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1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'How and in what manner has Aûharmazd created these creatures and creation? 3. And how and in what manner were the archangels and the spirit of wisdom formed and created by him? 4. And how are the demons and fiends [and also the remaining corrupted ones2 of Aharman, the wicked, miscreated? [5. How do every good and evil happen which occur to mankind and also the remaining creatures?] 6. And is it possible to alter anything which is destined, or not?'

7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus: 'The creator, Aûharmazd, produced these creatures and creation, the archangels and the spirit of wisdom from that which is his own splendour, and with the blessing of unlimited time (zôrvân). 9. For this reason, because unlimited time is undecaying and immortal, painless and hungerless, thirstless and undisturbed; and for ever and everlasting no one is able to seize upon it, or to make it non-predominant as regards his own affairs.

10. 'And Aharman, the wicked, miscreated the (demons and fiends, and also the remaining corrupted

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ones 1, by his own unnatural intercourse. 11. A treaty of nine thousand winters 2 in unlimited time (damân) was also made by him with Aûharmazd; (12) and, until it has become fully completed, no one is able to alter it and to act otherwise. 13. And when the nine thousand years have become completed, Aharman is quite impotent; (14) and Srôsh 3, the righteous, will smite Aeshm 3, (15) and Mitrô 4 and unlimited time and the spirit of justice 5, who deceives no one in anything, and destiny and divine providence 6 will smite the creatures and creation of Aharman of every kind, and, in the end, even Âzŏ 7, the demon. 16. And every creature and creation of Aûharmazd becomes again as undisturbed as those which were produced and created by him in the beginning.

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17. 'Every good and the reverse 1 which happen to mankind, and also the other creatures, happen through the seven planets and the twelve constellations 2. 18. And those twelve constellations are such as in revelation are 3 the twelve chieftains who are on the side of Aûharmazd, (19) and those seven planets are called the seven chieftains who are on the side of Aharman. 20. Those seven planets pervert every creature and creation, and deliver them up to death and every evil. 21. And, as it were, those twelve constellations and seven planets 4 are organizing and managing the world.

22. 'Aûharmazd is wishing good, and never approves nor contemplates evil. 23. Aharman is wishing evil, and does not meditate nor approve anything good whatever. 24. Aûharmazd, when he wishes it, is able to alter as regards the creatures of Aharman and Aharman, too, it is, who, when [he wishes] 5 it, can do so as regards the creatures of Aûharmazd, (25) but he is only able to alter so that in the final effect there may be no injury of Aûharmazd, (26) because the final victory is Aûharmazd's own. 27. For it is declared, that "the Yim 6 and

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[paragraph continues] Frêdûn 1 and Kâî-Ûs 2 of Aûharmazd are created immortal, (28) and Aharman so altered them as is known. 29. And Aharman so contemplated that Bêvarâsp 3 and Frâsîyâk 4 and Alexander 5 should be immortal, (30) but Aûharmazd, for great advantage, so altered them as that which is declared."'


32:2 K43 omits the phrase in brackets, as well as § 5; but these passages are supplied from L19, merely substituting yahidakân, 'corrupted ones,' as in § 10, for the vashûdagã, 'miscreations,' of L19.

33:1 Reading yahidakân, but it may be yâtukân, 'wizards,' though the word requires an additional long vowel to represent either term correctly. L19 has vashûdagã, 'miscreations.'

33:2 According to the Bundahis, time consists of twelve thousand years (see Bd. XXXIV, 1). In the beginning Aûharmazd created the spiritual prototypes (Bd. I, 8) who remained undisturbed for the first three thousand years, when Aharman appeared and agreed to a conflict for the remaining nine thousand years (Bd. I, 18), during the first three of which Aûharmazd's will was undisputed, while during the next three Aharman is active in interference, and during the last three his influence will diminish till, in the end, it will disappear (Bd. I, 20). The nine thousand years of the conflict were supposed to extend from about B.C. 5400 to A.D. 3600 (see Byt. III, 11 n, 44 n).

33:3 See Chap. II, 115.

33:4 See Chap. II, 118.

33:5 Probably the angel Rashnû (see Chap. II, 118, 119).

33:6 Assuming that the vâgô-bakhtô of K43 is equivalent to the baghô-bakht, 'divine appointment,' of L19.

33:7 Av. âzi of Yas. XVII, 46, LXVII, 22, Vend. XVIII, 45, 50, Âstâd Yt. 1, âzu of Yas. LII, 7, and the demon of 'greediness' in Chap. II, 13, 14, XVIII, 5, &c., Bd. XXVIII, 27, and modern Persian, who seems to be a being distinct from Av. azi, 'serpent.'

34:1 L19 has 'evil.'

34:2 The zodiacal signs.

34:3 L19 has 'are called in revelation.' The authority, here quoted, was not the Bundahis, because that book speaks of seven chieftains of the constellations opposed to the seven planets (see Bd. V, 1).

34:4 L19 omits 'and seven planets,' but has a blank space at this place in both texts, Pâzand and Sanskrit.

34:5 K43 omits the words in brackets, which may, perhaps, be superfluous in the Pahlavi text.

34:6 Av. Yima or Yima khshaêta of Vend. II, the Jamshêd of the Shâhnâmah, some of whose deeds are mentioned in Chap. XXVII, 24-33, Yas. IX, 13-20. He was the third of the Pêsd dynasty, and is said to have been perverted by Aharman in his old p. 35 age, when he lost the royal glory (see Dd. XXXIX, 16, 17), and was overthrown by the foreign dynasty of Az-î Dahâk.

35:1 Av. Thraêtaona, who conquered Az-î Dahâk (see Chap. XXVII, 38-40, Yas. IX, 24-27). He was misled by Aharman into dividing his empire between his three sons, two of whom revolted and slew the third (see Chaps. XXI, 25, XXVII, 42).

35:2 Av. Kava Usan or Kavi Usadhan, the Kaî-Kâvûs of the Shâhnâmah, misread Kahôs in Pâzand. He was the second monarch of the Kayân dynasty, and made an unsuccessful attempt to reach heaven, mentioned in Bd. XXXIV, 7, to which he may be supposed to have been instigated by Aharman, but he was also unfortunate in many other enterprises.

35:3 A title of Az-î Dahâk in the Shâhnâmah, literally, 'with a myriad horses.' This king, or dynasty, is said to have conquered Yim and reigned for a thousand years, but was overthrown by Frêdûn. In the Avesta (Yas. IX, 25, Âbân Yt. 34, Âf. Zarat. 3) Az-î Dahâk, 'the destructive serpent,' is described as hazangrayaokhsti, 'with a thousand perceptions,' a term analogous to baêvare-spasana, 'with a myriad glances,' which is usually applied to Mithra, the angel of the sun. From this latter, if used for the former, bêvarâsp might easily be corrupted.

35:4 Av. Frangrasyan, the Afrâsiyâb of the Shâhnâmah, a Tûrânian king who conquered the Irânians for twelve years during the reign of Mânûskîhar (see Bd. XXXIV, 6).

35:5 Alexander the Great, misread Arasangar by Nêr.

Next: Chapter IX