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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Bakŏ Nask.

1. The twelfth fargard, Ustavaiti 5, is that the benefit of him who is reverent to the benefiters is the benefit of any one whatever 6; even for this

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reason, because the benefit of the immature creation is owing to carrying out the commands of a benefiting spiritual lord. 2. This, too, that whoever pleases superiors by submission, is pleased by inferiors. 3. This, too, that by him who gives thought to the religion of Zaratûst, that which is best for his own in every mode 1 is produced, because he has attained to the religion who is listening best. 4. This, too, that virtue is taught by him to all the creatures of the beneficent spirit, to the righteous whose stepping forth (fravâmisnŏ) is for the righteous; even for this reason, because the creatures of the beneficent spirit are all of one nature, and the stepping forth (fragâmisnŏ) and hastening of the limbs of one body become those of the whole of that body. 5. This, too, that his spirit is connected with Aûharmazd 2, and his knowledge is accepted, who loves Vohûman; even for this reason, because the spirit who is the original spiritual lord of knowledge is Vohûman. 6. This, too, that just giving is taught by him whose words are through Vohûman 3; even for this reason, because the speaking of virtuous words becomes the teaching of knowledge in which there is also just giving.

7. This, too, that joy which is of long duration is produced 4 for his own by him who brings forth strength through virtue, and who also assists him who is unborn; even for this reason, because joy which is perpetual increases by both. 8. This, too, that by him who is an assistance of those in the proper way, the proper way is taught to mankind 5;

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even for this reason, because he is making mankind long for that way. 9. This, too, that heat is given to fire 1 by him who tells truth to the invokers; even for this reason, because the adversary—owing to the heat of the fire achieved by the indicator of truth—is more particularly subdued by the strength of that just one.

10. This, too, that the assistants for the renovation of the universe are the decrees of Vistâsp which 2 are through Vohûman—of Sôshâns 3 and Kai-Khûsrôî 4; even for this reason, because the fragments are possessing a renewer which is their own completion 5, and the completion—which is through the assistance of the renovation by Vistâsp—is through what occurs when the religion is set going by him, through which the renovation arises; and the triumph of the completion, which is through an ordinance by Sôshâns, is through what occurs when through the ordinance there is thus a decree which sets aside all distress from the creatures, and gives the ordinance to the whole material existence, that which is living and also that which is dead. 11. This, too, that whoever intrusts it with a command given—which command given intrusts him who supplies the command from revelation—and it worships what is

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necessary to worship, is thereby displayed among the existences as the progeny of Aûharmazd 1.

12. This, too, that the defeat of the bad and the acceptance of the good 2 are taught by him who shall provide a righteous gift for the worthy; because both are therein. 13. This, too, that ability for even the transformation of the creatures 3 of Aûharmazd is taught by him who loves Vohûman; even for this reason, because the forward-dragging, and also the backward-dragging, power—which is in mankind—is qualified, through changeableness of will, for even the actions of the Vohûmanic nature. 14. This, too, that power is taught, to that spirit through whom the creatures are changed, by him whose wisdom is for that which is wisdom; even for this reason, because that spirit is wisdom, and increases in mankind through instruction. 15. This, too, that by him who praises the religion like a disciple, and who also teaches it like a priest 4, it is shown that Sôshâns 4 really comes; even for this reason, because the religion, from the first praiser and teacher down to the last praiser and teacher, is connected by discipleship and priesthood, and Sôshâns becomes a disciple in the end, and the last priest.

16. This, too, that the wisdom of Aûharmazd 5 is taught by him who shall supply decisions and adjudication from the religion; even for this reason, because the decision of religion is the wisdom of Aûharmazd. 17. This, too, that complete mindfulness, so that they are not deceived 5, is taught

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through wisdom by him who is as reverent to Aûharmazd as a daughter to a father; even for this reason, because the reverence of a daughter unto a father arises mostly through natural sympathy (âhang-î kitrîk), and through the intellectual complete mindfulness of the daughter.

18. This, too, that maintaining the destinies (vakhtân) of the body through the command of the creator is taught by him who teaches the righteous man and the wicked one that thing which becomes comfort to them, to the righteous man as to his body, and to the wicked one as to his soul; even for this reason, because he becomes a friend of the creatures, a friend of the creatures is also a friend of creativeness, and a friend of the creator maintains body and wealth through the command of the creator, and others are taught by him. 19. This, too, that joy owing to him who is powerful is taught him who is righteous only by him—that is, he is conveying him to the rulers for benefit 1—who is an assistance of him who is righteous through capability, that is, he shall do it through exertion of power; even for this reason, because, when he has provided as much assistance as it is possible for him to do, his praise arises through that benefit which is pre-eminent through his exertion. 20. This, too, that the benefit of sovereignty for that which arises 2 is taught only by him who always thoroughly teaches authority (patîh) up to dictatorship (vispô-farmânîh); that is, he teaches to others that thing which always arises for them up to dictatorial. authority; this is where it is connected by them with the

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renovation of the universe through the control which is in the tree of germs 1.

21. This, too, that he becomes liberal to fire 2 who shall perform work for fire that is its protection, and so it is taught about it through the obeisance by him whose liberality—that is his through the obeisance—becomes liberal, and whose declaration, that arises as to Vohûman, possesses wealth through virtue. 22. This, too, that this thinking as to righteousness 3 is taught only by him—that is, he thinks—whose petition for righteousness is ever afresh. 23. This, too, that the religion is interrogated 4 by him who is submissive to superiors and similarly situated (ham-gâk) to inferiors.

24. This, too, that the state of the present world (latammanîh) for the Mazda-worshipping religion is thoroughly taught where whatever becomes a progress 5 of the religion is whatever is purification for mankind; even for this reason, because the want of progress of the religion is owing to the want of purification of mankind as to the fiend, and when a human being is purified from the fiend, the progress of the religion becomes different. 25. This, too, that pleasure is taught to him who is a friend 6;

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only by him—that is, he gives it—who is a pleasure to him who is a friend; and its routine is really this, that by him who causes pleasure to friends, his having caused pleasure is taught also to them. 26. This, too, that, owing to him whom Aûharmazd teaches joy, it is taught that gratification 1 comes from Aûharmazd; even for this reason, because he is exalted, even in the worldly existence, through that joy which is supreme, and mankind are thereby taught.

27. This, too, that the augmentation of indications as to intellect is taught to him who is a vigorous-minded (tûstŏ-mînisnŏ) man 2, by him whose own progress is that towards his own sacred beings; even for this reason, because he fully considers, and delivers the decision, of his own powers, of those, too, of his contemporaries (ham-budîkânŏ), and likewise of the chivalry (kîrîh) of the age; and others are taught about it by him. 28. This, too, that the spirit of Aûharmazd 3 is expounded only by him—that is, he loves it—whose close exposition is of Aûharmazd; even for this reason, because he becomes similarly loved with Aûharmazd, so that 4 . . . 29. And this, too, that the reward is taught in the publicity of the sun 5 by him whose friendship is for the Spîtâmân, which also increases in the day—that is, it is necessary to perform duty and good works in the day—but he does not put it aside the second day; even for this reason, because friendship for the religion is through kind regard;

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and duty in one day, only to put it aside for the second day, becomes affliction (vêsh) at the bridge of judgment; also the sun is the most kindly-regarding and swiftest of those visible.

30. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.


353:5 See Chap. XIII, 1 n; it is here written aûstâîtŏ in Pahlavi.

353:6 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 1 a.

354:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 2 a.

354:2 Ibid. 2 c.

354:3 Ibid. 2 d.

354:4 Ibid. 2 e.

354:5 Ibid. 3 b.

355:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 4 d.

355:2 See Bk. VIII, Chaps. XI, 1, XIII, 15.

355:3 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 4 e, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 14.

355:4 In the MS. the letters srô are omitted from this name which might, therefore, be read Kayânag; but Kaî-Khûsrôî (see Chap. XXIII) is considered as one of the assistants of the renovation (Dd. XXXVI, 3), probably on account of his opposition to idolatry (Bd. XVII, 7).

355:5 Pahl. maman bâharânŏ kashtâr-hômônd-î nafsman spôrîkîh.

356:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 5 b.

356:2 Ibid. 5 d.

356:3 Ibid. 5 e; assuming that dâm-var’zisnîh, 'accomplishment of the creatures,' stands for dâm-vardisnîh.

356:4 Ibid. 6 d.

356:5 Ibid. 6 e.

357:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 8 c.

357:2 Ibid. 8 d.

358:1 Evidently the many-seeded tree of all germs, opposed to harm and called the proper-curing, energetic-curing, and all-curing; it is renowned in Aîrân-vêg and grows in the wide-formed ocean near the Gôkerenô, or white-Hôm plant, which latter is one of the ingredients of the elixir producing immortality in the future existence (see Bd. IX, 5, 6, XVIII, 9, XXVII, 2, XXIX, 5).

358:2 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 9 d which Pt4 and Mf4 supply as follows:—Aêdûnŏ avŏ hanâ-î lak âtâsdŏ hômônam pavan nîyâyisnŏ.

358:3 Ibid. 9 e.

358:4 Ibid. 10 c.

358:5 Ibid. 11 d.

358:6 Ibid. 14 a.

359:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 14 b.

359:2 Ibid. 15 c.

359:3 Ibid. 16 a.

359:4 Some clause appears to be omitted here.

359:5 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 16 d.

Next: Chapter LIX