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1. The twenty-ninth question is that which you ask thus: The third night, in the light of dawn, what is the reason for consecrating separately the three sacred cakes 4 with three dedications (shnûman)?

2. The reply is this, that one sacred cake, whose dedication is to Rashnû and Âsd 5, is for  6 satisfying

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the light of dawn and the period of Atûshahîn 1, because the mountain Aûshdâstâr 2 is mentioned in the propitiation of the angel Âsd. 3. With Âsd is the propitiation of the period of Aûshahîn 3, and she is the ruler of glory 4 of that time when the account occurs; the souls are in the light of the dawn of Aûshahîn when they go to the account; their passage (vidâr) is through the bright dawn.

4. One sacred cake, which is in propitiation of the good Vâê 5, is, moreover, on this account: whereas the bad Vâê 6 is a despoiler and destroyer, even so the good Vâê is a resister (kûkhshîdâr), and likewise encountering the bad Vâê; he is also a diminisher (vizûdâr) of his abstraction of life,

p. 63

and a receiver and protection of life, on account of the sacred cake 1.


61:4 The drôn, or sacred cake, is a small flexible pancake which is consecrated in the ceremonies, and dedicated to some particular spirit by means of the shnûman, or propitiatory dedication (see Sls. III, 32).

61:5 See Sls. XVII, 4. These two angels are supposed to be present when the soul renders its account; Rashnû weighs its actions in his golden balance, and Âsd assists it (see AV. V, 3, 5),

61:6 Reading râî, instead of lâ,' not.'

62:1 One of the five periods of the day and night, extending from midnight until the stars disappear in the dawn, or, as some say, until all the fixed stars disappear except four of the first magnitude (see Bd. XXV, 9, Sls. XIV, 4-6).

62:2 Called Ushi-darena in the Avesta, and identified with some mountain in Sagastân in Bd. XII, 15. It is mentioned in the dedicatory formula of Âsd (see Sir. 26), and its name is evidently here supposed to mean 'the holder of dawn,' an appropriate term for a lofty mountain to the eastward.

62:3 Both Rashnû and Âsd are blessed in the prayers appointed for the Aûshahîn period of the day.

62:4 The 'glory of the Aryans' is lauded in the Âsd Yost.

62:5 The spirit of air, or angel Râm, who receives and protects the good soul on its way to the other world (see Chap XXVIII, 2, 5).

62:6 Identified with Astô-vîdâd, the demon of death,. in Bd. XXVIII, 35, but Pahl. Vend. V, 25, 31 makes him a separate demon, who conveys away the bound soul, which would identify him with the demon Vîzarêsh of Vend. XIX, 94, Bd. XXVIII, 18. There is very little doubt, however, that the Pahlavi translator of Vend. V misunderstood the Avesta, which merely says that 'Astô-vîdhôtu binds him, Vayô conveys him bound,' referring probably to the good Vâê who receives the parting soul; and Pahl. Vend. V, 31 admits that this was the opinion of some.

63:1 Nothing is here said about the third sacred cake, but Sls. XVII, 4 states that this is to be dedicated to the righteous guardian spirit (see Chap. XXVIII, 7).

Next: Chapter XXXI