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Epistle XLIII.

To Leander Bishop of Hispalis (Seville) 1341 .

Gregory to Leander, &c.

I should have wished to reply to your letters with full application of mind, were I not so worn by the labour of my pastoral charge as to be more inclined to weep than to say anything.  And this your Reverence will take care to understand and allow for in the very text of my letters, when I speak negligently to one whom I exceedingly love.  For, indeed, I am in this place tossed by such billows of this world that I am in no wise able to steer into port the old and rotten ship of which, in the hidden dispensation of God, I have assumed the guidance.  Now in front the billows rush in, now at the side heaps of foamy sea swell up, now from behind the storm follows on.  And, disquieted in the midst of all this, I am compelled sometimes to steer in the very face of the opposing waters; sometimes, turning the ship aside, to avoid the threats of the billows slantwise.  I groan, because I feel that through my negligence the bilgewater of vices increases, and, as the storm meets the vessel violently, the rotten planks already sound of shipwreck.  p. 88b With tears I remember how I have lost the placid shore of my rest, and with sighs I behold the land which still, with the winds of affairs blowing against me, I cannot reach.  If, then, thou lovest me, dearest brother, stretch out to me in the midst of these billows the hand of thy prayer; that from helping me in my labours thou mayest, in very return for the benefit, be the stronger in thine own.

I cannot, however, at all fully express in words my joy on having learnt that our common son, the most glorious King Rechared, has been converted with most entire devotion to the Catholic faith 1342 .  In describing his character to me in thy letters thou hast made me love him, though I know him not.  But, since you know the wiles of the ancient foe, how against conquerors he prepares all the fiercer war, let your Holiness keep watch the more warily over him, that he may accomplish what he has well begun, nor lift himself up for good works accomplished; that he may keep the faith which he has come to know by the merits also of his life, and shew by his works that he is a citizen of the eternal kingdom, to the end that after a course of many years he may pass from kingdom to kingdom.

But with respect to trine immersion in baptism, no truer answer can be given than what you have yourself felt to be right; namely that, where there is one faith, a diversity of usage does no harm to holy Church.  Now we, in immersing thrice, signify the sacraments of the three days’ sepulture; so that, when the infant is a third time lifted out of the water, the resurrection after a space of three days may be expressed.  Or, if any one should perhaps think that this is done out of veneration for the supreme Trinity, neither so is there any objection to immersing the person to be baptized in the water once, since, there being one substance in three subsistences, it cannot be in any way reprehensible to immerse the infant in baptism either thrice or once, seeing that by three immersions the Trinity of persons, and in one the singleness of the Divinity may be denoted.  But, inasmuch as up to this time it has been the custom of heretics to immerse infants in baptism thrice, I am of opinion that this ought not to be done among you; lest, while they number the immersions, they should divide the Divinity, and while they continue to do as they have been used to do, they should boast of having got the better of our custom.  Moreover, I send to your to me most sweet Fraternity the volumes of which I have appended a notice below.  What I had spoken in exposition of the blessed Job, which you express in your letter your wish to have sent to you, being weak both in sense and language as I had delivered it in homilies, I have tried as I could to change into the form of a treatise, which is in course of being written out by scribes.  And, were I not crippled by the haste of the bearer of these presents, I should have wished to transmit to you the whole without diminution; especially as I have written this same work for your Reverence, that I may be seen to have sweated in my labours for him whom I love above all others.  Besides, if you find time allowed you from ecclesiastical engagements, you already know how it is with me:  even though absent in the body, I behold thee always present with me; for I carry the image of thy countenance stamped within the bowels of my heart.  Given in the month of May.



Gregory made the acquaintance of Leander, bishop of the Metropolitan See of Hispalis (Seville) in Spain, during his residence at Constantinople.  It was at the instigation of Leander together with the request of the monks who had followed him from his Roman Monastery to Constantinople, that he had begun when there, to expound the book of Job.  The earlier part of his “Moralium libri, sive Expositio in librum B. Job,” had been delivered in oral discourses at Constantinople, but afterwards revised, arranged, and completed in thirty-five books.  The whole, when finished, was addressed to Leander.  All this appears from the “Epistola Missoria” prefixed to the completed treatise.  Gregory evidently had a peculiar affection for Leander.  Other epistles addressed to him are V. 49, and IX. 121.  He is spoken of also in the Dialogues of Gregory, Lib. III. cap. 31, being there referred to as “dudum mihi in amicitiis familiariter junctus.”


Reccared, the Visigoth King in Spain, had declared himself a Catholic a.d. 587 and formally renounced Arianism and adopted the Catholic Creed at the Council of Toledo, a.d. 589.  The date of the letter before us, if rightly placed, is a.d. 591.

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