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Pahlavi Texts, Part V: Marvels of Zoroastrianism (SBE47), E.W. West, tr. [1897], at


1. About the seven questionings (7-frasnŏîh), with reference to religion, of the seven archangels, which occurred in seven places 2.

2. For the occurrence of the first questioning 3, that of Aûharmazd, the person of Zaratûst, who was

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the upholder of Aûharmazd, came out to a conference on the bank of the water of Dâîtîh 1.

3. For the occurrence of the second, which is Vohûmanô's, five animals out of the five species 2 which are the worldly tokens of Vohûmanô, have come with Zaratûst to a conference on Hûgar and Aûsind 3; and on that day also, before their coming out to the conference, their tongues are fully liberated and spoke with human words. 4. And among the rest 4 is a fish of one species, Arzuvâ 5 by name; of those in burrows (khanŏîgânŏ) are the white ermine and white marten; of the flying creatures (vâyandagân) is the Karsipt 6, a bird like a species of water-fowl; of the wide-travellers (farâkhvŏ-raftârânŏ) is the hare which is showing wild beasts the way to the water; and of those suitable for grazing (karakŏ-argânîgân) is the white ass-goat; with human words they also accepted the religion from Aûharmazd. 5. With the chieftainship of the five species they are intrusted, so that the like animals also, with their own voices, and as much as their knowledge is capable, shall recount the powerfulness of the religion.

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[paragraph continues] 6. And freedom from assault, exemption from persecution, and proper maintenance of the five species of animals, were prescribed by him 1 to Zaratûst with seemingly very awful admonition.

7. For the occurrence of the third questioning, which is Ardavahistô's, the spirits of the fires have come out with Zaratûst to a conference at the Tôgân water 2; and, in that questioning, care for the proper maintenance of the Varahrân fire 3, and the propitiation of all fires, is explained to him.

8. For the occurrence of the fourth questioning, which is Shatvêr's, the spirits of the metals have come with Zaratûst to a conference at Sarâî 4, a settlement on the Mîvân 4; and he was fully admonished about various proper preservations of the metals, and as to not producing warlike accoutrements of gold.

9. For the occurrence of the fifth questioning, which is Spendarmad's, the spirits of the regions, frontiers, stations (aûstâmân), settlements (rûdastâkân), and districts, as many as were desirable, have come out with Zaratûst to a conference where there is a spring (khânîgô-aê) which comes out from the Asnavad mountain 5, and goes into the Dâîtîh, like those of Satavês who is blowing the Pâîrîgs 6. 10. And Zaratûst was also thus admonished

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by her, about the care and propitiation of the earth: that each district is to be intrusted to a faithful testifier (gôkâs-î vâvar), each settlement to a judge acquainted with the law, each station to an officiating priest (magôpatŏ) of just intentions, and each frontier to a pure priestly authority (radŏ); over all is proclaimed the councillor of the spirits, the supreme priest (magôpatânŏ magôpatŏ), and through him the sovereignty of Aûharmazd is provided.

11. For the occurrence of the sixth questioning, which is Khûrdad's, the spirits of seas and rivers have come with Zaratûst to a conference at the Asnavad mountain 1, and he was told about the care and propitiation of water.

12. For the occurrence of the seventh questioning, which is Amûrdad's, the spirits of plants have come out with Zaratûst to a conference on the precipitous bank of the Dareg2, on the bank (bâr) of the water of Dâîtîh, and different places; and he was informed about the care and propitiation of plants.

13. The seven questionings are explained within the length of these winters, which are of five months, and within ten years 3.


159:2 Compare Dk. VIII, xiv, 5, 6, 9.

159:3 This has been narrated in the preceding chapter.

160:1 See Dk. VII, iii, 51, 54.

160:2 These species, which are named in § 4, are those mentioned in the Avesta, Visp. I, I.

160:3 Av. Hukairya of Yt. XII, 24, and Us-hindu of Yt. VIII, 32, described in Bd. XII, 5, 6, as two neighbouring mountains, for the pure water of Arêdvisûr falls from the summit of Hûgar to Aûsind which stands in the circumambient ocean.

160:4 The remainder of K 35, the MS. brought by Westergaard from Kirmân, is lost; but an old copy of it (BK, see the Introduction) exists in Bombay, which supplies the missing text, as an authority independent of T.

160:5 See Bd. XIV, 26; apparently the same as the Ariz, or Kar, the chief of fish, ibid. XVIII, 3, 5; XXIV, 13.

160:6 See Bd. XIV, 23; XIX, 16; XXIV, 11.

161:1 By Vohûmanô, as the protector of useful animals.

161:2 Possibly the Tegend river, the Zend or Zôndak of Bd. XX, 7, 15.

161:3 The Bahrâm, or sacred fire at places of worship.

161:4 Names not clearly identified, and readings uncertain.

161:5 In Âtûr-pâtakân, and the Gûsnasp, fire was established upon it (see Bd. XII, 2, 26; XVII, 7).

161:6 Pahl. 'Satavês-t Pâîrîg damânŏ ânŏ kîgûn.' Referring probably to Yt. VIII, 8, 9. Satavês is the southern chieftain of the stars, as correctly stated in the Iranian Bûndahis (compare Bd. II, 7; XIII, 12); and the Pâîrîgs are meteors.

162:1 See § 9.

162:2 Pahl. 'pavan Daregîn zbâr' = Av. 'Dregya paiti zbarahi' of Vd. XIX, 4; a mythical river in Aîrân-vêg, where Pôrûshaspô resided (Bd. XX, 32).

162:3 The Pahlavi is rather vague, but it is clear that Zaratûst starts for his conference at thirty years of age (Chap. XXI, 1), returns from it ten years later (Chap. XXIII, I), and the conversion of Vistâsp occupies two years longer (Chap. XXIII, 5), occurring when Zaratûst was forty-two years old and thirty-five years before his passing away at the age of seventy-seven (Chap. XXIII, 9).

At this point another dislocation of text occurs in all existing p. 163 MSS., owing to the accidental interpolation of three loose folios of another text, between this chapter and the next, in some unknown copy written before 1530. In the MSS. the text is written continuously, without division into chapters. But the connection of this chapter with the next one, which is here restored to its proper position, is clearly shown by the reference to the 'ten years' of conference, with which this chapter ends, and the next one begins. The accidentally interpolated text is here classified as Chaps. XXIV and XXV, but its real connections have not yet been traced.

Next: Chapter XXIII