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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Ganabâ-sar-nigad Nask.

1. One section of the next twelve is the Pasûs-haûrvastân ('shepherd's-dog code'), about the shepherd who is selecting a shepherd's dog for the sheep, and the shepherd with various shepherd's dogs; about the shepherd's comprehension of their serviceableness, one with the other, and whatever is on the same subject. 2. The extent of authorised efficiency (salît-gârîkîh) accomplished by the shepherd's-dog nature of a shepherd's dog, after his being appointed by the shepherd.

3. About the shepherd's preparing the means of bedding 1 for the shepherd's dog, giving the amount of the price of the daily food of a shepherd's dog, provisions for the dog in the winter, and the preparation of a fire beforehand which it is necessary to make in the sheepfold (pâh-hastŏ). 4. About the mode of preparing the appointed fireplace of the sheepfold, the position of the shepherd's dog and the dog's fire, the means of lodging and provisioning the shepherd's dog in the sheepfold, the sin owing to the occasions when one proceeds to provide another mode, and whatever is on the same subject.

5. About the diligence of the shepherd's dog, and about his being guardian of the sheep asleep at night

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in flocks 1 dreading distress; the dog, their protection, is not provided with bedding, nor with pillow, and they are happy; every night he has to come out, through the whole flock, three times, besides when one of the guards (padânŏ), who is apprehensive, counts them, who, every day at dawn, has to walk out among the sheep, with good words, to inspect them, to apply remedies properly to the sheep that are sick, wounded, bruised, or defective, and to be their guardian; also the sin owing to worrying them, and whatever is on the same subject. 6. About that which is to be done by him as regards the breeding of the sheep, and likewise for the sake of the young ones; and the sin when he does not do it, or shall act otherwise. 7. About his fully understanding where and which is the sheep for each young one. 8. About his habit and means of keeping away the thief and the wolf from the sheep, and the preservation of the sheep thereby when an awful cloud and wind and rain arise, or when the position of those distressed ones, at the fords of rivers, comes opposite a locality (nisisno) of bad footing; when it is not possible for him to save all, he has to save the greater in value, or the more in number.

9. About his having guarded a sheep from the pasture of others and the retribution for the, sin of not having guarded as to the eating and damaging of the corn and pasture of others by the sheep. 10. About the extent of preservation by the shepherd's dog's driving the sheep from the corn and pasture of others of various species, such as that which one calls the very stupid (gôltar) pig; there is, moreover,

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the specified pasture as regards those sheep, but the pig, which feeds upon its own predecessors, is also that which may commit another sin, for it feeds upon even its progeny at birth.

11. About the indication of an assembly place (garang) for the sheep, in a warm or cool locality, by the shepherd's dog. 12. About the characteristics of sheep from one to four years of age. 13. About the village (vîs) of the shepherd, where the shepherd's dog is known when he arrives; how it is when a sheep has to be kept out of the sheepfold by the shepherd's dog, and how it is when it has to be driven by him to the village of the heedful shepherd. 14. About the coming of the shepherd unto a sheep, and the path from the village which the shepherd has provided for 1 the flock.

15. About a shepherd when he withholds the daily food of a shepherd's dog, and the exhaustion of life thereby; after the fourth deprival of food (atapak-dâdŏ) 2 it is allowable for the shepherd's dog to kill a sheep for nourishment. 16. About a sheep, which comes astray into the flock to be slaughtered, being the perquisite of the butcher (bâhar-î kûstâr), and that of the shepherd's dog being its dog 3 and the appointed number of one sheep. 17. About their extent of movement, and their pregnancy and growing old (bâr va-khasân). 18. About the sin of the shepherd, as regards the shepherd's dog, through injustice as to work,

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reward, and chastisement; and of the shepherd's dog, as regards the shepherd, through improperly tending a sheep, or worrying it by exertion; also his chastisement, and the payment that occurs for the incompetence and unworthiness therein; besides adjudications between the shepherd and shepherd's dog.

19. About the instruction which the shepherd gives to the shepherd's dog, through reminders (pavan ayâdîhâ), to control a sheep, when, the shepherd's dog having heard some musical notes (srûdŏ gâsânŏ), the instruction took place in the form of words; and, when the notes were not heard, even by a blow (zatam), the means of that instructor being a blow. 20. About the peculiarity of the shepherd's dog as regards its employment (rôgkâr) at the periods of satisfying menstrual excitement, solemnizing the season-festivals, and other important good works.


81:1 Or covering, 'gâmakŏ.'

82:1 Pâz. pasîvãn for pasûvãn (pl. of pasu).

83:1 Assuming that valman stands for val.

83:2 See Chap. XVII, 6.

83:3 The dog who allowed the sheep to stray being thus punished, by becoming the prey of the dog into whose flock the sheep strayed, who also receives a sheep as his share of the butchering.

Next: Chapter XXIV