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Pahlavi Texts, Part V: Marvels of Zoroastrianism (SBE47), E.W. West, tr. [1897], at


1. About the marvellousness of the manifestations before 1 the birth of that most auspicious of offsprings from his mother 2.

2. One marvel is this which is declared, that the creator passed on that glory of Zaratûst through the material existences of the creatures 3 to Zaratûst; when the command arose from Aûharmazd, the coming of that glory from the spiritual existence to the worldly, and to the material substance (mâdîyâtŏ) of Zaratûst, is manifested as a great wonder to the multitude (val kabedânŏ). 3. Just as revelation mentions it thus: 'Thereupon, when Aûharmazd had produced the material (dahisnŏ) of Zaratûst, the glory then, in the

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presence of Aûharmazd, fled on towards the material of Zaratûst, on to that germ; from that germ it fled on, on to the light which is endless 1; from the light which is endless 2 it fled on, on to that of the sun; from that of the sun it fled on, on to the moon; from that moon it fled on, on to those stars; from those stars it fled on, on to the fire which was in the house of Zôîs 3; and from that fire it fled on, on to the wife of Frâhîmrvanã-zôis 4, when she brought forth that girl who became the mother of Zaratûst.'

4. Of that splendour, escaped at the same time into the earth and into the sky, the father-in-law's ignorance is declared, so that it is said by those in the village of the more instructed and invoking Zôîs 5, as to the self-combustion which burns the fire, that fuel is not necessary for its use. 5. Then they went on to the governor (kêdŏ), and he explained to them concerning that same (that is, he spoke to them) thus: 'The full glory of embodied existence

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is the glory of life apart from the body, so that all diligence devoid of this is only movement.'

6. And it is declared that the demons, on account of their defeat by that glory in maintaining 1 adversity for the girl, were bringing on to that district three armaments (hênô), winter, the demon of pestilence, and oppressive enemies; and a suspicion was cast by them into the minds of those of the district, that this harm happened to the district owing to the witchcraft of this girl; so that those of the district quarreled dreadfully with the parents, as to the witchcraft of antagonism in the girl, and about putting her out from that district.

7. And the father of that girl spoke even these words to those of the district, with much reason, about the unjust assertion of witchcraft relative to the girl, that is: 'When this girl was brought forth among those of mine, her whole destiny (vakhsh) was afterwards set forth by that manifest radiance of fire, where it brought out radiance from all over her in the dark night. 8. When this girl sits in the interior of the house, wherein there is no fire, and in the chamber (sarâî) of fire they increase its intensity (bûrzŏ), it is lighter there, where and when this girl sits, than there where they increase the intensity of the fire; one is dazzled by the radiance from her body, and that of a wizard would not have been so glorious.'

9. Even then, owing to the influence (sârînisnŏ) of the demons, and the Kavîg and Karap 2 of the

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district, they did not become satisfied; so the father ordered the girl to go to Padîragtarâspô 1, the father of a family in the country (matâ) of the Spîtâmas, in the district (rûdastâk) of Alâk; and the girl obeyed the command of her father. 10. That disturbance which the demons caused, with evil intention, for the expatriation of that girl, the sacred beings assiduously made the reason for the coming of the girl for marriage to Pôrûshâspô, the father of Zaratûst, through her father sending the girl to the dwelling of Padîragtarâspô, the father of Pôrûshâspô.

11. One marvel 2 is this which is declared, that when that girl, in going to that family, stood on the loftiest place in the country of the Spîtâmas, and it is surveyed by her, a great wonder is manifested to the girl, just as revelation mentions: 'It is their 3

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voice is carried away to her from them; "do thou proceed to that village which is theirs; it is very depressed in height and very wide in breadth, in which he who is living and the cattle mostly walk together; besides, for thy assistance that village is divinely fashioned and compassionate."' 12. Thereupon that damsel stopped, and also fully observed that their recital seems to be for the conveyance of this statement, that my action should be such as was ordered me by my father also. 13. Then that damsel thoroughly washed her hands, and proceeded from them to that village which was Padîragtarâspô's, and the glory came to Pôrûshâspô, the son of Padîragtarâspô.

14. One marvel is this which is declared, that the creator Aûharmazd passed on the guardian spirit (fravâhar) of Zaratûst, to the parents of Zaratûst, through (le-kadôn) Hôm 1, by a marvel produced by cultivation. 15. Again, too, revelation says that, when the separation (burînŏ) of the third millennium occurred, at the end of the 3,000 years of spiritual existence without a destroyer, (after the creatures were in spiritual existence, and before the arrival of the fiend); then the archangels framed Zaratûst together, and they seated the guardian spirit within, having a mouth, having a tongue, and the proclaimer of the celestial mansions.

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16. Then the three millenniums of Zaratûs1 were the number manifest to them through observation by the eye, and it seemed that he became just like an archangel through bodily contact with (hamkerpîh) 2 the archangels. 17. And when the separation of the third millennium occurred, after the framing of Zaratûst together, and before the conveying of Zaratûst down to the worldly state, at the end of the 3,000 years of worldly existence with a destroyer, then Aûharmazd argued with Vohûmanô and Ashavahistô 3 thus: 'Is his mother beheld by you, so that we may produce Zaratûst?'

18. And Ashavahistô spoke in reply thus: 'Thou art aware even of that, O propitious one! about the Zaratûst we shall produce, and thou and we have produced, thou knowest, O Aûharmazd! and to us who are the other archangels do thou announce the place, because its appearance thou knowest, thou propitious spirit Aûharmazd!'

19. Then Aûharmazd argued with Vohûmanô and the reminding by Ardavahistô 4, Shatraver, Spendarmad, Khûrdad, and Amûrdad 5, saying:

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[paragraph continues] 'The conveying of Zaratûst down does not seem to be for me, because, having a mouth and having a tongue, he will be a proclaimer to the world of embodied beings. 20. If we convey Zaratûst down on to the world of embodied beings, having a mouth and having a tongue, as a proclaimer of the celestial mansion, this is evident: they will say, concerning the origin of him who is my righteous man, that we frame him together with the water, with the land, with the plants, and with the animals 1. 21. Therefore we will carry off there, to the village of Pôrûshâspô, him whom they will call Zaratûst of good lineage of both natures, both of Nêryôsang 2 who is of the archangels, and of Yim who is of mankind.'

22. Then the archangels framed together a stem of Hôm the height of a man, excellent in colour, and juicy where fresh; also to carry off the guardian spirit of Zaratûst to that stem of theirs, the archangels made it go forth thither from that endless light, and gave it up there also to the instinctive intellect (âsnô vîr). 23. Likewise their carrying off was manifest around, and a wall was openly displayed round them, but a restless one; the Hôm was constantly provided with a mouth, where it was suitable, and sap constantly oozed from the Hôm where it was moist.

24. And when thirty 3 years of the 3,000 years of

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well-disturbed 1 worldly existence remained, Vohûmanô and Ashavahistô then associated their pre-eminence together, and turned off into the embodied existence; there they came up to where two birds had settled in quest of progeny, and seven years before the serpents devoured the inexperienced progeny. 25. For their own designs, Vohûmanô and Ashavahistô went on, and those birds consulted them thus: 'We have to offer homage, and our want is that Hôm.'

26. The circumstances of those associated together in pre-eminence and the request of these for that Hôm were a double marvel; Vohûmanô seized one of those birds by both legs, and the other by one; he also brought them that Hôm, and gave it up to them there, on that tree within their nest. 27. And they uncovered above the serpents, that have gone up to the progeny of the birds; then that guardian spirit of Zaratûst started up, and the serpents on the tree rushed also from them away towards the demons; but that guardian spirit of Zaratûst smote them on the jaws, and the serpents fell down and expired, which events have also occurred among them till now, having been requisite as regards a depriver of life (gân-gîr) and any one of that species. 28. And that Hôm was connected with that tree; and on the summit of that tree, there

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where the nest of the birds was, it grew constantly fresh and golden-coloured 1.

29. After the coming of her who bore Zaratûst, to Pôrûshâspô for marriage, Vohûmanô and Ardavahistô, thus associated together in their pre-eminence, came up there to Pôrûshâspô in the cattle-pasture of the Spîtâmas, and their thoughts were confined to that Hôm brought by them. 30. Then Pôrûshâspô walked forth, with spiritual desire, up to the water of the Dâît 2, because the requirement of the spirits is the spiritual knowledge 3 that spirits are ever-beneficial; and that Hôm was also seen by him, when it had grown on that tree, on the inside of the nest. 31. Then Pôrûshâspô thought thus: 'It is for me, really (madam-îk-am) to proceed and, even as there is no reaching by me up to that Hôm, that tree must be cut down, for apart from that, O Hôm of Aûharmazd! thou seemest fresh, so that the benefit of something from thee will be advantageous.'

32. Then Pôrûshâspô walked on and washed their clothes acquiescently (patâsîg), and here a great wonder was manifest to Pôrûshâspô. 33. About this it says that, all the while that Pôrûshâspô washed their clothes, Vohûmanô then proceeded from the uppermost third of the tree unto the middle of it, whereon it was the desire of Pôrûshâspô

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to be conveyed. 34. Then Pôrûshâspô, having washed the clothes, walked up to it and, thereupon gathering up the whole of that Hôm, all of it was then also appropriated by him through assistance like that of that archangel, just as what thou offerest for the food-sustenance of a friend's son of two years or three years of age; and it seemed to him that archangel's joyful payment.

35. Carrying off their Hôm, Pôrûshâspô spoke of it to his noble (mas) wife thus: 'So thou, O Dûkdâûb! shouldst keep their Hôm in custody, all the while that their Hôm fulfils duty and routine.'

36. One marvel is this which is declared, that the coming of the nature (gôhar) of the body of Zaratûst, through water and vegetation, to the bodies of his parents, is manifested as a great wonder of the creator to the multitude. 37. As revelation mentions it thus: 'Thereupon, when Aûharmazd had produced the material (dahisnŏ) of Zaratûs1, the nature of his body then, in the presence of Aûharmazd, fled on towards the material of Zaratûst.'

38. About Khûrdad and Mûrdad 2 bringing the cloud-water down in a compassionate manner ever anew, drop by drop, and completely warm, for the delight of sheep and men, and—with as much seed as the roving of two rampant bulls would thereby cast upon the plants which have grown, all of every species—they are casting it upon those other plants at that time, even upon the dry ones; and the

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nature of Zaratûst came from that water to those plants.

39. One marvel is this which is declared, that, in order that the nature of Zaratûst shall come unto his parents, after 1 the mounting of the archangels Pôrûshâspô drives six white cows, with yellow ears, up to those plants. 40. And here is manifested a great wonder, such as revelation mentions thus: Two 2 of those cows, unimpregnated, had become full of milk, and the nature of Zaratûst came from the plants to those cows, and is mingled with the cows' milk; it is owing thereto that Pôrûshâspô drove those cows back. 41. And Pôrûshâspô spoke to Dûkdâûb thus: 'O Dûkdâûb! in two of those cows, which are unimpregnated and have not calved, milk has appeared; do thou milk those cows, which are the splendour and glory of the cows and of any embodied existence whatever.' 42. And Dûkdâûb arose and, taking that pail of hers which had a four-fold capacity, she also milked from them the milk which was in them, and a great part of what they gave up to her she had to throw away; and the nature of Zaratûst was in that milk.

43. One marvel is this which is manifested in the struggle of the adversary for concealing and spoiling that milk, just as revelation mentions thus: Thereupon, at that time, the demons formed themselves into an assembly, and the demon of demons growled thus: 'You demons become quite unobservant: that food is really supplied fresh, so that the formation is settled which will extend as far as to that

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man who will be the righteous Zaratûst; which of you will undertake his destruction, all the while that he exists for mankind, so as to make him more contemptibly impotent?' 44. Kêshmak 1, astute in evil, growled thus: 'I will undertake his destruction.' 45. Astute in evil, he rushed away with thrice fifty of the demons who are Karaps of Kêshmak; and that village was partly uprooted and partly destroyed 2 by him, fellow-workers were ruined, and the number of fellow-eaters of broken victuals, attending the great, was not broken up, among whom was he that had repelled his authority.

46. It is declared that, afterwards, Pôrûshâspô asked again for that Hôm from Dûkdâûb, and he pounded it, and with that cows' milk 3, into which the nature of the body of Zaratûst had come, he here mingled the guardian spirit of Zaratûst, and the nature of the body came at once into union with it.

47. One marvel is this which is declared, that Pôrûshâspô and Dûkdâûb drank up that Hôm and milk, when they were mingled together and announced to Aûharmazd; and here occurred a combination of the glory, guardian spirit, and bodily nature of Zaratûst into a manchild. 48. And a great wonder is manifested to both of them, through that which revelation mentions thus: Thereupon, both have embraced the first time 4 with desire

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for a son, and the demons shouted out unto them, in the villainous speech of sinfulness, thus: 'Why shouldst thou act like this, vile 1 Pôrûshâspô?' whereupon they started up like people who are ashamed. 49. A second time they have embraced, and the demons shouted out unto them, in villainous speech; whereupon they started up like people who are ashamed. 50. A third time they have embraced thus, with desire for a son; and the demons shouted out unto them, in villainous speech; whereupon they started up like people who are ashamed. 51. And they spoke with one another about it, and continued at this duty, and accomplished it 2, saying: 'We will not so stop without accomplishing something, not even though both Râk and Nôdar should arrive here together 3.' 52. Then that manchild who was the righteous Zaratûst became complete, and here below there came together the nature of the body, the guardian spirit, and the glory of Zaratûst in the womb of his mother.

53. One marvel is this which is declared, that, after the combination of Zaratûst in the womb of his mother, the demons strove anew wonderfully

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to cause the death of Zaratûst in his mother's womb, and she who bore him was rendered sickly by them through the sharpest of sharp and afflictive pain, until she wished to ask the wizard physicians for a desirable remedy. 54. And here is manifested a great wonder, just as revelation says: 'It is then a voice of theirs is carried away there to her from the higher region, from Aûharmazd and from the archangels, thus: "Thou damsel who goest! do not proceed thither, because anything of theirs is destruction through wizard medical treatment; for healthfulness wash thy hands thoroughly, and those hands shall take firewood, and upon it thou shalt offer meat for the sake of the infant, thou shalt offer up cows' butter to the fire for his sake; thou shalt likewise heat it at the fire for his sake, and shalt quaff (pâîmês) it off at the proper time for his sake, and thou wilt become well."' 55. Then at once that damsel washed her hands thoroughly, and she did just as she had heard, and became well 1.

56. One marvel is this which is manifested to the multitude when three days remained to his coming 2 forth; in the manner of the sun, at the approach of its uprising, when its first advancing twilight is diffused, his body is then announced as revelation says: 'It is then when in those last three nights during which Zaratûst was in the womb, where he still subsisted three days till afterwards born, that the village of Pôrûshâspô became all luminous. 57. Then spoke the horse-owners and cattle-owners of the Spîtâmas, in running away, thus: "It is requisite to be forgiven 3; the village of Pôrûshâspô, on which

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that fire 1 is in every crevice, is disturbed by confusion 2." 58. Then, on running together again, they said: "It is not fully forgiven for the village of Pôrûshâspô; fire is on it in every crevice and it is disturbed by confusion; unto him is born, at his house, a brilliant manchild."'

59. This, too, is one of the wonders, when the report of the marvellousness of the birth of that manchild and of his great glory, is due to statements of Yim and also others, brilliant in carrying on the destiny which had entered them from the sacred beings. 60. Wherein Yim spoke to the demons thus: 'Here below the pure and righteous Zaratûst will be born, who will produce for you who are demons that absence of intercession which is prepared for you (that is, he will produce for you a thoroughly-harassed actual inactivity, an absence of intercession so that you are not able to pray on your own account, and no one prays for you).'

61. It is declared that the report about the birth of Zaratûst, and concerning his prophesying, is explained (avazandî-hastŏ) only by the illustrious, such as Yim and Frêdûn and many learned people; but the sacred beings are also heard through the tongues of the animals scattered in the world, in order that even that witness shall arise as regards his prophesying. 62. Just like that which is declared, that in the reign of Kaî-Ûs there was an ox, and a splendour had come to his body from the sacred beings; and whenever a dispute as to the frontier arose between Irân and Tûrân, that ox was brought, and the boundary between Irân and Tûrân

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was truly shown by him. 63. And because, when an Irânian had to seek a decision as to a Tûrânian in a dispute and lies occurred, the Tûrânians were constantly convicted through the showing of the boundary by the ox, and happened to be defeated by the Irânians—and, besides that, their envy also arose as to Kaî-Ûs, even of his ownership—therefore, on account of his possession of that wonder, the Tûrânians proceeded about the smiting and destruction of that ox, and through their sorcery and witchcraft the mind of Kaî-Ûs was disturbed about that ox, and he went to a warrior, whose name was Srîtô 1, and ordered him to kill that ox; so that man came to smite the ox. 64. And here is manifested a wonder of importance by that ox, such as revelation mentions thus: 'To him spoke the ox, in grave words, thus: "Thou shouldst not murder me, O Sritô! thou seventh 2 of those of this race; you will atone for this malice when Zaratûst, the most desirous of righteousness among the existences, arrives and proclaims thy bad action in revelation; and the distress in thy soul becomes such as is declared by that passage where it says: 'As death occurs to him, that of Vadak 3 and the like occurs.'"' 65. It is declared that that man, when this wonder was thus seen by him proceeding from the ox, did not kill it, but went back to Kaî-Ûs and told him what he had seen. 66. Kaî-Ûs then still, on account of the amazing deceitfulness of the demons and wizards, ordered the same man to smite that ox

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and that man proceeded also again to the ox, and though it was carrying on still much of that talk, he did not lend an ear to it, but killed it.

67. Regarding the sole-created ox 1, too, it is declared that, on meeting its destruction by the evil spirit, it bellowed thus: 'Though thou thinkest it as to us, O evil spirit, astute in evil! that thou art in every way a winner by destruction, it is not to our destruction thou art even then an attainer in every way (that is, it is not possible for thee so to annihilate that we shall not arise again); even now I proclaim that that man, Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas, will arrive in that last revolution, who will produce distress for the demons, the assistants of the demon, and also the wicked who are bipeds.'

68. Likewise the marvellousness of Zaratûst's defeat of the demons, owing to his glory and by means of his sagacity, even before he had come into the world by birth; when Frâsîyâv  2 the wizard is amazingly distressed through seeking that glory of his by desire of the demons, just as revelation 3 mentions thus: 'Thereupon Frâsîyâv, the very powerful Tûrânian, rushed away, O Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas! to the wide-formed ocean a first, a second, and a third time; and he wished to obtain that glory which is specially for those of the countries of Irân, for the born and the unborn, and which is for the righteous one; but he did not attain to that glory.'

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[paragraph continues] 69. And this, too, is mentioned, that to all the seven regions the villain Frangrâsîyâk rushed away, and the glory of Zaratûst was sought by him 1.

70. Here is an enumeration of the worthy lineage of Zaratûs2:—Zaratûst was son of Pôrûshâspô, son of Padîragtarâspô, of Urugadhasp*, of Haêkadaspô*, of Kikhshnus*, of Paêtrasp*, of Aregadharsn*, of Hardhar*, of Spîtâm, of Vaêdist*, of Nayâzem* 3, of Aîrîk 3, of Dûrâsrôbô, of Mânûskîhar monarch of Irân, of Mânûs-khûrnar, of Mânûs-khûrnâk whom Nêrôksang implanted in 4 Vîzak*, daughter of Air-yak*, son of Thritak*, of Bitak*, of Frazûsak*, of Zûsak*, of Fragûzak* 5, of Gûzak* 6, daughter of Aîrîk, son of Frêdûn monarch of Khvanîras, son of Pûr-tôrâ the Âspîgân, of Nêvak-tôrâ the Âspîgân, of Sôg-tôrâ the Âspîgân, of Bôr-tôrâ the Âspîgân, of Kardâr-tôrâ 7 the Âspîgân, of Sîyah-tôrâ the Âspîgân, of Spêtô-tôrâ the Âspîgân, of Gêfar-tôrâ the Âspîgân, of Ramak-tôrâ 8 the Âspîgân, of Vanôfravisn the Âspîgân, of Yim monarch of the seven

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regions, son of Vîvangha, of Ayang,had*, of Anang,had*, son of Hôshâng the Pêsdian monarch of the seven regions, son of Fravâk, of Sîyâmak, of Masyâ, of Gâyômard the first man.


17:1 The MS. has patas for pês.

17:2 The contents of this chapter are thus mentioned in the summary of the Spend Nask (Dk. VIII, xiv, 1 in S.B.E., vol. xxxvii, p. 31):—'The Spend contains particulars about the origin and combination of the material existence, guardian spirit, and soul (or glory) of Zaratûst; how the creation of each one occurred in the spiritual existence, and in what mode it was produced for the worldly existence; how their connection with the parents arose, the coming of the parents together, the combination in the mother, and the birth from the mother; and whatever is on the same subject.'

17:3 The writer uses two Arabic words: 'dîyâtŏ-i ‘halqŏ.'

18:1 Perplexed by the repetitions, some copyist has evidently omitted this phrase by mistake.

18:2 Pahl. anagar, a transcript of Av. anaghra which is always translated by Pahl. asar, 'endless.' The 'endless light' is the abode of Aûharmazd, see Bd. I, 2.

18:3 Written in Pâzand.

18:4 Also written in Pâzand. In Bd. XXXII, 10, it is stated that 'the name of the father of the mother of Zaratûst was Frahimravâ' (or Fereâhimruvânâ in the Irânian version); but very little reliance can be placed on such Pâzand readings of names originally written in Pahlavi.

18:5 Here written in Pahlavi letters which can also be read Zandîh. In the text, the two preceding adjectives, farhakhtar va-khvân, might be read Farâkht-ruvânân as the beginning of the name. But, as it stands, the text implies that Zôîs, the father-in-law of his son Frâhim-rvanã's wife, was the master of the house, which is the usual oriental arrangement.

19:1 Reading dârîh, but it may be gârîh for kârîh, 'producing.'

19:2 The Karaps were apparently idolatrous priests, especially those before the conversion of Vistâsp by Zaratûst; one being called 'a wizard' in Chap. III, 5, 42-44, another 'unsanctified' in IV, 24, p. 20 a third is 'deadly' in IV, 67, and a demon himself is a Karap in IV, 61, and has Karaps under his control in II, 45. The following Karaps are named in the time of Zaratûst:—Dûrâsrôbô mentioned in Chap. III, 4-41; Brâdrôk-rêsh in III, 20-34, who is called a Tûrânian in III, 28; Vaêdvôist in IV, 21-24; and Zâk in IV, 67. Some others are named by other writers. The Kavîgs, Kaîs, or Kîgs are mentioned with the Karaps in Chaps. II, 9; III, 50; IV, 2, 6, 14, 64, 67; VIII, 26, 40, as equally objectionable, but their avocation as officials is not defined. Both classes seem to have held official rank, but whether their titles were tribal or official is uncertain. The Avesta calls them Karapan and Kavi; the latter word being also the royal title of the Kayân dynasty, of which Vistâsp was a member. Compare Zs. XV, 1-4; XXIII, 8.

20:1 So also in §§ 13, 70. In Bd. XXXII, 1, 2, the two old MSS. of the Irânian Bundahis have Padtarâsp thrice and Pîrtarâsp once; K 20 has Spîtarsp and Paitiresp; K 20 b has Padirtarâspô and Paitirispô; and M6 has Padirtarâsp and Paitiresp. Zs. XIII, 6, has Purtarâspô.

20:2 One of the marvellous manifestations mentioned in § 1.

20:3 Probably we should read: 'It is the voice of those sacred beings' who are mentioned in § 10. As the word yazdân, 'sacred beings,' is exactly similar, in Pahlavi, to shân (in valâshân, 'their' p. 21 or 'those'), a copyist would be liable to the blunder of leaving out the final word in writing valâshân yazdân. Or the original writer himself may not have quoted enough of the text he was reading, to make his meaning clear.

21:1 A sacred and mythical tree, described in Bd. XVIII, 1-3. and often personified as a sacred being. It is now represented, in Parsi ceremonies, by twigs of a particular plant brought from Persia.

22:1 Meaning the period of Zaratûst's existence merely as a guardian spirit, the first period of the destroyer (§ 17) who then remained powerless in confusion (see Bd. I, 22).

22:2 Or 'sheltering with' (ham-karîkîh).

22:3 The personifications of the Avesta phrases for 'good thought' and 'perfect rectitude,' who are two of the seven that hold a superior position among sacred beings, somewhat similar to that of archangels. When a Parsi speaks of Aûharmazd as the first of the Ameshaspends, or archangels, he does not put him on an equality with the rest, any more than we put a commander-in-chief on an equality with his troops when we call him a good soldier.

22:4 Another pronunciation of Ashavahistô.

22:5 These last four archangels are personifications of the Avesta p. 23 phrases for 'desirable dominion, bountiful devotion, completeness or health, and immortality.'

23:1 That is, as an inferior and irresponsible being.

23:2 Here spelt Nêrôsang; see Chaps. I, 29; II, 70; and Zs. XIII, 6, for this angel's influence on the royal race.

23:3 The MS. has 330 years, but the time intended is evidently that shortly before the birth of Zaratûst, and this third 3,000 years. p. 24 ended either when Vistâspô accepted the religion, in Zaratûst's forty-second year, or when Zaratûst received the religion in his thirtieth year, but this earlier date is the more likely.

24:1 This word, hû-aîbigadîg, is written in Pahlavi precisely like an-aîbigadîg, 'without a destroyer,' though its meaning is the reverse, which is an unexpected cause of perplexity to a cursory reader.

25:1 Or it may be 'verdant.'

25:2 Av. Dâitya, a mythic river in Aîrân-vêg (Bd. XX, 13); a favourite place for religious rites, see Yt. V, 17, 104, 112; IX, 25, 29; XVII, 45, 49, 61. Or it may be merely mayâ-î shêd, 'brilliant water.'

25:3 Reading maînôg-dânisnîh, but the MS. has maînôg dênô-dânîh which might be translated 'spiritual knowledge of religion,' though the latter Pahlavi word is unusual.

26:1 Compare § 3.

26:2 These two archangels have special charge of water and vegetation (see Sls. XV, 25-29), and here they are represented as acting in a manner usually ascribed to Tistar, the Dog-star.

27:1 Reading akhar instead of adên, 'then.'

27:2 In some places the singular number is used, in others the plural.

28:1 The whirlwind demon; see Bd. XXVIII, 24. Compare Chap. IV, 61.

28:2 The usual effects of a hurricane.

28:3 The mingling of milk with pounded Hôm still constitutes part of the Parsi ceremonial; see Haug's Essays, 3rd ed., p. 405.

28:4 Pahl. 'kolâ 2 lâlâ fratûm vapdîdŏ havând.'

29:1 Reading anâg, but it may be intended for hanâ = aê, 'O.'

29:2 Pahl. 'afshân madam hâr suftŏ, aêghshânŏ pavan akôsh frâz vabîdûntô.'

29:3 Evidently an old proverb, implying a fixed determination whatever catastrophe may happen, even if one's ancestors of the eleventh or twelfth generation shall appear. Nôdar (Av. Naotara) was a son of King Mânûskîhar (Bd. XXXI, 13, 23), and Râk was a nephew of Nôdar (Bd. XXXI, 31), doubtless the same as Ragan (Bd. XXXII, 1; XXXIII, 3) which seems to be a Pâzand misreading of Aîrikŏ, or Êrikŏ, see Zs. XVI, 11-13, and compare the genealogies in Chap. II, 70 and Zs. XIII, 6. The proverb is used again in Chap. III, 19, and the names are mentioned in III, 39.

30:1 Compare Zs. XIV, 2-5.

30:2 Literally 'going.'

30:3 Apparently an appeal for mercy.

31:1 Assuming that nîram stands for nîrâ, a variant of nûrâ.

31:2 Or 'terrified with fear.'

32:1 This legend is also told, with further details, in Zs. XII, 7-25.

32:2 Compare Zs. XII, 10.

32:3 The mother of Dahâk, who first committed adultery in an aggravated form (see Dd. LXXII, 5; LXXVIII, 2).

33:1 Pahl. tôrâ-î aêvak-dâdŏ, the primeval ox, from whom the animals and plants have all descended (see Bd. III, 14, 17, 18; IV. 1-5; X, 1; XIV, 1-3; XXVII, 2).

33:2 The same person as Frangrâsîyâk of Chaps. I, 31, 39; II, 69; XI, 3.

33:3 In Yt. XIX, 56-62; V, 42.

34:1 See Yt. XI-X, 82.

34:2 Compare the genealogy in Zs. XIII, 6; Bd. XXXII, 1, and that quoted there from the Vigîrkard-i Dênîg. The names marked here with an asterisk are written in Pâzand, or partly so.

34:3 Ayazem, of Ragan, in Bd. The latter name is Ragisn in Vig., but Êrikŏ in Zs. XVI, 13.

34:4 This wants confirmation, but varzîd bên can hardly be a name as assumed in Vig., where it is altered to Varzîd-dên.

34:5 The g is of the old form like s.

34:6 The G is omitted, but see Bd. XXXI, 14.

34:7 Or Kûtâl-tôrâ; this generation is omitted both in the Vigîrkard and Bundahis.

34:8 This generation is interlined in the MS. of the Dînkard. The Bundahis, XXXI, 7, also omits Nêvak-tôrâ; and the Vigîrkard omits Bôr-tôrâ, Sîyah-tôrâ, Spêtô-tôrâ, and Ramak-tôrâ. The termination tôrâ is merely the Zvâris equivalent of gau. In Irânian MSS. the Pahlavi î and û are practically written alike in most cases.

Next: Chapter III