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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Nîkâdûm Nask.

1. The second section is the Zatamistân ('assault code'), particulars about assault (zatam) and the annoyances (vêshîgânŏ) from assault, such as pain, blood, and unconsciousness; also the sin 1 that a man may commit in a state of unconsciousness. 2. About the seven kinds of symptoms of unconsciousness, and separate decisions about assaults that adults may commit among those who are children; also as regards an assault which proceeds to pain and blood, and as regards that in which the duration of the disposition of wrath abates the pain and blood.

3. About begging (khvahîsnŏ) and beneficence (hû-dahîsnŏ) 2, such as those of which one says in particular there are four species: when stinginess (pûsîh) benefits pride (pîkŏ), when pride benefits stinginess, when stinginess benefits stinginess, and when pride benefits pride; and there are three other species that originate from these last two, in consultation together, when stinginess and pride benefit stinginess and pride, when stinginess and pride benefit stinginess, and when stinginess and pride benefit pride, all which, together, constitute the seven primary species; many others, too, are traced back to these. 4. Also about seeing the depravity (khang

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danŏ) of a perverting member of the community (kastâr dâhm) and of the perverter of a member of the community, and whatever is on the same subject.

5. About a weapon seizable, and a weapon one brings, there is this, namely, what is the thing which is imperfect (anaspôrîk) as a weapon, what is that which is not, and what is that which is welcome as a weapon; what is that which, when any one forces it back at any one as a weapon, is itself something annoying to him; what is his natural annoyance and what his imparted; and the penalty in property and difference of sentence on a man who is carrying a weapon, due to any weapon he has to carry away.

6. About the six modes of engaging in conflict: through assault, tumult (khvasisnŏ) 1, false teaching (mîtôk-sâstô) 2, giving no food (atapdâdŏ) 3, speaking with wizard's spells 4, and speaking with threats of danger 5; and, where there is an engaging

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in conflict, it then occurs when one has stood up for beginning it and the assault is committed, on one by the other, and not before. 7. And this, too, that engaging in conflict occurs as regards adult with adult, childless women with childless women, pregnant women with pregnant women, and children of seven years with children of seven years—but, as regards children of seven years in sight of their fathers, it becomes an engaging in conflict of the fathers—and the decision about it is this, that the atonement for every sin which may be committed through engaging in conflict goes to the priestly authorities.

8. About the affliction of a pure lord who sees any one who has been useless (abûn) unto his slave, though the slave is beseeching, and does not contend for his ownership. 9. About sin affecting accusers 1 not being atoned for by any other good work, except unto the accuser himself; also about the slaying of a servant together with his lord, and whatever is on the same subject.

To. About slaying by untaught children of seven years, or even of eight years in sight of their fathers; and the criminality of the fathers therein, when it is possible for them to hinder it and they do not hinder it, and when it is not possible for them to hinder it.


39:1 Involuntary violations of the ceremonial law.

39:2 The terms used in this section are not quite certain.

40:1 Pers. ‘hasîs. Farh. Oîm, p. 34, ll. 6-8, has 'Av. vâiti = Pahl. khvasisnŏ is that when one runs behind any one for offensiveness.'

40:2 Farh. Oîm, p. 35, ll. 1-4, has 'Av. mithôsâst and its explanation "false teaching" are that when one teaches a false way to any one; even when he unaccustomedly shows it rightly to any one, it is a committal of Mithôsâst by him.'

40:3 Compare Pers. tabah, tô, tôî. Farh. Oîm, p. 38, ll. 2-4, has 'Ataftdâd is that when one keeps back food and drink, whereby there is hunger and thirst.' It is worthy of death (see Chap. XX, 97).

40:4 Farh. Oîm, p. 34, ll. 3-5, has 'Av. yâtukhta, through wizard's spells (yâtûk-gôbisnîhâ), is that when one shall speak thus: "I will destroy thee through witchcraft;" when one says "through the spirits’ lack of good religion" it is of the same kind.'

40:5 Farh. Oîm, p. 34, ll. 5, 6, has 'Av. dudhuwi buzda, threats of danger (saham-numâyisnîh), is that when one speaks thus: "I will strike with worldly weapons."'

41:1 A sin which injures another person, or any good creation, who must be satisfied by compensation before the sin can be remitted.

Next: Chapter XVIII