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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. Other information about the existence of the competitor, similarly testified by the Dînkard 2 manuscript (nipîk), is here well noted for you. 2. For both this which is written above and that which is written here are all grown from the seed which the glorified Âtûr-pâdîyâvand sowed, (3) and from the original thanksgiving (spâs) of the supremely learned Âtûr-frôbag, son of Farukh-zâd, himself.

4. The fourth 3 subject, which is from the Dînkard, is about the existence of an opponent of the creatures and of an opponent earlier than the creatures, and is from the exposition of the good religion 4.

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5. That is, a knowledge of the existence of an opponent of the creatures is obtainable from the innermost recesses of the body of man even to the outermost objects of which 1 sight is susceptible, (6) and beyond those, within the certain limits of analogy. 7. The innermost recesses of man are the innermost of life, (8) and are seen through complete observation, within the same limits.

9. This is, as ignorance is to erudition, (10) deceit to good disposition, (11) and falsehood to truth, (12) other defects of the capabilities which are the source of erudition, good disposition, and truth are the opponent, (13) and the cause of the wickedness of the soul. 14. Again, these irregularities of the rules of arrangement of the body, within the compass of the body, are the opponent, and the cause of the disintegration of the body. 15. Again, as to these among the emanations, cold is the opponent of heat, dryness is of moisture, and the other doers of mischief are opponents of the operations of existence.

16. Within time darkness is the opponent of light, stench of perfume, ugliness of handsomeness, unsavouriness of savouriness, poison of its antidote, noxious creatures and the wolf of the well-yielding cattle, and the vile felon (mar) of the good man. 17. Beyond time the brigand planets (gadûgân) 2 are the opponents of the work of the divine bestowers.

18. Beyond the knowledge obtainable of all these

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champions susceptible to sight, are those who are within the limits of analogy 1 and the certain information of multitudes, the demons who are the opponents of the sacred beings.

19. The existence of an opponent before the creation of the creatures, and his coming to the creatures (20) after, the creation of the creatures, and also to the creator, are presented comprehensibly through reasons which are suitable 2 and presentable, and through the provision of a remedy, a creation which is for a purpose. 21. This one statement (vâkak) possesses five arguments (sâmân). 22. One is the being presented comprehensibly. 23. One is the being presented through reasons. 24. One is the reasons which are presentable and suitable that the creation existed. 25. One is the remedy appointed for the creation. 26. And one is the creation of the creatures of the creator for a purpose.

27. The existence of these five arguments is manifest through the creations and achievements themselves. 28. The presenting comprehensibly is wisely arranging the testimony of the effect 3 of the creatures, (29) through the reasons presented, which are a declaration owing to the same sagacity. 30. The reason obtainable, that the creation existed, (31) with the arrangement of the creation so methodically, ought to arise from the suitable state of the

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creation; (32) and the suitable design of the creation itself possesses the testimony, through its appearance. 33. The remedy appointed is a comprehensible and presentable demonstrator, (34) because it becomes a desire of knowledge and an appearance of the desire. 35. The being created for a purpose is manifest through the desire of activity of the creation, both severally and naturally.

36. The evidences of the existence of an opponent before the creation of the creatures are many. 37. And one of them is the suitable state of the creation of the creatures, (38) because the limit of suitability is not well fitted for anything except necessity. (39) That which is inferred from suitability is necessity, from necessity haste, and from haste the existence of an opponent who is before the suitable work which is the creation.

40. The evidence of the coming of the destroyer to the creatures, after the creation of the creatures, is the formation of the means of the creator, for encountering an opponent, before the arrival of the opponent, (41) which are omnisciently a provision before creation by the creator. 42. And there is a demonstrator of these same means of the creatures that is prepared, which is the struggling opposed to the opponent through the arrangement of their nature. 43. One duty of the nature of the creatures is the subduing of so much vexation. 44. Their preparation, too, is like a contest that is forming an enemy opposing the opponent, (45) and their natural desire for duty is removing all haste.


162:2 See Chap. IV, 106, 107 for the names in these §§ 1, 2.

162:3 Assuming that Pâz. ardium (Sans. balishtho me) is a misreading of Pahl. arbâûm. The first subject (see Chap: II, 1) consisted of the three questions of Mitrô-aîyyâr discussed in Chaps. II-IV. The second subject, about the existence of God, is contained in Chaps. V, VI. And the third subject, about the existence of an evil spirit competing with the creator, is debated in Chaps. VII, VIII.

162:4 The third book of the Dînkard, which treats of a multitude of subjects 'from the exposition of the good religion,' does not appear p. 163 to contain the materials for this chapter. The author is, therefore, probably alluding to one of the two earlier books which have not yet been discovered.

163:1 Assuming that Pâz. andâ ne (for be) thûm-i vas (Sans. yâvat bîgam asya) stands for Pahl. vad barâtûm-î agas.

163:2 See Chap. IV, 10.

164:1 Referring to the two kinds of evidence, direct and indirect, mentioned in §§ 5, 6.

164:2 So in § 24 and in Sans., though Pâz. has 'obtainable' here.

164:3 Assuming that the Pâz. awar dugâê of AK stands for Pahl. bar gôkâs (or gôkâsîh). MH19 has duvâê, and PB3, JE have dusâê, while Sans. means 'about the magnitude.'

Next: Chapter X