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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. The Pâgag 2 contains particulars about lawfully slaughtering a sheep, for the ceremonial of fires, waters, and holy-water, in aid of a season-festival 3 of the Mazda-worshippers; besides this, namely, in what are the skill, and the means for selection, of a man for such work, and the formula (nîrang) of the ceremony. 2. And this, namely, from which limb of the sheep species is the

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share of the fires and waters to be taken 1, and how is the preparation which is to be carried on, and with what Avesta. 3. And whatever is about a season-festival; where the appointed place is, when one celebrates it, and when it has fully elapsed; the assembly of the season-festival, and the donation for the feast; where and when the celebration is possible, in what proportion the provisions are to be given out, and when to be prepared and divided; where its advantage is, and what benefit there is from it to the good creations both spiritually and materially.

4. And this, namely, what skill is more suitable for the sacerdotal (rad-pîsag) leadership and other priestly authority (radîh) each separately. 5. About the business of the sacerdotal leadership, where it is owing to having appointed the place and having gone forth to the assembly of the Mazda-worshippers, and when they are to be made aware that that assembly is more particularly for the arrangement of renunciation of vice and retribution for sin; the needful supply of things for the feast; the selection of the men for the Zôti duty and Râspî duty before the day 2; the Zôtis, Râspîs, and others who put in action the work for the preparation and giving of the portions; and the cleansing of the body-clothing. 6. As to the selection of the president (pês-gâs) of the feast there is this, namely, what ability is requisite for that presidentship. 7. The allotment of the portions, and giving them sooner to those who are sooner in need of them. 8. Scoffing before

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priestly authorities, who are great and good, and when they do not give a portion to the authorities are cases when the season-festivals are not to be considered as celebrated. 9. This, too, that the Zôtis and Râspîs are for the Zôti duty and Râspî duty, and the other priestly authorities for the control of sin and computation (âvâr) of the portions; and more on the same subject.

10. About the rotation of the day-watches (gâs), days, months, and seasons of the year—which are when it is summer and winter—and the appearances (sahîsnŏ) therein which are owing to the motion of the constellations 1. 11. Where the coming of the righteous guardian spirits (fravâhar) into the worldly existence occurs, in those ten days which are the end of the winter and termination of the year, because the five Gâthic days 2, among them, are for that purpose; the cessation of that same, as well as its continuance. 12. The great needfulness of the guardian spirits of the righteous in the ceremonial and obeisance of those ten days, and their abundant gratification therefrom; their vexation from

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want of welcome and want of obeisance; and their ascent from the worldly existences. 13. The extreme importance (frêvŏânîkîh) of liberality and bounty at that season; and the proper duty of the priestly authority of a district (shatrô) in assisting and interceding for the poor, for the sake of teaching, from the days devoted to the guardian spirits, proper actions among those having guardian spit its.

14. About the period for taking medicinal plants, and whatever is on the same subject. 15. About where there is a household, village, communal, or provincial petitioning for the royal chastisement of sins affecting the soul, each separately; and for whom is the atonement. 16. About the advantage owing to disposal of sin and infliction of chastisement, and the harm owing to not disposing of sin and neglecting the chastisement inflicted.

17. About the first thirty-three chieftainships (radîh), around and concealed; that is, which and how many are spiritual, and how many worldly; and which is the second, and which the third, of the spiritual and worldly existences. 18. About the admirableness and great meritoriousness of public observances, and the awfulness and grievous sinfulness of apostasy. 19. And also this, that is, when any one is doubtful, through apostasy, which is the law from the sacred beings in elucidation, and which of the sacred beings is to be entreated for assistance. 20. About this, namely, for which of the women the bringing of a handful of anything, from the property of her husband, to be given away is allowable, in what proportion, and how, and for whom; and for whom, when she gives it away, it is allowable for the husband to bring it back.

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21. About this, namely, when summer comes on, where does winter run to; and when winter comes on, where does summer go to? 22. About the amount of disaster 1 that has passed by in one century, and the duration of its passing; everything which is connected with the disaster, and whatever is on the same subject. 23. Where and how many months are of such a kind 2 and how many of such a kind 2; as well as the religious names of the twelve months, and the reason of the name of each one of them, that is, to which of the sacred beings, in the ceremonial, each one of these twelve months is predominantly appertaining; so also of the thirty days which are in every month, and so also of the five Gâthas in every year—that is, the five Gâthic days at the end of the year 3—all the sacred beings to whom they are appertaining, and when the righteous guardian spirits (ardâî fravardŏ) are reverenced.

24. Righteousness is perfect excellence.


15:2 Corresponding to the sixth word, ashâd, in the Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the seventh Nask in other Rivâyats. Pâgag probably means 'cooking,' with reference to the preparations for the sacred feasts; it is called Pâgam, Pâkam, or Pâzûn in the Rivâyats, which also state that it contained twenty-two kardah, or subdivisions.

15:3 The six Gâhanbârs or season-festivals are held on the five days ending, respectively, with the 45th, 105th, 180th, 210th, 290th, and 365th days of the Parsi year (see Sls. XVIII, 3 n).

16:1 The heart for the fires, and the fore-legs for the waters, according to Sls. XI, 4.

16:2 The Zôti is the chief officiating priest in the ceremonial, and the Râspî is the assistant priest.

17:1 That is, the apparent motions of the akhtarân, or signs of the zodiac.

17:2 The five supplementary days, named after the five Gâthas, which are added to the twelfth month of thirty days to complete the 365 days of the year. They are also called fravardîkân, or 'those devoted to the Fravards,' or Fravashis, the guardian spirits, or prototypes, of created beings, who are supposed to revisit their old haunts on earth during those days. The last five days of the twelfth month are also considered a part of the same festival of ten days, which would have terminated at the vernal equinox, as indicated in the text, about A.D. 1000 if the ordinary receding calendar of the Irânian Parsis were used; but it seems probable, from Bd. XXV, that the calendar in those times was fixed for the new year to begin at the vernal equinox.

19:1 Pâz. vôighn.

19:2 Reading hamgûn in both places; but the two words may be hamînô, 'summer,' and khamînô, 'wet weather.'

19:3 The five supplementary days mentioned in § 11.

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