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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


dkar Nask.

1. The twenty-first fargard, Vahistôisti 3, is about where the best prayers 4 of the good religion are: unto Mitrô 5 once every night for dismissing and lessening Wrath in the whole world, and a second time for doing so with Lethargy; a third unto Srôsh 6 the righteous, and the fourth is the Dâhmân Âf7 for further gifts and increasing gifts; and the most

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preservative of them was the Dâhmân Âfn. 2. And this, too, that the most admirable of shapes of women was Hûmâî 1 of the noble family of Vistâsp, of horses the splendid horse of Vistâsp, of oxen the male ox Barmâyûn 2, of sheep the very much celebrated 3 sheep that is fat, white-jawed, and star-spotted, with its upper half in a manufacture (pasakhtakŏ) embroidered with gold and the topmost part yellow; and yet not one of them attains an equality to even a single thousandth part of the glory of a righteous man, a member of the community, by whom the Dâhmân Âfn of the good is uttered. 3. And this, too, as much as its goodness for the man and his wife is its evil for a villain and his paramour 4.

4. About the exercise of sovereignty by Kâî-Ûs 5, with triumph, over the earth of seven regions; the advancement of his commands, by the people of the creation 6, more swiftly than a wave of the hands; the construction of his seven dwellings (mân) 7 in the midst of Albûr’z 8, one of gold, two of silver, two

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of steel, and two of crystal (âvgînakînŏ); the restraining of the many Mâzônîk demons 1 who are the ruin of the world, and confining them to their own duty; the arrival at those dwellings of his, and the swift winding (vâfînîdanŏ) around those dwellings, of a person whose strength is overpowered by decrepitude, and the approach of whose life to departure from the body has taken place; the reduction (khûsânî-hastanŏ) of the decrepitude thereby, and the return of his strength and manhood, that is, a command is given by him thus: 'Keep no people away at the door!' and he might make a domestic of fifteen years of age.

5. Afterwards, the consultation of the demons about the death of Kâî-Ûs, and the coming of Aeshm 2 to Kâî-Ûs, approving his death, and, therefore, making him wretched in his mind about the great sovereignty which was possessed by him over the seven lands, and causing him to long for the sovereignty of the heavenly region (asâmânŏ gâs) of the archangels 3. 6. And, owing to the seductiveness of Aeshm, and the other demons who remained his co-operators for that undoing, Kâî-Ûs was even engaged in opposing and molesting the sacred beings. 7. Also his not returning across Albûr’z, but rushing upwards, with many demons and wicked people, unto the outer edge of darkness 4;

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and the reason of the glory of the Kayâns 1 becoming a figure of clay on that border. 8. The previous separation (madam rêgî-hastanŏ) of Kâî-Ûs from the troops, and his not turning from that ill-advisedness even on renewed strife aloft 2 with the supreme sacred beings. 9. Afterwards, the creator's calling back the glory of the Kayâns to himself, the falling of the troops of Kâî-Ûs to the earth from that height, and the flying of Kâî-Ûs to the wide-formed ocean 3.

10. This, too, it says, that, besides him, some one 4 flew behind him, thus associated with him; and after him flew Nêryôsang 5, the promoter (frêh-dâdâr) of the world, for diverting that person from him. 11. And the cry of him, the unborn Khûsrôî, who was thus associated with him, like that of a regiment (sipâh) a thousand strong, was thus: 'Thou shouldst not smite him, O Nêryôsang, promoter of the world! for if thou shouldst smite this man, O Nêryôsang, promoter of the world! there will not be afterwards obtained, for acquirement, a

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thorough destroyer of the high-priest of Tûrân 1; because owing to this man will be born him whose name is Sîyâvakhsh 2, and owing to Sîyâvakhsh I shall be born, who am the Khûsrôî who will entice the most heroic 3 one of Tûrân—who is mostly the destruction of champions and troops—to the numerous heroes of the religion, so that I may accomplish the destruction of his champions and troops, when 4 I would occasion a distant flight of the sovereign of Tûrân.' 12. Through these words the guardian spirit of Khûsrôî delighted Nêryôsang, the promoter of the world; and, on these words, the latter was releasing him and that Kâî-Ûs who thereby became discreet.

13. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


219:3 The appellation of the fifth Gâtha (Yas. LIII) which begins with the words vahistâ îstis; it is here written vahistôk-îstŏ in Pahlavi.

219:4 The Pahlavi explanation of Av. vahistâ îstis.

219:5 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIV, 16.

219:6 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3.

219:7 'The blessing of members of the community.' The Dahmân Âfrînagân consists of Yas. LX, 2-7 with Âf. I, 14-18; but the Âfn is another formula, otherwise called 'the Âfn of the seven Ameshâspends,' and it is uncertain which of the two is meant here.

220:1 Av. (gen.) Humayau of Yt. XIII, 139.

220:2 See Chap. XXI, 22.

220:3 Reading frêh-ôkhtar (for frêh-ôkhttar), as Bd. XXIV, 3 states that 'the black sheep which is fat and white-jawed is the chief of sheep.' It might be 'the sheep of Frashôkhtar,' and this name might be a miswriting of Frashôstar, but we have no record of any such sheep of his.

220:4 It is easy to trace a connection between §§ 1, 2 and Yas. LIII, 1, and between § 3 and the Pahl. version of Yas. LIII, 6 a.

220:5 Av. Kava Usa (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 13).

220:6 K has 'by demons and men.'

220:7 Probably the origin of the legends of the seven halting-places of Rustam and Isfendiyâr in the Shâhnâmah.

220:8 Here meaning the mountain-range south of the Caspian (see Chap. XX, 3).

221:1 Av. Mâzainya daêva, the idolators of Mâzendarân.

221:2 The demon of wrath (see Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 n).

221:3 §§ 5-9 are evidently a summary of the original form of the legend of Kâvûs's attempt to reach the sky, otherwise described in the Shâhnâmah.

221:4 Where the endless light commences. Reading par-i tom; or it might be 'to the utmost,' if we read frêtum as equivalent to frêhtûm.

222:1 K omits 'of the Kayâns.' It is the royal glory of Yt. XIX, which descended from heaven and accompanies the faithful rulers and champions of the religion, successively (see Chap. XXIV, 3).

222:2 B has 'pitying strife;' khvâparîk being written instead of avarîk.

222:3 Meaning the Caspian, as in Chap. XXI, 17.

222:4 It will be seen, from what follows, that this was the fravashi, or guardian spirit, of his future grandson, Kaî-Khûsrôî. Every being and object belonging to Aûharmazd's creation is supposed to have its spiritual representative, created before the universe and perpetually existing (see Bd. I, 8; Mkh. XLIX, 23).

222:5 Av. Nairyôsangha, an angel who is supposed to be the usual messenger of Aûharmazd to mankind (see Byt. III, 25, 26, 59, 60). K has only 'besides him and behind him flew Nêryôsang.'

223:1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 15.

223:2 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 14.

223:3 A single particular hero appears to be meant, although this is not quite certain.

223:4 Assuming that mûn, 'who,' stands for amat, as in Chap. XIII, 2.

Next: Chapter XXIII