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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. The eighteenth fargard, Yêzî 2, is about the existence of certain and doubtful evidence and indication as to the future existence 3 arising. 2. About the great dignity of the spirit of good works, and that also of the person doing good works through the lodgment of that spirit in him. 3. This, too, that they praise, recount, and practise the religion of Mazda-worship at the time of the renovation of the universe, that of which the demons through deceitfulness, and then also wicked mankind deceived by those who are demons, have said that it does not occur 4.

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4. About the triumph of the sacred beings over the demons at the end of various periods. 5. First, that which occurs when, on account of the preservation of mankind from hell, they praise the religion of Mazda-worship; and that which occurs when Zaratûst the Spîtâmân, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, came to the obedient king Kaî-Vistâsp 1. 6. Second, when the power and triumph of renewed sovereignty are again connected with the religion, and mankind, on that account, return to the good religion; and this occurs on the near approach of Aûshêdar 2, son of Zaratûst, when the righteous Kitrag-miyân 3 arrives. 7. Third, when mankind contentedly praise the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, and this occurs as Aûshêdar-mâh 4, son of Zaratûst, arrives. 8. And fourth, that which occurs when every one shall practise the religion of Mazda-worship with eagerness; at that time arrives the beneficial and triumphant producer of the renovation, Sôshâns 5, son of Zaratûst; and this becomes the consummation (sar-hômôndîh) and supreme triumph of the sacred beings.

9. About enquiring of him who is acquainted with religion and a wise priest concerning the religion, and hearing of it from him 6; also well understanding it through wisdom. 10. About abstaining

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from the secret proceedings (nihân-hômôndîh) of a deceitful and seductive apostate 1. 11. This, too, is said, namely: 'Thou shouldst also not fall into the downcast imprisonment (nikûn alakîh) through the teaching they deceive, where they thus mislead thee to the downcast imprisonment which is hell.'

12. About mankind attaining to the wisdom of an angel (yêdatô dânôgîh) 2 through the grades of intellect, ability, and religion. 13. This, too, is said, namely: 'It is for that way when mankind cause the disturbance (siklinênd) of that which is a vile religion for want of a way, when even this is produced from among the creatures, in which is the opening of a passage for mankind to him, where the evil spirit is dwelling and making thee surrender, and on account of the stupefying Akômanô 3.' 14. This, too, that, through the sovereignty of sagacity, every one at last arrives at that way. 15. And this, too, that by him, who shall persistently perform good works or sin with fearlessness, it is to be hereupon considered that his performance is mindful 4, and that the best thing for mankind, after birth, is purification from sin 5.

16. This, too, that the food and maintenance of the priests depend upon the husbandmen 6. 17. This, too, that coveted is now the pleasure and strength of mankind due to the cattle of Khûrdad and

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[paragraph continues] Amûrdad 1. 18. About the oppressiveness of Wrath and Envy, and the destruction of both through complete mindfulness and possession of Good Thought 2. 19. And this is said, namely: 'I made the religion of righteousness a combining desire (vôyak-î hâm-dahisnŏ 3), and all mankind's own selves are to be forced into that desire; also its involuntary seeking of immortality is the reign of the will of all mankind, and advantage always arises from it 4.' 20. This, too, that the care of cattle is reverence of Aûharmazd 5.

21. About the progress 6 of righteousness there is this, too, that that greatness 6 is generated therefrom, and its seekers—who are human beings—have demanded the supreme predominance in the best existence. 22. About the praise of the period of the renovation of the universe there is this, too, that, at that time, those who are doubtful about it are all disclosed to publicity 7; also the last reward and bridge judgment of the worthy. 23. About the lawfulness of that which occurs through the destruction by Vohûman 8, who is himself the spiritual lord of the arrangement, there is this, too, that the wicked,

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at that time, become aware of their own wickedness, when their bodies are dissipated. 24. About the destruction of the good works of the wicked, also that of their own souls, that of their spiritual existences, and that of their material bodies 1. 25. And this, too, that at the time of the renovation of the universe occurs the approach of the wisdom of our sovereignty to that of the best of mankind, and that glory is put on by it through which the destruction of the bad and the development of the good arise; also the sagacity which exists in Vohûman extends to those who are its friends 2.

26. This, too, that there are those who are extenders of the days, and they are beneficial in the country 3; and their custom, where they have arisen, is an opponent of him who is a wrathful person 4. 27. And this, too, that they shall thereupon excite (lâlâ vadîdûnâñd) a brother and sister with mutual desire, so that they shall form a next-of-kin marriage with unanimity; and before midday they generate a sublime radiance, centred in the face, and trembling passion 5, and they make the radiance grow up, openly manifest, to an altitude of the height of three spears of the length of three reeds each 6; and

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after midday they have learnt expulsion (rânakîh) 1, and shall remove the fiend who was before a destroyer. 28. About those who girdle themselves where they shall perform their proper duty, and are thus all-beneficent for being seen.

29. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


284:2 See Chap. XVIII, 1 n; it is here called the 19th fargard by mistake in the MS.

284:3 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 1 a.

284:4 Ibid. 1 b.

285:1 See Bk. VIII, Chaps. XI; 1, XIII, 15.

285:2 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 12.

285:3 A title of Pêshyôtanû, son of king Vistâsp, who remains immortal as chief high-priest of Kangdez, whence he is expected to come to restore the religious rites in Irân and the rest of the world (see Bd. XXIX, 5, Byt. III, 23-32, 36-38, 41, 42, 51, 52).

285:4 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 13.

285:5 Ibid. 14.

285:6 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 3 a, b.

286:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 3 c.

286:2 The use of ô for â sometimes occurs in MSS. from Irân. The word can also be read shavandagîh, 'existence,' but this meaning is less likely.

286:3 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 n.

286:4 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 4 c.

286:5 Ibid. 5 c.

286:6 Ibid. 5 d.

287:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 6 a, b; also Chap. XIX, 1.

287:2 Ibid. 7a, b.

287:3 Ibid. 7 c, where, however, this last word can be read asamînisnŏ, 'unalarming' (asahamînisnŏ in Pt4, Mf4), and the corresponding word in Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 10 b can be read asamisnŏ, 'intrepid;' but, as these meanings are difficult to reconcile with those of the original Av. hithaos, hithãm, it seems more probable that the first syllables asam or asaham, should be read hisam or hisâm, a mere transcript of Av. hithãm.

287:4 Ibid. 8 a.

287:5 Ibid. 8 b.

287:6 Perhaps these two words, rûbâkîh, 'progress,' and rabâîh, 'greatness,' should be alike, but it is doubtful which is correct.

287:7 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 9 b.

287:8 Ibid. 9 c.

288:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 11 c.

288:2 Ibid. 11 d.

288:3 Ibid. 52 a.

288:4 Ibid. 52 d.

288:5 Reading as follows:—lâlâ zerkhûnd rôshanô pavan mîyân rôd bûland navêndakŏ khrôs, but some of the words can be read otherwise, as in S.B.E., vol. xviii, p. 395, or with further variations; and it is doubtful if the verb is to be construed with the words that follow it, contrary to the usual Pahlavi rule, as there is no other trace of Avesta construction in this section. Neither the Avesta, nor the Pahlavi, version of this chapter of the Gâthas makes any allusion to the subjects mentioned in §§ 27, 28.

288:6 It appears from Dd. XLIII, 5 that this total of nine reeds would be about forty-eight human feet of fourteen finger-breadths p. 289 (see Farh. Oîm, p. 41, l. 1), or 10½ inches, each; so that the height here mentioned would be about forty-two English feet.

Next: Chapter XLII