1. There are, O Bhikkhus, these eight grounds 2 for the getting of a gift of robes--when he gives it to the boundary, when he gives it to (a Samgha which is) under agreement (with other Samghas), when he gives it on a declaration of alms, when he gives it to the Samgha, when he gives it to both the Samghas, when he gives it to the Samgha which has spent the rainy season (at the place), when he gives it to a specified number 3, when he gives it to a single Bhikkhu.
'When he gives it to the boundary, it is to be divided among all those Bhikkhus who have come within the boundary 1.
'When he gives it to a Samgha which is under agreement, there are a number of residences which hold in common whatever they get, and what is given in one residence is given in all.
'When he gives it on a declaration of alms (means when the givers say), "We give it at the place where constant supply of alms is kept up for the Samgha 2."
'When he gives it to the Samgha, it is to be divided among the Samgha there present.
'When he gives it to both the Samghas, though there be many Bhikkhus and only one Bhikkhunî, an equal half is to be given (to each of the two Samghas), and though there be many Bhikkhunîs and only one Bhikkhu, an equal half is to be given (to each of the two Samghas).
'When he gives it to the Samgha which has spent the rainy season, it is to be divided among as many Bhikkhus as have spent the rainy season at that particular residence.
'When he gives it to a specified number, it is the number present at the giving of congey, or
rice, or hard food, or robes, or bedding, or medicine 1.
'When he gives it to a single Bhikkhu, he says, "I give a set of robes to such and such a one."'
1. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at Kampâ, on the brink of the lotus-pond Gaggarâ. At that time there was in the country of Kâsi (a village) called Vâsabha-gâma. There a Bhikkhu called Kassapa-gotta had his residence, who was bound (to that place) by the string (of the religious duties which he had to perform there 1), and who exerted himself to the end that clever Bhikkhus from a distance might come to that place, and the clever Bhikkhus therein might live at ease, and that (religious life at that residence might progress, advance, and reach a high state.
Now at that time a number of Bhikkhus, making their pilgrimage in the country of Kâsi, came to Vâsabha-gâma. And the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta saw those Bhikkhus coming from afar; when he saw them, he prepared seats for them, brought water for the washing of their feet, a foot-stool, and a towel 2.
Then he went forth to meet them, took their bowls and their robes, offered them (water) to drink, and provided a bath for them, and provided also rice-milk and food hard and soft.
Now those stranger Bhikkhus thought: 'The resident Bhikkhu here, O friends, is indeed good-natured; he provides a bath for us and provides also rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. What if we were to stay here, friends, at Vâsabha-gâma.' Thus those stranger Bhikkhus stayed there at Vâsabha-gâma.
2. Now the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta thought: 'These stranger Bhikkhus are rested now from their travel-weariness; they did not know their way here before, but now they know their way. It is trouble-some indeed to be busy all one's life for people not related to one's self, and being asked 1 is disagreeable to men. What if I were to provide no longer rice-milk, and food, hard and soft (for those Bhikkhus).' Thus he did not provide any more (for them) rice-milk, and food, hard and soft.
Then those stranger Bhikkhus thought: 'Formerly, friends, this resident Bhikkhu used to provide baths for us, and to provide also rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. But now he does not provide any more rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. This resident Bhikkhu, friends, is in anger with us now. Well, friends, let us pronounce expulsion against this resident Bhikkhu.'
3. Then those stranger Bhikkhus assembled and said to the Bhikkhu' Kassapa-gotta: 'Formerly, friend, you used to provide baths for us and to provide also rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. But now you do not provide any more rice-milk, and food, hard and soft. You have committed an offence, friend; do you see that offence?'
'There is no offence, friends, for me to see.'
Then those stranger Bhikkhus pronounced expulsion against the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta for his refusal to see that (pretended) offence. Then the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta thought: 'I do not know indeed whether this is an offence or not, and whether I have made myself guilty of an offence or not, and whether I have been expelled or not, and whether that sentence is lawful or unlawful, objectionable or unobjectionable, valid or invalid. What if I were to go to Kampâ and to ask the Blessed One about this matter?'
4. And the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta put his resting-place in order, took up his alms-bowl and his robe, and went forth to Kampâ; and in due course he came to Kampâ and to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him.
Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas to exchange greeting with incoming Bhikkhus. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta: 'Is it all well with you, O Bhikkhu? Do you find your living? Have you made your journey without too much fatigue? And from what plate do you come, O Bhikkhu?'
'It is all well, Lord; I find my living, Lord; I have made the journey, Lord, without too much fatigue:
5. 'There is in the country of Kâsi, Lord, (a village) called Vâsabha-gâma. There I had my residence, Lord, (&c. 1, down to:) Then those
stranger Bhikkhus, Lord, pronounced against me expulsion for my refusal to see that offence. Then I thought, Lord: "I do not know indeed whether this is an offence or not, and whether I have made myself guilty of an offence or not, and whether I have been expelled or not, and whether that sentence is lawful or unlawful, objectionable or unobjectionable, valid or invalid. What if I were to go to Kampâ and to ask the Blessed One about this matter." Thus I have come here, Lord.'
6. (Buddha replied): 'This is no offence, O Bhikkhu; it is not an offence. You are innocent; you are not guilty of an offence. You are not expelled, and have not been expelled; the sentence by which you have been expelled is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid. Go, O Bhikkhu, and settle yourself again at Vâsabha-gâma.'
The Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta expressed his assent to the Blessed One (by saying), 'Yes, Lord,' rose from his seat, and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One and walked round him with his right side towards him, he went on his way to Vâsabha-gâma.
7. Now those stranger Bhikkhus (at Vâsabha-gâma) were overcome by scruples and remorse:
It is all loss to us indeed, it is no gain to us; we will fare ill indeed, we will not fare well, in this that we have expelled that pure, guiltless Bhikkhu without any cause and reason. Well, friends, let us go to Kampâ and let us confess there in the Blessed One's presence our sin in its sinfulness.'
And those stranger Bhikkhus put their resting-places in order, took up their alms-bowls and their robes, and went forth to Kampâ, and in due course they came to Kampâ and to the place where the Blessed One was. Having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat down near him. Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas (&c. 1, down to:) 'It is all well, Lord; we find our living, Lord; we have made the journey, Lord, without too much fatigue. There is in the country of Kâsi, Lord, (a village) called Vâsabha-gâma; from that place we come, Lord.'
8. 'So are you, O Bhikkhus, those who have expelled the resident Bhikkhu there?'
'We are, Lord.'
'For what cause, O Bhikkhus, and for what reason?'
'Without any cause and reason, Lord.'
Then the Blessed One rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'That is improper, O Bhikkhus, it is unbecoming, indecent, unworthy of Samanas, unallowable, and to be avoided. How can you, O fools, expel a pure and guiltless Bhikkhu, without any cause and reason? This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted.' Having thus rebuked them and delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, expel a pure and guiltless Bhikkhu without cause and reason. He who does, commits a dukkata offence.'
9. Then those Bhikkhus rose from their seats, adjusted their upper robes so as to cover one
shoulder, prostrated themselves, inclining their heads to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 'Transgression, O Lord, has overcome us like the foolish, like the erring, like the unhappy, in this that we have expelled a pure, guiltless Bhikkhu without any cause and reason. May, O Lord, the Blessed One accept (the confession of) our sin in its sinfulness, and we will refrain from it in future.'
'Truly, O Bhikkhus, transgression has overcome you like the foolish, like the erring, like the unhappy, in that you have expelled a pure, guiltless Bhikkhu without any cause and reason. But as you see, O Bhikkhus, your sin in its sinfulness, and duly make amends for it, we accept it from you. For this, O Bhikkhus, is called progress in the discipline of the noble one, if one sees his sin in its sinfulness, and duly makes amends for it, and refrains from it in future.'
253:2 Mâtikâ; used in the same sense here as at VII, 1, 7.
253:3 That is, of monks and nuns--the Bhikkhu--samgha and the Bhikkhunî-samgha.
254:1 See chapters II, 6 and following.
254:2 Buddhaghosa says, Bhikkhâ-paññattiyâ, ti attano parikkâgapañña-paññapana-tthâne. Ten’ ev’ âha yattha samghassa dhuvakârâ kariyantî ti. Tass’ attho, yasmim vihâre imassa kîvara-dâyakassa santakam samghassa pâkavattam vâ vattati, yasmim vâ vihâre bhikkhû attano bhâram katvâ sadâ gehe bhogesi. Yattha vârena âvâso vâ kârito, salâkabhattâdîni vâ nibaddhâni, yena pana sakalo pi vihâro patitthâpito, tattha vattabbam eva n’ atthi ime dhuvakârâ nâma.
255:1 That is, he invites a number of Bhikkhus to partake of yâgu, and when the yâgu is served he says, 'I give robes to those who have partaken of the yâgu,' and so on in all the other cases except that of robes. In that case he says, 'I give robes to those who have previously received robes from me' (B.).
256:1 Tanti-baddha. Buddhaghosa says, Tanti-baddho ’ti tasmim âvâse kâtabbatâ-tanti-patibaddho.
256:2 See our note at I, 6, 11.
257:1 As he was obliged to ask the people of Vâsabha-gâma for what the stranger Bhikkhus wanted.
258:1 See §§ 1-3. Instead of 'the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta' the p. 259 pronoun of the first person is to be read; and the appellation 'Lord,' addressed to Buddha, is inserted several times.
260:1 See § 4. The alterations to be made ('those Bhikkhus' instead of 'the Bhikkhu Kassapa-gotta,' &c.) are obvious.