More primitive than the worship of the gods under anthropomorphic form is the custom of reverencing this or that deity in baetylic or aniconic shape, a habit of religious cult for which there is ample evidence in the writings and monuments of the Greeks. This evidence, however, usually indicates such worship only in very early times, showing that it gave place here and there to a more highly developed stage, that of iconic symbolism, but there are examples of this primitive conception of deity in late times. Conspicuous among these survivals is the worship of Cybele under the form of the Black Stone of Pessinus in Phrygia. By order of the Sibylline books the cult was transplanted to Rome, in 204 B.C., as a means of driving Hannibal out of Italy. 65
Apollonius 66 represents the Amazons engaged in ritual exactly similar to that of Pessinus--venerating a black stone placed on an altar in an open temple situated on an island off the coast of Colchis. The character of the worship which he depicts makes it probable that he drew his information on this point from an early source, especially since we learn from Diodorus 67 that the Amazons paid marked honour to the Mother of the Gods, consecrating to her the island of Samothrace, setting up her altars there, and performing magnificent
sacrifices. At any rate, the two passages substantiate the fact that the Amazons were votaries of the Mother, who was known both as Rhea and as Cybele.
One story 68 told that Scamander introduced the rites of the Cretan Mother into Phrygia, and that they were firmly established at Pessinus on the Sangarius as a chief centre, where the goddess received from the mountain ridge overhanging the city the well-known name, Dindymene; 69 another account 70 had it that the home of Phrygian Cybele's worship was in Samothrace, whence Dardanus brought the cult to Phrygia; an attempt to rationalise the two legends developed the tale 71 that Corybas of Samothrace, son of Demeter and Jasion, introduced the rites of his mother into Phrygia, and that his successors, the Corybantes of Mount Ida in the Troad, passed over to the Cretan mountain of the same name, in order to educate the infant Zeus. In the minds of the various writers of antiquity to whom we are indebted for all that we know about orgiastic cults there is such confusion that we are left in ignorance of accurate details which would serve to distinguish sharply one cult from another.
We are informed on several points, however, concerning the worship of Cybele, the Great Mother of Phrygia, considered apart from other cults similar in character and expression. Her worship at Pessinus in particular is most important to an inquiry concerning the Amazons, because there, attested by history, was the same baetylic form of the goddess under which the Amazons were said to have venerated her. Roman writers naturally, after the Black Stone had been set up in their city, were moved by interest and curiosity to examine the legends connected with the cult, and so it
happens that to these sources we owe many facts, often gleaned from the poets of the early Empire who looked with disgust on the great vogue of this orgiastic cult in their day. Cybele of Pessinus was served by eunuch priests called Galli. 72 This office of priesthood, which was considered very honourable, seems to have commemorated the devotion of Atys to the goddess. Fortunately we have a record 73 of the peculiar form which the legend of Atys assumed at Pessinus. Here he was regarded as the son of a maiden by the fruit of an almond-tree, which sprang from the bi-sexual Agdistis. Agdistis 74 loved him and made him her paredros and Gallus. From the same source, Pausanias, we learn the Lydian variant of the story. 75 In this he is called the son of Calaüs of Phrygia. He established the orgies of the Mother in Lydia, in connection with which he was so loved by the goddess that Zeus in jealousy sent a wild boar into the fields of Lydia, which killed Atys. Both versions show that the youth held in Cybele's mysteries a position similar to that of Adonis with Aphrodite and of Osiris with Isis, 76 but it seems to have been the peculiar characteristic of the cult of Cybele that her companion was a Gallus. The fact which stands out conspicuously in all the records of the Pessinuntian rites is the service of effeminate priests, 77 who apparently represent him. In this there is
probably a clue to the connection between Cretan Rhea and Phrygian Cybele, for in the two sets of cult legends there is frequent mention of the Dactyli, who belong both to Cretan and Trojan Ida. 78 Their evident association with metallurgy recalls the iron sickle produced by Gaea and given to Cronus to accomplish the overthrow of Uranus. 79
The underlying idea in the cult of Cybele seems to have been that of an earth-goddess of fertility in man, beast, and field. Her worship was accompanied by the sound of crashing drums and cymbals, the music of the pipe, and the voices of frenzied votaries. Of her inspiration came a form of holy madness, which endowed the worshipper with a sense of mystic ecstasy and supernatural strength. The best extant description of the rites is that given by Lucretius, 80 which, although it is marred by the allegorising tendency of the poet's thought, conveys an excellent impression of the tumultuous festival. The most awe-inspiring detail of the ceremonies is that beneath the joy of the throng's self-surrender to the deity there is a terrific undertone like that of the muttering drums. The fervour of rejoicing may in a moment become the curse of irresistible madness sent by the Mother. It is a presage of the mourning in the Atys of Catullus: 81
Dea Magna, Dea Cybele, Dindymi Dea, Domina,
Procul a mea tuus sit furor omnis, hera, domo:
Alios age incitatos: alios age rabidos!"
Ancient notices speak of other priests of Cybele, less important than the Galli. These were the Cybebi and Metragyrtae, 82 mendicant friars, whose machinations at Rome were scorned by Juvenal. 83
In the cult legends the Galli of history are probably represented by the Corybantes, about whom there is much confusion. At times they seem to belong only to Cybele's rites, at other times they are completely identified with the Curetes. Probably the tales of Corybantes and Curetes preserve the record of primitive armed dances of religious character, in honour of Phrygian Cybele and Cretan Rhea respectively. As the two deities are essentially the same, 84 so the hoplite attendants of the one are practically the same as those of the other. As each cult assumed local individuality, the myths concerning the Corybantes would gradually appear to be quite distinct from those about the Curetes. Naturally, only an initiate in the mysteries attached to either cult would possess accurate information on details, and his lips would be inevitably sealed on all important points, so that posterity must be content to remain puzzled by remarks like this of Pausanias: 85 "In lineage the Corybantes are different from the Curetes, but, although I know the truth about both, I pass it over." Unfortunately certain writings by Epimenides 86 which might have proved highly satisfactory to modern
inquiry have perished. In the actual ceremonies performed at Cybele's shrines the original warlike character 87 was almost lost in the mystic frenzy which found expression in noisy shouting and self-affliction, but it is doubtless to be traced in the measured beating of drums, the clashing of cymbals, and the music of the pipe, which set the rhythm for the ecstatic motions of the worshippers. It was expressed also in the political and warlike aspect of the goddess thus adored. 88 The Cretan legends told that the Phrygian Corybantes were summoned to the island, where by beating their shields with their swords they drowned the cries of the new-born Zeus from the ears of his jealous father, and so originated the Pyrrhic dance in which the later Curetes honoured Rhea, by moving to and fro in measured time, nodding their crested helmets, and striking their shields. 89
The Curetes are, moreover, confounded with the Dactyli, who are usually given as five in number,--Heracles, Paeonius, Epimedes, Jasion, and Idas, 90--the metallurgists of Cretan and
Trojan Ida, also with the mysterious Ἄνακτες παῖδες, who are either the Dioscuri or the Cabiri. 91 Idas is the name, not only of a Curete, but likewise of one of the Messenian rivals and counterparts of the Spartan Διόσκουροι; 92 Jasion is the name of the mortal whom Demeter loved in Crete, 93 and who with her belongs to the mysteries of Samothrace; the Dactyl Heracles, whom Pausanias 94 carefully distinguishes from Alcmena's son, is by this writer 95 very cleverly identified with the deity of this name worshipped at Erythrae in Ionia, at Tyre, and even at Mycalessus in Boeotia. The Cabiri, being confounded with the Dactyli, are brought into close relation to the Curetes. On the other hand, they are confused with the Corybantes through Corybas, son of Jasion and Demeter, who was said to have introduced his mother's worship into Phrygia from Samothrace. 96
Of the Cabiric mysteries very little can be said with certainty, except that Demeter was here revered as the mother of Plutus by Jasion. Herodotus, 97 himself an initiate, believes the mysteries of Samothrace to be of Pelasgic origin. He hints at a connection between these rites and the Pelasgians' introducing herms at Athens. Furthermore, he describes 98 the type under which the Cabiri were portrayed in plastic art, that of a pygmy man, precisely like the pataïci, or grotesque figure-heads which the Phoenician triremes carried. Excavations at the Cabirium in Thebes have yielded a unique class of vases which confirm his statement. 99 Their chief interest,
apart from the peculiarities of technique, is in the frank caricature shown in the painted figures. The scenes are chiefly Dionysiac in character, from which it is to be inferred that the Theban Cabirus was a form of Dionysus, but this hardly agrees with the words of Pausanias, 100 who uses the plural number of the Cabiri at Thebes. He says that he is not at liberty to reveal anything about them, nor about the acts which were performed there in honour of the Mother, that he can only say that there was once a city on this spot, that there were certain men called Cabiri, among whom were Prometheus and his son, Aetnaeus, and that the mysteries were given by Demeter to the Cabiri. This account favours Welcker's theory 101 that the Cabiri were the "Burners." In this capacity they would approach closely to the Dactyli. But they are not for this reason necessarily divorced from companionship with Dionysus, whom Pindar 102 calls the paredros of Demeter: Χαλκοκρότου πάρεδρον Δημήτερος. The epithet Χαλκοκρότου shows the intimate bond between Demeter and the Mother of the Gods. 103 Dionysus is placed naturally at the side of the former, since his worship, in cult and in legend, is to be classed with that of the Great Mother of Phrygia, Rhea's double. 104 Demeter is indeed, the Earth-Mother of Greece, on whose cult ideas were grafted which
belonged to the ceremonial of the Mother in Phrygia and Lydia. 105
So it is not strange that the Samothracian goddess closely approximates the form of Cybele, and that we find the Amazons consecrating this island to the Mother of the Gods. 106 But there is room for much conjecture concerning the meaning of the connection between the Amazons and the deity of Samothrace. 107 It is probable that there is some bearing on this in the legend of the settlement of Samothrace recorded by Pausanias. 108 This tells that the people of Samos, driven out by Androclus and the Ephesians, fled to this island, and named it Samothrace in place of the older name, Dardania. The charge which Androclus had brought against the Samian exiles was that they had joined the Carians in plotting against the Ionians. It would appear then that these colonists of Samothrace were bound by strong ties, probably of blood, to the pre-Ionic population of Ephesus and its environs, by whom the shrine of Ephesian Artemis was founded, a shrine indissolubly connected with the Amazon tradition. 109 With these facts must be considered the opinion of Herodotus that the Samothracian mysteries were of Pelasgian origin.
In Samothrace there were also Corybantic rites of Hecate.
These were performed in the Zerynthian cave, 110 from which Apollo and Artemis derived an epithet. 111 The sacrifice of dogs to Hecate held a prominent place in these mysteries. This sacrificial rite is so infrequent in Greek religion that it commands special attention wherever it is found. The Corybantic rites of Samothrace show that Hecate of this place was closely akin to the goddess of the same name, who was worshipped with Zeus Panamerius at Lagina in Caria, the chief centre of her cult in Asia Minor. 112 Strabo 113 classes her cult as Phrygian-Thracian. Farnell 114 comments on the close connection between Artemis Pheraea of Thessaly and this Hecate and suggests Thrace as the home of the cult. Some supporting evidence for this opinion may be obtained by comparing with the statement that dogs were offered to Hecate in Samothrace a remark of Sextus Empiricus, 115 that the Thracians used this animal for food.
In Lemnos there were similar Corybantic rites in honour of Bendis, who is thus brought into relationship with Samothracian Cybele and her reflex Hecate, as well as with Cretan Rhea. 116 This "Great Goddess" of Lemnos is Thracian Bendis, the fierce huntress of the two spears and the double worship, "of the heavens and of the earth," who received human sacrifice in her own country. 117 She entered the Greek pantheon as Thracian Artemis, closely allied to Cybele and Hecate. She has a counterpart in Φωσφόρος, from whom the Thracian Bosphorus was named, a goddess in whose rites the torch has a conspicuous place. 118
Thus a long list may be made out of female deities who show the general characteristics of Phrygian Cybele: the Lydian Mother, Cybebe or Cybele; Rhea of Crete; Hecate of Samothrace and Lagina; Bendis of Thrace and Lemnos; Cappadocian Mâ; 119 Britomartis, or Dictynna, of Crete, who is Aphaea at Aegina; 120 the Syrian goddess of Hierapolis; 121 several forms of Artemis,--of the Tauric Chersonese, of Brauron, of Laodicea 122 of Ephesus, 123 Artemis-Aphrodite of Persia. 124 The conception common to all these is that of a nature-goddess, whose rites are orgiastic, and whose protection, as that of a woman-warrior, is claimed for the state. It is probably correct to assume that Artemis Tauropolos, to whom Diodorus 125 says that the Amazons offered sacrifice, is a form of Cybele, presumably Tauric Artemis. Therefore this name should be added to the list. It deserves special prominence, because the Amazons are shown to have been her votaries. In connection with Aphrodite, who, like Artemis, although less frequently, was identified with the Mother, Arnobius 126 relates that in a frenzy of devotion to this deity the daughter of a Gallus cut off her breasts, a story strikingly reminiscent of the tradition of single-breasted Amazons, and also suggestive of the fact
that there were Galli in certain forms of Aphrodite's worship. 127
The cult of Cybele seems to have been an indigenous religion in Phrygia and Lydia, 128 duplicated in almost all its essential details by that of Cretan Rhea. Since the Cretan rites of the Mother, in all probability, belonged originally to the Eteocretan population of the island, a non-Hellenic folk apparently, who seem to have been akin to the Asiatic folk not far away, 129 Rhea-Cybele may fairly be regarded as the deity of a common stock in Crete, Phrygia, and Lydia. From the circumstance that the double-axe is a religious symbol which occurs frequently wherever there are remains of the pre-Hellenic, or "Minoan," civilisation of Crete and of that thence derived, the "Mycenaean," and from the fact that in historic times this appears as the regular symbol of various forms of the Asiatic Mother, 130 there is ground for the inference that the stock with whom the worship of Rhea-Cybele was deeply rooted was that which predominated in Crete and the other lands where the same brilliant culture flourished before the rise of the Hellenic states. It is to be noted that the battle-axe of the Amazons is this very weapon, but the point may not be pressed in this context. Herodotus, 131 it has been seen, asserted out of his knowledge as an initiate, that the mysteries of Samothrace were of Pelasgic origin. He undoubtedly conceived of the Pelasgians as a non-Hellenic race who preceded the Hellenes in the occupation of Greece, and therefore we must interpret his remarks about the Cabiria as meaning that these rites were
instituted by a pre-Hellenic people. 132 It is tempting to identify this people with the pre-Ionic inhabitants of Samos, who, according to Pausanias, 133 settled Samothrace. Thus the worshippers of Cybele in Samothrace would be shown to be akin to the stock who honoured her in Crete, 134 Lydia, and Phrygia.
This Mother, whose worship was widely spread under her own name and many others, was revered by the Amazons in the primitive baetylic form of the rites of Pessinus; as Mother of the Gods in Samothrace, where she was identified both with Cabiric Demeter and with Hecate; as Artemis Tauropolos, or the Tauric Virgin, who was probably a goddess of the Thracians. 135
17:65 Livy, 29. 10, 11.
17:66 Apollon. Argon. 2. 1172-1177. Because of its resemblance to the Black Stone of Pessinus, it seems impossible to interpret the stone mentioned by Apollonius otherwise than as the symbol of Cybele, although it was placed in a temple of Ares. For the view that it represented Ares v. H. de La Ville do Mirmont, La Mythologie et les Dieux dans les Argonautiques et dans l'Énéide, Paris, 1894, p. 569. V. infra, n. 346.
17:67 Diod. Sic. 3. 55.
18:68 Apollod. 3. 12; Diod. Sic. 4.
18:69 Strabo, 10. pp. 469, 472; 12. p. 567. Cf. Hor. Carm. 1. 16, 5; Catull. Atys, 63.
18:70 Diod. Sic. 5. 64.
18:71 Hyg. Poet. 2. 4.
19:72 Strabo, 10. pp. 469, 572; 12. p. 567; 14. pp. 640-641; Diod. Sic. 3. 58; Mar. Par. ap. C. Müller, Fr. 1. 544; Ovid, Fasti, 1. 237, 363; Plin. N. H. 5. 147; 11. 261; 31. 9; 35. 165; Catull. Atys. Cf. Anthol. Pal. 7. 217-220.
19:73 Paus. 7. 17, 10-12.
19:74 Strabo (12. p. 567) says that Cretan Rhea received the name Agdistis at Pessinus, and that on Mt. Agdistis near this city the tomb of Atys was shown. Cf. Paus. 1. 4, 5.
19:75 Paus. 7. 17, 9-10.
19:76 For a complete treatise on Atys cf. Frazer, Attis, Adonis: Osiris, in Golden Bough, Part 4.
19:77 The idea was revolting to the Greeks. Cf. Herod. 3. 48; 8. 105; Aristot. Polit. 5. 8, 12. The practice was common among the Phrygians and other Asiatics of ancient times. With Herod. S. 105 cf. Soph. Fr. from Troilus ap. Pollux, 10. 165. As a religious detail it belonged to the rites of Artemis at p. 20 Ephesus, to those of Zeus and Hecate at Lagina in Caria, to those of Aphrodite at Bambyce, or Hierapolis, in Syria. In each of these instances the deity partakes in some measure of the characteristics of Cybele. Cf. Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, 2. pp. 506 ff., p. 590.
20:78 Hesiod. Theog. 161; Schol. Ap. Rh. 1129 (quoting Phoronis); Strabo, 10. p. 472.
20:79 The story of the overthrow of Uranus belongs to the Hesiodic theogony (Hes. Theog. 160, 182). It has a counterpart in the later Orphic theogony, in the story of the overthrow of Cronus by Zeus. Both myths centre about the Dictaean Cave in Crete. The worship of Dictaean Zeus seems to have belonged to the Eteocretans (Strabo, 10. p. 478).
20:80 Lucr. De Rerum Natura, 2. 600-640.
20:81 Catull. Atys, ad finem.
21:82 Photius and Suidas s.v. μητραγύρτης. These priests find a strikingly exact counterpart in the howling dervishes of Mohammedanism. In fact, many close parallels to the worship of the Great Mother may be met in the Orient to-day. The word Cybebus is evidently the masculine form of the name of the goddess, given by Herodotus as Κυβήβη (Herod. 5. 102).
21:83 Juv. Sat. 6. 512 ff.
21:84 The two deities were so completely blended into one that even in early Greek writings it was needless to discriminate between them. Cf. the complete identification of Rhea with Cybele in the Homeric Hymn to the Mother of the Gods (14).
21:85 Paus. 8. 37, 6.
21:86 The Κουρήτων and Κοβυβάντων γένεσις of Epimenides, referred to in Strabo, 10. p. 474, and Diog. Laert. 1. 10.
22:87 In the course of excavations at Palaikastro in Crete a hymn of the Curetes was discovered, which is dated about 300 B.C. The hymn is discussed in three papers, British School Annual, 15 (1908-09): (1) Miss J. E. Harrison (pp. 308-338), "The Kouretes and Zeus Kouros: A Study in Pre-historic Sociology"; (2) R. C. Bosanquet (pp. 339-356), Text of the Hymn and certain religious aspects, "The Cult of Diktaean Zeus" and "The Cult of the Kouretes"; (3) Gilbert Murray (pp. 356-365), Restored Text, Translation, and Commentary. Miss Harrison's study is under these headings: "1. The Kouretes as Δαίμονες and Πρόπολοι; 2. The Kouretes as Magicians, as Μάντεις and Metallurgists; 3. The Kouretes as armed Ὀρχηστῆρες; 4. The Kouretes as Φύλακες andΠαιδοτρόφοι; 5. Zagreus and the Thunder-Rites; 6. The Kouros as Year-God; 7. The Kouretes as Ὀργιοφάνται." The three articles form a very valuable contribution to the study of orgiastic cults and kindred subjects.
22:88 Farnell speaks with certainty (op. cit. 2. p. 306) of the primitive warlike character of Cybele.
22:89 Hesiod. Theog. 452, 487; Apollod. 1. 1, 6. The Orphic theogony connects the shouts of the Curetes and the clashing of their shields with the story of the overthrow of Cronus by Zeus. Cf. Lobeck, Aglaoph. p. 519; Hermann, Orphica, 6. p. 456.
22:90 Paus. 5. 7, 6. The scholiast on the passage says that they were ten in number. Paus. gives the same names for the five, 5. 14, 7.
23:91 Paus. 10. 38, 7.
23:92 On Idas and Lynceus cf. Pind. Nem. 10. 55-90; Paus. 4. 3, 1.
23:93 Hes. Theog. 970; Verg. Aen. 3. 168.
23:94 Paus. 5. 7, 6; 5. 14, 9.
23:95 Paus. 9. 27, 6-8.
23:96 Diod. Sic. 5. 154; Hes. Theog. 970.
23:97 Herod. 2. 51.
23:98 Herod. 3. 37.
23:99 Cf. Journ. Hellen. Studies, 13. pl. 4; Athenische Mitteilungen (1888), pl. 9-12.
24:100 Paus. 9. 25, 5-6.
24:101 Welcker, Aeschyl. Trilogie, pp. 161-211. He connects the word with καίειν.
24:102 Pindar, Isth. 6. 3.
24:103 Cf. Homeric Hymn, 14. 3-4.
24:104 On the Phrygian character of the music used in the worship of Dionysus, cf. Aristot. Polit. 8. 7, 9. Euripides in the Bacchae completely identifies the rites of Dionysus with the Phrygian worship of the Mother. Cf. especially lines 58 ff. Euripides in the Helena, 1320 ff., assigns to Demeter all the attributes of Rhea. Apollodorus tells (3. 5, 1) that Dionysus, driven mad by Hera, was cured by Rhea at Cybela in Phrygia, and that he received from her woman's attire.
25:105 On the worship of Cybele in Lydia cf. Herod. 5. 102; Paus. 7. 17, 9-10. An epitaph by Callimachus (Epigram. 42, p. 308, ed. Ernst) illustrates the general resemblance of one orgiastic cult to another. This tells of a priestess who had served Demeter of Eleusis, the Cabiri, and, finally, Cybele. Cf. also the history of the Metroüm at Athens, which was in earlier times a temple of Eleusinian Demeter (Arrian, A. O; Hesych. s.v. Εὑδάνεμος; Dion. Hal. Dein. 11. p. 658, 3), but served later as temple of the Mother of the Gods, of whom Phidias, or Agoracritus, made the statue with tympanum and lions as attributes (Arrian, Peripl. 9; Paus. 1. 3, 5; Plin. N. H. 36. 17; Aesch. 1. 60; Diog. Laert. 6. 2, 3; Epistol. Gr. p. 239; Photius and Suidas s. v. μητραγύρτης.
25:106 Diod. Sic. 3. 55.
25:107 Kern holds (Arch. Anz. 1893, p. 130) that in the statement of Diodorus there is no proved connection between the Amazons and the mysteries of Samothrace.
25:108 Paus. 7. 4, 3.
25:109 Cf. ch. III on Ephesian Artemis.
26:110 Schol. Aristoph. Pax, 276.
26:111 Ovid, Trist. 1, el. 9. 19; Liv. 38. 41.
26:112 V. supra, n. .
26:113 Strabo, p. 473. Cf. rites of Artemis-Hecate, Orph. Argon. 905.
26:114 Farnell, op. cit. 2. pp. 504 ff.
26:115 Sext. Empir. (Bekker), 174.
26:116 Strabo, p. 466: ὤστε καὶ τὰ ἱερὰ τρόπον τινὰ κοινοποιεῖσθαι ταῦτά τε (referring to the Corybantic rites Of Crete) καὶ τῶν Σαμοθρᾴκων καὶ τὰ ἐν Λήμνῳ.
26:117 Hesych. s.v. Δίλογχος.
26:118 Schol. Plato, Republic, 327. Cf. Mommsen, Heort. p. 488.
27:119 An inscription from Byzantium (Mordtmann u. Déthier, Epig. v. Byz. Taf. 6-8) reads: Μηρτὶ Θεῶν Μᾶ Cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Μάσταυρα; Strabo, pp. 535, 537; Paus. 3. 16, 8; Dio Cass. 36B. Cf. article by J. H. Wright, Harv. Studies in Class. Philol. 6. 64, on the worship of Mâ; Μήν.
27:120 Paus. 2. 30, 3.
27:121 Pseudo-Lucian, De Dea Syria. The torch belonged to her festival (op. cit. 49).
27:122 Pausanias (3. 16, 8) identifies Artemis Taurica, Artemis Brauronia, and the goddess of Laodicea in Syria. He also says that the original image of this cult was claimed by the Laodiceans, the Cappadocians, the neighbours of the latter on the borders of the Euxine, the Lydians--who called it Anaiitis--, the Spartans--who called it Orthia.
27:123 Cf. ch. III, Ephesian Artemis.
27:124 Paus. 7. 6, 6.
27:125 Diod. Sic. 2. 46.
27:126 Arnob. Adv. Nat. 5. 7.
28:127 This comes out strongly in the rites at Bambyce. V. supra, n. .
28:128 Cf. Strabo, 10. pp. 469, 472; 12. p. 567, wherein the names associated with the cult are traced to Phrygian localities. Diod. Sic. (3. 58) derives the name of the goddess from a place in Phrygia. On Cybele in Lydia cf. Herod. 5. 102; Paus. 7. 17, 9-10.
28:129 Strabo, 10. p. 478. V. supra, n. .
28:130 Klügmann, op. cit. p. 529.
28:131 Herod. 2. 51.
29:132 For the views of Herodotus on the Pelasgi cf. 2. 56-58; 7. 94: 8. 44. J. L. Myres has an important article, "The History of the Pelasgian Theory," in Journ. Hellen. Studies, 27 (1907).
29:133 Paus. 7. 4, 3.
29:134 The central point of the mysteries of Samothrace seems to have been the worship of Demeter as the mother of Plutus. It is interesting to note that this son was born in Crete (Hes. Theog. 970).
29:135 Cf. Herod. 4. 103 and the conception of the goddess on which Euripides builds his Iphigeneia among the Taurians. Possibly the word Ταυρόπολος is to be connected with Taurobolium, the mystic baptism in blood, which was originally connected with Syrian cults, especially with that of Mithras. In the first half of the second century A.D. it was introduced at Rome as a feature of the worship of Magna Mater. On the Taurobolia and the similar Criobolia cf. Prudent. Peristeph. 10. 1011-1050.