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Pahlavi Texts, Part I (SBE05), E.W. West, tr. [1880], at


1. On the kindred of Pôrûshasp 7, son of Paîtirâsp 8, son of Aurvadasp 9, son of Hâêkadâsp 10, son of

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[paragraph continues] Kakhshnûs 1, son of Pâîtîrasp, son of Hardars2, son of Hardâr 3, son of Spîtâmân 4, son of Vîdas5, son of Ayazem, son of Ragan 6, son of Dûrâsrôb 7, son of Mânûskîhar 8. 2. As Paîtirâsp had two sons, one Pôrûshasp and one Ârâsti 9, by Pôrûshasp was Zaratûst begotten for a sanctuary of good religion 10, and by Ârâsti was Mêdyôk-mâh 11 begotten. 3. Zaratûst, when he brought the religion, first celebrated

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worship 1 and expounded in Aîrân-vêg, and Mêdyôk-mâh received the religion from him. 4. The Môbads 2 of Pârs are all traced back to this race of Mânûskîhar.

5. Again, I say, by Zaratûs3 were begotten three sons and three daughters 4; one son was Isadvâstar 5, one Aûrvatad-nar 6, and one Khûrshêd-kîhar 7; as Isadvâstar was chief of the priests he became the Môbad of Môbads, and passed away in the hundredth year of the religion; Aûrvatad-nar was an agriculturist, and the chief of the enclosure formed by Yim 8, which is below the earth; Khûrshêd-kîhar was a warrior, commander of the army of Pêshyôtanû, son of Vistâsp, and dwells in Kangdez 8; and of the three daughters the name of one was Frên, of one Srît, and of one Pôrukîst 9. 6. Aûrvatad-nar and Khûrshêd-kîhar were from a serving (kakar) wife 10, the rest were from a privileged (pâdakhshah) wife.

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[paragraph continues]1. By Isadvâstar was begotten a son whose name was Ururvig2, and they call him Arang-i Bîrâdân 3 ('fore-arm of brothers') for this reason, that, as they

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were from a serving wife, she then delivered them over to Isadvâstar through adoption. 8. This, too, one knows, that three sons of Zaratûst, namely, Hûshêdar, Hûshêdar-mâh 1, and Sôshyans 2, were from Hvôv 3; as it says, that Zaratûst went near unto Hvôv three times, and each time the seed went to the ground; the angel Nêryôsang 4 received the brilliance and strength of that seed, delivered it with care to the angel Anâhîd 5, and in time will blend it with a mother. 9. Nine thousand, nine hundred, and ninety-nine, and nine myriads 6 of the guardian spirits of the righteous are intrusted with its protection, so that the demons may not injure it 7.

10. The name of the mother of Zaratûst was Dughdâ 8, and the name of the father of the mother, of Zaratûst was Frahimravâ 9.


140:6 This chapter, which is numbered XXXIII, by previous translators, is found in all MSS., but in TD it forms a continuation of the preceding chapter, beginning with the name Pôrûshasp.

140:7 Av. Pourushaspa of Yas. IX, 42, 43, Vend. XIX, 15, 22, 143, Âbân Yt. 18, &c.

140:8 K20 has Pâz. Spitarsp, and M6 has Pâz. Piruasp (see note on Chap. XXXIII, 1). The reading in the text is doubtful.

140:9 Omitted in K20 and TD.

140:10 Av. Haêkadaspa of Yas. XLI, 15, LII, 3.

141:1 Windischmann suggests Av. Kâkhshnôis (gen.) of Fravardîn Yt. 114.

141:2 K20 has Pâz. Harsn and TD has Harakîdârsnŏ.

141:3 TD has Harâîdâr, or Arâîdâr.

141:4 Or Spîtâm (as the last syllable is the patronymical suffix), Av. Spitâma, the usual patronymic of Zaratûst.

141:5 May be read Vâdist in TD.

141:6 Possibly the same person as Râk in Chap. XXXI, 31; but see XXXIII, 3.

141:7 So in TD, but Pâz. Durâsrun in K20, M6.

141:8 This genealogy is somewhat differently given in the Vagarkard-i Dînîk (pp. 28, 29), as published in Bombay by Dastur Peshotanji Behramji Sanjânâ in 1848; and is extended back, through the generations mentioned in Chap. XXXI, 1, 2, 7, 14, to Gâyômard, as follows: 'Pôrûshâspô son of Paîtîrâsp, and Arâspô son of Paîtîrâsp, Urvandasp, Haêkadasp, Kikhshnus, Paêtirasp, Hardrsn, Haridâr, Spîtâmânŏ, Vaêdist, Nayâzem, Ragisn, Dûrâsrôb, Mânûskîhar sovereign of Iran, Mânus-khûrnar, Mânus-khûrnâk, Nêryôsang, Varzîd-dîn, Vîzak, Airyak, Aithritak, Ibitak, Frazîsak, Zisak, Frasizak, Izak, Aîrîk, Frêdûn lord of Khvanîras, Pûr-tôrâ the Âspîkân, Nêvak-tôrâ the Âspîkân, Sôg-tôrâ the Âspîkân, Gêfar-tôrâ the Âspîkân, Vanô-i-fravisn the Âspîkân, Yim lord of the seven regions, Vîvanghâû, Ayanghad, Ananghad, Takhmôrup, Hôshâng the Pêsd, lord of the seven regions, Fravâk, Sîyâmak, Mashyô whose wife was Mashyãk, Gâyôkmard the first man, and father of all mankind in the material world.'

141:9 Av. Âkrâstaya of Fravardîn Yt. 95; TD has Ârâstih.

141:10 The Pâzand words dargâ hidainis appear to be merely a misreading of Pahl. dargâs-i hûdînôîh.

141:11 Av. Maidhyô-maungha of Yas. L, 19, Fravardîn Yt. 95, 106. He is said to have been Zaratûst's first disciple.

142:1 Reading frâg yast; but it may be frâg gast, 'wandered forth.'

142:2 The class of priests whose special duty is to perform all religious rites and ceremonies.

142:3 This paragraph is quoted, with a few alterations, in the Vagarkard-i Dînîk, pp. 21-23.

142:4 K20 omits the 'three daughters' here, by mistake.

142:5 Av. Isad-vâstra of Yas. XXIII, 4, XXVI, 17, Fravardîn Yt. 98.

142:6 Av. Urvatad-nara of Vend. II, 143, Fravardîn Yt. 98. K20 and A16 have Aûrvartad-nar, and TD has Aûrvâtad-nar.

142:7 Av. Hvare-kithra of Fravardîn Yt. 98; TD has Khûr-kîhar.

142:8 See Chap. XXIX, 5. Windischmann and Justi consider the clause about Pêshyôtanû as inserted by mistake, and it is omitted in the Vagarkard-i Dînîk (p. 21); it is found, however, in all MSS. of the Bundahis.

142:9 These daughters are the Av. Freni, Thriti, and Pouru-kista of Fravardîn Yt. 139; the last is also mentioned in Yas. LII, 3.

142:10 The following is a summary of the Persian descriptions of the five kinds of marriage, as given in the Rivâyats:—

A pâdshâh ('ruling, or privileged') wife is when a man marries, p. 143 with the parents' consent, an unbetrothed maiden out of a family, and she and her children remain his in both worlds.

A yûkan or ayûk ('only child') wife is an only child, married with the parents’ consent, and her first child belongs to them; after its birth she becomes a pâdshâh wife. She is entitled to one-third of her parents' property for giving up the child.

A satar ('adopted') wife is when a man over fifteen years of age dies childless and unmarried, and his relatives provide a maiden with a dowry, and marry her to another man; when half her children belong to, the dead man, and half to the living, and she herself is the dead man's wife in the other world.

A kakar or kâkar ('serving') wife is a widow who marries again; if she had no children by her first husband she is acting as a satar wife, and half her children by her second husband belong to her first one; and she herself, in any case, belongs to her first husband in the other world.

A khûd-sarâî or khûd-sarâî ('self-disposing') wife is one who marries without her parents’ consent; she inherits no property from her parents until her eldest son has given her as a pâdshâh wife to his father.

143:1 Instead of this sentence the Vagarkard-i Dînîk (pp. 21, 22) has the following, which appears to rest upon a misinterpretation of the text:—

'And Zaratûst the righteous had three wives; all three were in the lifetime of Zaratûst, and all three wives were living throughout the lifetime of Zaratûst; the name of one was Hvôv, of the second Urvig, of the third Arnig-baredâ. And from Urvig, who was a privileged wife, four children were born; one was the son Isadvâstar, and the three daughters, namely, Frên, Srîtak, and Pôrukist; these four were from Urvig. And from the wife Arnig-baredâ two sons were born, one Aûrvart-nar, and the second Khûrshêd-kîhar; and Arnig-baredâ was a serving wife, and the name of the former husband of Arnig-baredâ was Mitrô-ayâr. And from Hvôv, who was a privileged wife, were three sons, namely, Hûshêdar, Hûshêdar-mâh, and Sôshâns, as it says,' &c. (as in § 8).

143:2 TD has Pahl. Aûrvarvîgak or Khûrûrûpak.

143:3 So in TD.

144:1 Av. Ukhshyad-ereta and Ukhshyad-nemangh of Fravardîn Yt. 128.

144:2 Av. Saoshyãs of Vend. XIX, 18, Fravardîn Yt. 129, &c. See Chaps. XI, 6, XXIX, 6, XXX, 3, 4, 7, 17, 25, 27.

144:3 Av. Hvôvi of Fravardîn Yt. 139, Dîn Yt. 15; the Pahlavi form of the name, as given once in TD, is Hûvâôbŏ.

144:4 See Chap. XV, 1.

144:5 Av. anâhita of Âbân Yt. 1, &c.; a female personification of 'unsullied' water, known generally by the epithet ardvî sûra (the Arêdvîvsûr of Chap. XIII), and whose name is also applied to the planet Venus (see Chap. V, 1).

144:6 So in M6; other MSS. have '9,999 myriads,' but see Fravardîn Yt. 62.

144:7 This last phrase, about the demons, is omitted in TD and the Vagarkard-i Dînîk.

144:8 The Avesta word for 'daughter.'

144:9 TD has Pâz. Fereâhimruvânâ.

Next: Chapter XXXIII