Sacred Texts  Zoroastrianism  Index  Previous  Next 
Buy this Book at

Pahlavi Texts, Part I (SBE05), E.W. West, tr. [1880], at


1. On the nature of the earth it says in revelation, that there are thirty and three kinds 3 of land. 2. On the day when Tîstar produced the rain, when its seas arose therefrom, the whole place, half taken up by water, was converted into seven portions; this portion 4, as much as one-half, is the middle, and six portions are around; those six portions are together as much as Khvanîras. 3. The name

p. 33

kêshvar ('zone or region') is also applied to them, and they existed side by side (kash kash) 1; as on the east side of this portion (Khvanîras) is the Savah region, on the west is the Arzah region; the two portions on the south side are the Fradadafsh and Vîdadafsh regions, the two portions on the north side are the Vôrûbarst and Vôrûgarst regions, and that in the middle is Khvanîras. 4. And Khvanîras has the sea, for one part of the wide-formed ocean wound about around it; and from Vôrûbarst and Vôrûgarst a lofty mountain grew up; so that it is not possible for any one to go from region to region 2.

5. And of these seven regions every benefit was created most in Khvanîras, and the evil spirit also produced most for Khvanîras, on account of the superiority (sarîh) 3 which he saw in it. 6. For the Kayânians and heroes were created in Khvanîras; and the good religion of the Mazdayasnians was created in Khvanîras, and afterwards conveyed to the other regions; Sôshyans 4 is born in Khvanîras, who makes the evil spirit impotent, and causes the resurrection and future existence.


32:3 K20b has 'thirty-two kinds.'

32:4 That is, Khvanîras; or it may be 'one portion,' as hanâ, 'this,' is often used for aê, 'one,' because the Pâzand form of both words is e.

33:1 Possibly an attempt to connect the term kêshvar with kash; but the sentence may also be translated thus: 'and they formed various districts like this portion; on the east side is the Savah region,' &c.

33:2 In the Pahlavi Vend. I, 4a, and in the Mainyô-i-khard, IX, 6, it is added, 'except with the permission of the angels' or the demons.

33:3 So in M6; but K20 has zadârîh, which would imply, 'for the destruction of what he saw of it.'

33:4 Always spelt so in the Bundahis MSS. K20 and M6, and corrupted into Sôshyôs in Pâzand; but it is more usually written Sôshâns in other Pahlavi works, and its Avesta form is Saoshyãs (see Chap. XXXII, 8).

Next: Chapter XII