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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Hûspâram Nask.

1. One section of the seven 1 at the end contains particulars about the daily food of a grown-up man, a pregnant woman, her who is childless, and a child, as provided by law; also that of a shepherd's dog, a village dog, and a blood-hound; and the characteristics of these three kinds of dog.

2. About the sign of a person's conversion to the religion. 3. About association of several kinds, and one of them is that of the keepers (padân) with the flocks (ramân), and the flocks in connection with the keepers; and of what kind is the meritoriousness of the keepers of those flocks, as to guardianship of every description; the happy effects of the flock, and those of the keeper, of every description; the advantage from this association, and whatever is on the same subject. 4. One is the association of priestly instructor (radŏ) and pupil 2, and their meritoriousness together; the fame of the priestly instructor for priestly instruction, and that of the disciple (hâvistô) for every kind of learning derived from the priestly instructor, and every kind that the priestly instructor imparts to the pupil; and the happy effects of the priestly instructor, of every kind, in similar matters. 5. One is the association

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of ceremonial priests (rad-pîsakânŏ), the worthiness of a man for the sacerdotal leadership, supplies for the whole of the ceremonial priests, and whatever is on the same subject. 6. About the highest of all associations 1, and about the lawful and virtuous existence of this same association, when there are two men in a case where he who is opulent is always necessary for him who is in innocence, and has given him the wealth that he asks for; or where, when the one shall commit sin, wealth is an affliction to the other; or the ownership, as to that which the one obtains, is as much even that of the other; or, on the passing away of the one, it is mingled with the wealth of the other; and whatever is on the same subject.

7. About the punishment of the sin of him for whom one lies 2 to him by whom provision is made, by thought or by word, and given to him who is worthy. 8. About a father's making a child aware of the sin at the time of the sin. 9. About the sin of taking the course of a false guide and exalting falsehood, and whatever is on the same subject. 10. The sin of extorting supplies for a beast of burden from a lonely labouring person.

11. About important gifts to the worthy, atonement for deprival of food (atapdâdŏ-vigârisnîh) 3, and disbursements (aûrûzdân) of that which is legally, and also of that which is derived from what is legally, property among impoverished (nyûrûzd) supplicants. 12. The depriver of food is he who is for early atonement, and they who severally exist,

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through grazing 1 and bringing forth, are they who severally are also in loss of vitality, through deprival of the food of strength and intellect; even a powerful man is prostrated thereby; the food which is suitable as atonement for deprival of food, and that which is not suitable.

13. About that through which the indispensable creation of a debt arises, and whatever is on the same subject. 14. Where it is the healing of the sick, the spiritual debt is unto the archangel Ashavahis2, and that which is worldly unto the physician's anteroom (dâlânakŏ).

15. About the worthiness of a good physician for every benefit, and the unworthiness of a bad physician for any benefit. 16. About each one of the plants being produced by Aûharmazd for the subjugation of one disease at least. 17. About the protectiveness and preciousness of the profession of medicine; the advantage and reasoning thought of a physician due to the carrying on of his medical practice; the pleasant food, the handsome clothing, and the swift steed for a physician; and his wealth being as much as that of an average man in a house, village, community, or province. 18. About the diligently

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remedial hand of the physician for the sick, opportunely mindful, yet without chastisement.

19. About the sin of a physician through handling (sûdakîh) and having spread a disease by walking up to the sick, because that is when he would have been innocent through not having gone. 20. About a great pestilence (sêgŏ), and that which is trivial.

21. About the fee 1 of a physician for curing a sick person of disease of the whole body, and of each one of the members; even of him who has cured chieftains, both those of the lower grades and him who is the supreme king of kings, and so also various destitute people. 22. About the mode and extent of delivering up fees to a physician, after the declaration of the sick person being well; that is, from whom comes the physician's fee which is announced for the cure, and also that which is not announced; from whom that only which is announced for it, from whom a meal (pishôn-1), and from whom nothing whatever of worldly reward comes.

23. About the physician whom one hears 2 and asks for medical treatment. 24. About a test as to the competency of a physician; that is, how it is to be made, how it is when it is possible to test it, and how it is when it is not possible to test it. 25.

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[paragraph continues] About the sin of a physician who is not tested, and also of him whom it is not possible to test, when he shall undertake the medical treatment of others, and, as regards a limb of any one, there is not anything which is another's test of him, nor even that which is not another's test of him, nor that which is a trial of him.

26. About how long is the duration of having sought a physician in Irân whereafter it is allowable, through not obtaining one, to seek him even from foreigners. 27. The sin of having sought one from foreigners, when one can obtain a physician in Irân. 28. About the fee for a foreign physician, and much else on the same subject. 29. The medical treatment of mankind, and also about the medical treatment of beasts of burden and cattle.

30. About the sin owing to intrusting him who is unfit for a duty. 31. About the greater suitability of a priest than of a disciple for duty and position; a trusty person is also obtaining the important rather than obtaining a desire for the important, and even so far as being a potter rather than an astrologer, and being careful rather than a potter; and the reason of it.

32. About preparing an unauthorised (a-dastôbar) dwelling in the locality of other persons, and whatever is on the same subject. 33. About boundaries where there is a place of residence for people, and whatever is on the same subject. 34. About what description of testimony of one of the good religion is received as evidence regarding an infidel, and of an infidel as regards one of the good religion.

35. About the greatness of eminence of the abode of priestly authorities (radânŏ), both for procedure

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and for petitions 1; the openness of the doors of a priestly authority; the want of eminence of any one through every kind of offence to others, which is owing to his closed doors and evil eminence in every mode; and whatever is on the same subject. 36. About the extent of splendour (lîyânŏ) and pomp-diffusing (vafsh-afgânŏ) tokens from the abode of fires, and the arrangement as regards him who casts the allotted twigs and charcoal (khâr akhgar) into them. 37. About conveying prosperity (padîkhûîh) 2 to the abode of fires appropriately to the capability of every one.

38. About the quality (sâmân) of water oozing out (aîrîdŏ) and that which is flowing in a channel (nâêv-tâk). 39. About the characteristics of specified works which are contiguous in a place between two frontiers (mar’zŏ).

40. About a decision as to a sheep free from unlawful influence—and so also as to one under unlawful influence—which goes to the pasture of others with thievish intention, neglecting its own; and as to that which does so not with thievish intention. 41. About the quantity which one has to provide, in the duration of a day and night, on admitting to pasture and corn, in the case of an ox without defect (anâgânŏ), or of another kind, or a horse, or a sheep, or a goat, or a pig, or an animal of any other kind.

42. About the distance of a residence of mankind from a river flowing in a channel. 43. About the period for letting a sheep graze at pleasure in a pasture, and that for restraining it; the time for not

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cutting trees, and that for little slaughter of sheep. 44. About an article of clothing which is associated with defence, for fear of enemies, and becomes quite a good omen (sukûn) among mankind, being imperceptible and appropriate. 45. About a tree with stem uprooted, where and how it is allowable.

46. About a leader's causing a march of whatever kind, the people being in motion through fear, and they drive the sheep which are with the army on account of molestation; also making the sheep decide as to the pasture near to the road within reach, the pasturing of the first of the species of sheep, and letting them forth to pasture in succession unto the last, and the reason of it.

47. About a person who is of note 1 on account of wealth, and whatever is on the same subject. 48. About this intermixture of with-the-stream and against-the-stream, with banks and without banks, and waters running and down-pouring (nîyâpân), on the road; that is, which of the waters, running or down-pouring, is to be earlier reverenced by him who is returning from the road, and the reason of it. 49. About the subordination of the disciple unto the priest, as to eating, drinking, and plenty, goodness and preciousness; and whatever is on the same subject.

50. About that which occurs when foreigners come to the frontier of Irân, and shall do damage to Irân; and the frontier governors and fellow-champions have to repel the foreigners by fighting, to save the Irânian people and property which were

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to be made foreign; and whatever is on the same subject.

51. About the advantage of punishing a violent thief by the members of the assembly, that owing to reliance upon the actions and convictions of the ancients, that owing to forming many priestly assemblies, that owing to providing a disciple for a priest, that through passing away after being high-priest, that through doing so without being high-priest, and that of much information on similar statements prior to any other resources.

52. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


114:1 It is doubtful whether seven sections are meant, or whether we should read 'the seven Fargards at the end of one section.' See, however, Chap. XXXVI, 1 n.

114:2 Pahl. radûnê (Av. ratunaya).

115:1 That of disinterested and devoted friendship, as appears from the examples given.

115:2 By falsely recommending him as a worthy object of charity.

115:3 See Chap. XVII, 6 n.

116:1 Reading karisnŏ, but part of the first letter has been cut off by the repairer of the MS. The semi-starvation of cattle is being referred to.

116:2 The personification of 'perfect righteousness' (Av. ashavahista) whose special duty is stated to be the care of fire (see Sls. XV, 5, 12, 13), and whose name, often written Ardavahist or Ardavahist in Pahlavi, is applied to the second month and third day of the month in the Parsi year (see Chap. XX, 22). He is here connected with the healing of the sick, because of his association with Airyaman, the smiter of diseases (see Vend. XXII, Yt. III, Sîr. I, II, 3).

117:1 In Vend. VII, 36-44 (W.) we have some of the old Avesta laws regarding medical men and their fees. How far the Avesta text of this section of the Hûspâram Nask corresponded with that of the Vendîdâd on the same subject it is impossible to determine, because we have always to recollect that this summary of the contents of the Nasks was compiled from their Pahlavi versions (see Chap. I, 3) which included extensive commentaries, adapting the original Avesta statements to the altered circumstances of Sasanian times.

117:2 Or 'satisfies' (shnâyêdŏ).

119:1 These six words should, perhaps, be appended to the next clause of the sentence.

119:2 By providing fuel and other necessaries.

120:1 Reading mûn sakhûnag. Another guess would be min nîsôn-î (for nîsân-î), in which case the translation would be 'a person free from indications relating to wealth.'

Next: Chapter XXXVIII