he got up to the lake, behold! mountain-goats were all about like o-rubs on one side of the mountain. Then he took the little dog which his son had given to him, and his lance, and he went up the mountain, and he stabbed the mountain-goats. At last he let the mountain-goats slide down.

After a short while, he remembered that he had forgotten his snowshoes in his house; then he could not move on the great slippery mountain, for he had forgotten his snowshoes, which he always used in difficulties; for

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with these snowshoes he succeeded in all difficulties, wherever it might be. Therefore what could he use now? He only carried his dog about which his son had given to him. Therefore he always stood there. Where might he go now? He could not go up, he could not go down, he could not go to either side.

After a little while, his father, Hû'0t, came. It was he who went away with him to his own home, but his body staid behind and became stone; also the little dog and the lance, all became stone; and even now they stand there on the very top of the great mountain at the lake of G*înadâ'0s; and the whole number of generations of people have seen him standing there on the mountain. He and his dog and his lance are stone. This is the end.


71:1 This name is also pronounced Asi-wâ'l.

143:1 Compare Hux-dzâ'n ("Evening sky") in the Nîsqa'0 dialect (Boas, Tsimshian Texts, Bulletin 27, Bureau of American Ethnology, p. 193)

Next: 2. Story of GunaxnêsEmg*a'd.