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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. The Baris 4 contains particulars about the invigorating power, truth, and generosity of the many

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capabilities of instinctive and acquired wisdom. 2. And also the ill-advisedness of falsity, stinginess 1, and ignorance; and the many defects which are fraternizing with the opponent of capabilities. 3. The blessing and cursing, the good will and ill-will of the good ritual and evil ritual, the good statements and evil statements of Vohûman, Spendarmad, Srôsh, Aharîsvang 2, and many other sacred beings, and of evil thought, lust, wrath, unrighteousness 3, and many other demons; and whatever is on the same subject.

4. The destiny, nature, desire, religion, habit, learning, business, and diligence of the period, and whatever is on the same subject, as regards sovereignty, government, priestly authority, justice, and mediation. 5. The union, peace, and promise-keeping, and whatever is on the same subject. 6. The law and custom, good works and sin, good repute and evil repute, righteousness and wickedness, and whatever is on the same subject. 7. The modesty and pomp, glory and penance (srôshîkîh) 4, and whatever is on the same subject. 8. The connection

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through ownership, subordination, service, and religion, and whatever is on the same subject. 9. The suitability and unsuitability, friendship and enmity, and whatever is on the same subject. 10. The handsomeness and ugliness, youth and decrepitude, opulence and destitution, happiness and misery, and whatever is on the same subject. 11. The strength in races and species of things, and whatever is on the same subject. 12. The learning, solving of questions, complete virtue, and whatever is on the same subject. 13. The hunger 1 and thirst, and their remedy, and whatever is on the same subject. 14. The delirium and death, and their expediency, and whatever is on the same subject. 15. The primitive state and tendency of things, precedence and sequence, and whatever is on the same subject. 16. The acceptableness and unacceptableness, gratification and afflictiveness 2, and whatever is on the same subject. 17. The mightiness (takîkîh), loquacity, sociality, and whatever is on the same subject. 18. The understanding and mind; the body and soul; the heaven, hell, and future existence; and whatever is on the same subject. 19. The omniscience of the creator Aûharmazd, and all goodness of like motive, the life and glory of a righteous man, and whatever is on the same subject 3.

20. And many other arrangements of the creator, through propagation of statements, preparation of sovereignty, maintenance of the body, and preservation

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of the soul; a statement adapted to that which one mentions thus: 'Truly-spoken statements are the Baris, Kaskîsrôbô, and Vistâsp-sâstô.'

21. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.


20:4 Corresponding to the eighth word, hakâ, in the Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the ninth Nask in other Rivâyats. Baris, or Barîs, means 'splendid, sublime;' and the Rivâyats state that it contained originally sixty kardah, or subdivisions, of which only twelve were recovered after the time of Alexander.

21:1s, the demon of misers in Bd. XXVIII, 28.

21:2 These four angels are personifications of Av. vohû manô, 'good thought,' spenta ârmaitis, 'bountiful devotion,' sraoshô, 'the obedient one,' and ashis vanguhi, 'good rectitude.'

21:3 These four demoniacal propensities are here mentioned as the opponents of the foregoing four angels. Akômanô and Aeshm, the first and third, are the recognised opponents of Vohûman and Srôsh, respectively (see Bd. XXX, 29). Varenô, the second, is considered a demon (see Bd. XXVIII, 25), and is mentioned in the Dinkard, book VI, as opposing the angel Ard or Aharîsvang (see Dd. XCIV, 2); here he evidently opposes another female angel, Spendarmad, while Aharîsvang or Ashi is opposed by her simple negation, Anâhar.

21:4 Av. sraoshya, see Pahl. Vend. XIII, 9.

22:1 Supposing that sûkŏ stands for sûd.

22:2 Reading bêshînîdârîh which is more probable than the bêshâzînîdârîh, 'curativeness,' of the MS.

22:3 All the details in §§ 5-19 are to be read in connection with 'the period' mentioned in § 4.

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