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The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1758], tr. by John Whitehead [1892] at

The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine


Of the Lord's temptations. The Lord beyond all others 201-1 endured the most grievous and dreadful temptations, which are but little described in the sense of the letter of the Word, but much in the internal sense (n. 1663, 1668, 1787, 2776, 2786, 2795, 2814, 9528). The Lord fought from the Divine love towards the whole human race (n. 1690, 1691, 1812, 1813, 1820). The love of the Lord was the salvation of the human race (n. 1820). The Lord fought from His own power (n. 1692, 1813, 9937). The Lord alone was made justice and merit, by the temptations, and victories which He gained therein from His own power (n. 1813, 2025-2027, 9715, 9809, 10019). By temptations the Lord united the Divine itself, which was in Him from conception, to His Human, and made this Divine, as He makes man spiritual by temptations (n. 1725, 1729, 1733, 1737, 3318, 3381, 3382, 4286). The temptations of the Lord were attended with despair at the end (n. 1787). The Lord, by the temptations admitted into Himself, subjugated the hells, and reduced to order all things in them, and in heaven, and at the same time glorified His Human (n. 1737, 4287, 9315, 9528, 9937). The Lord alone fought against all the hells (n. 8273). He admitted temptations into Himself from thence (n. 2816, 4295). The Lord could not be tempted as to the Divine, because the hells cannot assault the Divine, wherefore He assumed a human from the mother, such as could be tempted (n. 1414, 1444, 1573, 5041, 5157, 7193, 9315). By temptations and victories He expelled all the hereditary from the mother, and put off the human from her, until at length He was no longer her son (n. 2159, 2574, 2649, 3036, 10830). Jehovah, who was in Him from conception, appeared in His temptations as if absent (n. 1815). This was His state of humiliation (n. 1785, 1999, 2159, 6866). His last temptation and victory, by which He fully subjugated the hells, and made His Human Divine, was in Gethsemane and on the cross (n. 2776, 2803, 2813, 2814, 10655, 10659, 10828). "To eat no bread and drink no water for forty days," signifies an entire state of temptations (n. 10686). "Forty years," "months," or "days," signify a plenary state of temptations from beginning to end; and such a state is meant by the duration of the flood, "forty days"; by Moses abiding "forty days" upon Mount Sinai; by the sojourning of the sons of Israel "forty years" in the desert; and by the Lord's temptation in the desert "forty days" (n. 730, 862, 2272, 2273, 8098).


XV. BAPTISM. Baptism was instituted to be a sign that a man is of the church, and as a memorial that he is to be regenerated; for the washing of baptism is nothing else than spiritual washing, which is regeneration.


All regeneration is effected by the Lord, through the truths of faith, and a life according to them. Baptism therefore testifies that the man is of the church, and that he can be regenerated: for in the church the Lord is acknowledged, who alone regenerates, and there also is the Word, which contains the truths of faith, by which regeneration is effected.


This the Lord teaches in John: Except a man be begotten of water and of the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God (3:5). "Water" in the spiritual sense is the truth of faith from the Word; "the spirit" is a life according to that truth; and "to be begotten" is to be regenerated thereby.


Since everyone who is regenerated also undergoes temptations, which are spiritual combats against evils and falsities, therefore by the water of baptism these also are signified.


As baptism is for a sign and memorial of these things therefore man may be baptized as an infant, and if not then, he may be baptized as an adult.


Let those therefore who are baptized know, that baptism itself does not give faith nor salvation, but it testifies that they may receive faith and be saved, if they are regenerated.


Hence may be seen what is meant by the Lord's words in Mark: He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be condemned (16:16). "He who believeth" is he who acknowledges the Lord, and receives Divine truths from Him through the Word; "he who is baptized" is he who is regenerated by the Lord by means of those truths.


FROM THE ARCANA COELESTIA. Baptism signifies regeneration by the Lord through the truths of faith from the Word (n. 4255, 5120, 9088, 10239, 10386-10388, 10392). Baptism is for a sign that man is of the church, where the Lord is acknowledged, from whom is regeneration, and which has the Word, from which are the truths of faith, by which regeneration is effected (n. 10386-10388). Baptism gives neither faith nor salvation, but testifies that faith and salvation will be received by those who are regenerated (n. 10391). The washings in the ancient churches, and in the Israelitish church, represented and thence signified purifications from evils and falsities (n. 3147, 9088, 10237, 10239). "The washings of garments" signified the purification of the understanding from falsities (n. 5954). "The washing of the feet" signified the purification of the natural man (n. 3147, 10241). What is signified by "the washing of the disciples' feet" by the Lord, is explained (n. 10243). "Waters" signify the truths of faith (n. 28, 2702, 3058, 5668, 8568, 10238). "A fountain" and "a well of living waters" signifies the truths of faith from the Lord, thus the Word (n. 3424). "Bread and water" signify all the goods of love and truths of faith (n. 4976, 9323). "Spirit" signifies the life of truth, or the life of faith (n. 5222, 9281, 9818). What "the spirit" and "the flesh" signify, that "the spirit" signifies life from the Lord, and "flesh," life from man (n. 10283). Hence it is evident what is signified by these words of the Lord: Except a man be begotten of water and the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God (John 3:5). Namely, that unless man is regenerated by the truths of faith, and by a life according to them, he cannot be saved (n. 10240). All regeneration is effected by the truths of faith, and by a life according to them (n. 1904, 2046, 9088, 9959, 10028). The total washing, which was effected by immersion in the waters of the Jordan, signified regeneration itself, in the same manner as baptism (n. 9088, 10239). What "the waters of Jordan," and "Jordan" signified (n. 1585, 4255). "A flood" and "inundation of waters" signify temptations (n. 660, 705, 639, 756, 790, 5725, 6853). "Baptism" signifies the same (n. 5120, 10389). In what manner baptism was represented from heaven (n. 2299).


XVI. THE HOLY SUPPER. The Holy Supper was instituted by the Lord, that by it there may be conjunction of the church with heaven, thus with the Lord: therefore it is the most holy thing of worship.


But how conjunction is effected by it is not understood by those who do not know the internal or spiritual sense of the Word, since they do not think beyond the external sense, which is the sense of the letter. It is known from the internal or spiritual sense of the Word, what is signified by the "body" and "blood," and by the "bread" and "wine"; and also what is signified by "eating."


In the spiritual sense, the Lord's "body" or "flesh," and the "bread," signifies the good of love; and the Lord's "blood" and the "wine," the good of faith; and "eating" is appropriation and conjunction. The angels who are with the man who goes to the Sacrament of the Supper, understand those things in no other way, for they perceive all things spiritually. Hence it is, that the holiness of love and the holiness of faith then flow into man from the angels, thus through heaven from the Lord, and hence conjunction is effected.


From these things it is evident, that when man partakes of the bread, which is the body, he is conjoined to the Lord by the good of love to Him from Him; and when he partakes of the wine, which is the blood, he is conjoined to the Lord by the good of faith in Him from Him. But it is to be known that the conjunction with the Lord by the Sacrament of the Supper, is effected with those alone who are in the good of love and faith in the Lord from the Lord. With these there is conjunction by the Holy Supper; with others there is presence, but not conjunction.


Besides, the Holy Supper includes and comprehends the whole of the Divine worship instituted in the Israelitish Church; for the burnt-offerings and sacrifices, in which the worship of that church principally consisted, in one expression were called "bread"; hence also the Holy Supper is its completion. FROM THE ARCANA COELESTIA. Since what is involved in the Holy Supper cannot be known unless it is known what its particulars signify, for they correspond to spiritual things, therefore some passages shall be quoted respecting what is signified by "body" and "flesh," by "bread" and "wine," and by "eating" and "drinking"; as also concerning the sacrifices, wherein the worship of the Israelitish church principally consisted, showing that they were called "bread."


Of Supper. "Dinners" and "suppers" signified consociation by love (n. 3596, 3832, 4745, 5161, 7996). The "paschal supper" signified consociation in heaven (n. 7836, 7997, 8001). "The feast of unleavened bread," or of "the passover," signified deliverance from damnation, by the Lord (n. 7093, 7867, 9286-9292, 10655); in the inmost sense, the remembrance of the glorification of the Lord's Human, because deliverance comes therefrom (n. 10655).


Of Body and Flesh. The Lord's "flesh" signifies the Divine good of His Divine love. that is, of His Divine Human (n. 3813, 7850, 9127, 10283). His "body" has a like signification (n. 2343, 3735, 6135). "Flesh" in general signifies the will or proprium of man, which regarded in itself is evil; but which when vivified by the Lord, signifies good (n. 148, 149, 780, 999, 3813, 8409, 10283). Hence "flesh" in the Word, is the whole man, and every man (n. 574, 1050, 10283). It is said here and in what follows, that these things signify, because they correspond; for whatever corresponds, signifies (see n. 2896, 2979, 2987, 2989, 3002, 3225). The Word is written by mere correspondences, and hence its internal or spiritual sense, the nature of which cannot be known, and scarcely its existence, without a knowledge of correspondences (n. 3131, 3472-3485, 8615, 10687). Therefore there is a conjunction of heaven with the man of the church by the Word (n. 10687). For further particulars on this head see in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 303-310), where it treats of the Conjunction of Heaven with the Man of the Church by means of the Word.


Of Blood. The Lord's "blood" signifies the Divine truth proceeding from the Divine good of His Divine love (n. 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326, 7846, 7850, 7877, 9127, 9393, 10026, 10033, 10152, 10210). The "blood" sprinkled upon the altar round about, and at its foundation, signified the unition of Divine truth and the Divine good in the Lord (n. 10047). "The blood of grapes" signifies the truth of faith from the good of charity (n. 6378). "A grape" and "a cluster" signify spiritual good, which is the good of charity (n. 5117). "To shed blood" is to offer violence to the Divine truth (n. 374, 1005, 4735, 5476, 9127). What is signified by "blood and water" going out of the Lord's side (n. 9127). What by the Lord's redeeming men by "His blood" (n. 10152).


Of Bread. "Bread," when mentioned in relation to the Lord, signifies the Divine good of the Lord's Divine love, and the reciprocal of the man who eats it (n. 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976, 9323, 9545). "Bread" involves and signifies all food in general (n. 2165, 6118). "Food" signifies everything that nourishes the spiritual life of man (n. 4976, 5147, 5915, 6277, 8418). Thus "bread" signifies all celestial and spiritual food (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3478, 6118, 8410). Consequently, "everything which proceeds out of the mouth of God," according to the Lord's words (Matt. 4:4; n. 681). "Bread" in general signifies the good of love (n. 2165, 2177, 10686). The same is signified by "wheat," of which bread is made (n. 3941, 7605). "Bread and water," when mentioned in the Word, signify the good of love and the truth of faith (n. 9323). Breaking of bread was a representative of mutual love in the ancient churches (n. 5405). Spiritual food is science, intelligence, and wisdom, thus good and truth, because the former are derived from the latter (n. 3114, 4459, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 8562, 9003). And because they nourish the mind (n. 4459, 5293, 5576, 6277, 8418). Sustenance by food signifies spiritual nourishment, and the influx of good and truth from the Lord (n. 4976, 5915, 6277). The "bread" on the table in the tabernacle, signified the Divine good of the Lord's Divine love (n. 3478, 9545). The "meal-offerings" of cakes and wafers in the sacrifices, signified worship from the good of love (n. 4581, 10079, 10137). What the various meal-offerings signified in particular (n. 7978, 9992-9994, 10079). The ancients, when they mentioned bread, meant all food in general (see Gen. 43:16, 31; Exod. 18:12; Judges 13:15, 16; 1 Sam. 14:28, 29; 20:24, 27; 2 Sam. 9:7, 10; 1 Kings 4:22, 23; 2 Kings 25:29).


Of Wine. "Wine," when mentioned concerning the Lord, signifies the Divine truth proceeding from His Divine good, in the same manner as "blood" (n. 1071, 1798, 6377). "Wine" in general signifies the good of charity (n. 6377). "Must" signifies truth from good in the natural man (n. 3580). Wine is called "the blood of grapes" (n. 6378). "A vineyard" signifies the church as to truth (n. 3220, 9139). The "drink-offering" in the sacrifices, which was wine, signified spiritual good, which is holy truth (n. 1072). The Lord alone is holy, and hence all holiness is from Him (n. 9229, 9680, 10359, 10360). The Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is what is called "holy" in the Word (n. 6788, 8302, 9229, 9820, 10361).


Of Eating and Drinking. "To eat" signifies to be appropriated and conjoined by love and charity (n. 2187, 2343, 3168, 3513, 5643). Hence it signifies to be consociated (n. 8001). "To eat" is predicated of the appropriation and conjunction of good, and "to drink," of the appropriation and conjunction of truth (n. 3168, 3513, 3832, 9412). What "eating and drinking in the Lord's kingdom" signifies (n. 3832). Hence it is, that "to be famished" and "hungry," in the Word, signifies to desire good and truth from affection (n. 4958, 10227). The angels understand the things here spoken of according to their internal or spiritual sense alone, because the angels are in the spiritual world (n. 10521). Hence holiness from heaven flows in with the men of the church, when they receive the Sacrament of the Supper with sanctity (n. 6789). And thence is conjunction with the Lord (n. 3464, 3735, 5915, 10519, 10521, 10522).


Of Sacrifices. "Burnt-offerings" and "sacrifices" signified all things of worship from the good of love, and from the truths of faith (n. 923, 6905, 8680, 8936, 10042). "Burnt-offerings" and "sacrifices" also signified Divine celestial things, which are the internal things of the church, from which worship is derived (n. 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519). With a variation and difference according to the varieties of worship (n. 2805, 6905, 8936). Therefore there were many kinds of sacrifices, and various processes to be observed in them, and various beasts from which they were (n. 2830, 9391, 9990). The various things which they signified in general, may appear from unfolding the particulars by the internal sense (n. 10042). What "the beasts" which were sacrificed signified in particular (n. 10042). Arcana of heaven are contained in the rituals and processes of the sacrifices (n. 10057). In general they contained the arcana of the glorification of the Lord's Human; and in a respective sense, the arcana of the regeneration and purification of man from evils and falsities; wherefore they were prescribed for various sins, crimes, and purifications (n. 9990, 10022, 10042, 10053, 10057). What is signified by "the imposition of hands" on the beasts which were sacrificed (n. 10023). What by "the inferior parts of the slain beasts being put under their superior parts" in the burnt-offerings (n. 10051). What by "the meal-offerings" that were offered at the same time (n. 10079). What by "the drink-offering" (n. 4581, 10137). What by "the salt" which was used (n. 10300). What by "the altar" and all the particulars of it (n. 921, 2777, 2784, 2811, 2812, 4489, 4541, 8935, 8940, 9388, 9389, 9714, 9726, 9963, 9964, 10028, 10123, 10151, 10242, 10245, 10344). What by "the fire of the altar" (n. 934, 6314, 6832). What by "eating together of the things sacrificed" (n. 2187, 8682). Sacrifices were not commanded, but charity and faith, thus that they were only permitted, shown from the Word (n. 922, 2180). Why they were permitted (n. 2180, 2818). The burnt-offerings and sacrifices, which consisted of lambs, she-goats, sheep, kids, he-goats, and bullocks, were in one word called "Bread," is evident from the following passages: And the priest shall burn it upon the altar; it is the bread of the offering made by fire unto Jehovah (Lev. 3:11, 16). The sons of Aaron shall be holy unto their God, neither shall they profane the name of their God; for the offerings of Jehovah made by fire, the bread of their God, they do offer. Thou shalt sanctify him, for he offered the bread of thy God. A man of the seed of Aaron, in whom there shall be a blemish, let him not approach to offer the bread of his God (Lev. 21:6, 8, 17, 21). Command the sons of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, My bread, for My sacrifices made by fire for an odor of rest, ye shall observe, to offer unto Me in its stated time (Num. 28:2). He who shall have touched an unclean thing shall not eat of the holy things, but he shall wash his flesh in water; and shall afterwards eat of the holy things, because it is his bread (Lev. 22:6, 7). They who offer polluted bread upon My altar (Mal. 1:7). Hence now, as has been said above (n. 214), the Holy Supper includes and comprehends all of the Divine worship instituted in the Israelitish Church; for the burnt-offerings and sacrifices in which the worship of that church principally consisted were called by the one word "bread." Hence, also, the Holy Supper is its fulfilling. From what has been observed, it may now be seen what is meant by bread in John: Jesus said to them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave them not that bread from heaven, but My Father giveth you the true bread from heaven, for the bread of God is He who came down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. They said unto Lord, evermore give us this bread. Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life; he that cometh to Me shall never hunger, and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst. He that believeth on Me hath eternal life. I am the bread of life. This is the bread which cometh down from heaven; that anyone may eat thereof, and not die. I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if anyone shall eat of this bread, he shall live forever (John 6:31-35, 47-51). From these passages, and from what has been said above, it appears that "bread" is all the good which proceeds from the Lord, for the Lord Himself is in His own good; and thus that "bread and wine" in the Holy Supper are all the worship of the Lord from the good of love and faith.


To the above shall be added some particulars from the Arcana Coelestia (n. 9127): "He who knows nothing of the internal or spiritual sense of the Word, knows no other than that 'flesh and blood,' when they are mentioned in the Word, mean flesh and blood. But in the internal or spiritual sense, it does not treat of the life of the body, but of the life of man's soul, that is, of his spiritual life, which he is to live to eternity. This life is described in the literal sense of the Word, by things which belong to the life of the body, that is, by `flesh and blood'; and as the spiritual life of man subsists by the good of love and the truth of faith, therefore in the internal sense of the Word the good of love is meant by `flesh,' and the truth of faith by `blood.' These are understood by `flesh and blood,' and by `bread and wine,' in heaven; for `bread' means altogether the same there as `flesh,' and `wine' as `blood.' They who are not spiritual men, do not apprehend this; let such abide therefore in their own faith, only believing that in the Holy Supper, and in the Word, there is holiness, because they are from the Lord, although they may not know where that holiness resides. On the other hand, let those who are endowed with interior perception, consider whether `flesh' means flesh, and `blood,' blood, in the following passages. In the Apocalypse: I saw an angel standing in the sun, and he cried with a great voice, saying unto all the birds that fly in the midst of heaven, come and gather yourselves together to the supper of the great God; that ye may eat the flesh of Kings, and the flesh of commanders of thousands, and the flesh of the mighty, and the flesh of horses and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all, free and bond, small and great (19:17, 18). Who can understand these words, unless he knows what `flesh,' `kings,' `commanders of thousands,' `the mighty,' `horses,' `them that sit on them,' and `freemen' and `bondmen,' signify in the internal sense? And in Ezekiel: Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Say to every bird of heaven, and to every beast of the field, Gather yourselves together and come; gather yourselves together from every side to My sacrifice that I sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh and drink blood; ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth; and ye shall eat fat to satiety, and drink blood even to drunkenness, of My sacrifice which I have sacrificed for you: thus shall ye be satisfied at My table, with horse and chariot, with the mighty, and with every man of war; thus will I give My glory among the nations (39:17-21). This passage treats of the calling together of all to the kingdom of the Lord, and in particular of the establishment of the church with the Gentiles; and `eating flesh and drinking blood,' signify to appropriate to themselves Divine good and Divine truth, thus the holiness which proceeds from the Lord's Divine Human. Who cannot see, that `flesh' does not here mean flesh; nor `blood,' blood; as when it said, that `they should eat the flesh of the mighty,' and `drink the blood of the princes of the earth'; and that `they should drink blood even to drunkenness'; also that `they should be satisfied with horses, with chariots, with mighty men, and with all men of war'? What `the birds of heaven' and `the beasts of the field' signify in the spiritual sense, may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 110 and the notes). Let us now consider what the Lord said concerning His flesh and His blood, in John: The bread which I will give, is My flesh. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you. Whoso eateth My flesh and drinketh My blood, hath eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day; for My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed. He that eateth My flesh and drinketh My blood, dwelleth in Me, and I in him. This is the bread which came down from heaven (John 6:50-58). `The flesh' of the Lord is the Divine good, and His `blood,' the Divine truth, each from Him, is evident, because these nourish the spiritual life of man; hence it is said, `My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed,' and as man is conjoined to the Lord by the Divine good and truth, it is also said, `Whoso eateth My flesh and drinketh My blood, hath eternal life'; and, `He dwelleth in Me and I in him'; and in the former part of the chapter: Labor not for the food which perisheth, but for that food which endureth to eternal life (John 6:27). `To abide in the Lord' is to be in love to Him, the Lord Himself teaches in John (15:2-12).


XVII. THE RESURRECTION. Man is so created that as to his internal he cannot die; for he can believe in and also love God, and thus be conjoined to God by faith and love; and to be conjoined to God is to live to eternity.


This internal is with every man who is born; his external is that by which he brings into effect the things which are of his faith and love. The internal is called the spirit, and the external is called the body. The external, which is called the body, is accommodated to the uses in the natural world, this is rejected when man dies; but the internal, which is called the spirit, is accommodated to the uses in the spiritual world, this does not die. This internal is then a good spirit and an angel, if the man had been good in the world; but an evil spirit if man had been evil in the world.


The spirit of man after the death of the body, appears in the spiritual world in a human form, in every respect as in the world. He enjoys the faculty of seeing, of hearing, of speaking, and of feeling, as in the world; and he is endowed with every faculty of thinking, of willing, and of acting, as in the world; in a word, he is a man as to each and every thing, except that he is not encompassed with the gross body which he had in the world. This he leaves when he dies, nor does he ever resume it.


This continuation of life is meant by the resurrection. The reason why men believe that they will not rise again before the Last Judgment, when the whole visible world will perish, is because they have not understood the Word, and because sensual men place all their life in the body, and believe that unless this shall live again, it will be all over with the man.


The life of man after death is the life of his love and the life of his faith; hence such as his love and faith had been, when he lived in the world, such his life will remain to eternity. With those who loved themselves and the world above all things, it is the life of hell; and with those who had loved God above all things, and the neighbor as themselves, it is the life of heaven. The latter are they who have faith; but the former are they who have no faith. The life of heaven is called eternal life; and the life of hell is called spiritual death.


That man lives after death, the Word teaches; as that: God is not the God of the dead, but of the living (Matt. 22:31). Lazarus after death was carried into heaven, but the rich man was cast into hell (Luke 16:22, 23 seq.). Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are there (Matt. 8:11; 22:31, 32; Luke 20: 37, 38). Jesus said to the robber, Today shalt thou be with Me in paradise (Luke 23:43).


FROM THE WORK ON HEAVEN AND HELL. It is unnecessary here to adduce anything from the Arcana Coelestia, since the things concerning the resurrection and the life of man after death have been fully treated in the work on Heaven and Hell, where they may be seen under the following articles: I. Every Man is a Spirit as to His Interiors (n. 432-444). II. Of Man's Resuscitation from the Dead, and His Entrance into Eternal Life (n. 445-452). III. After Death Man is in a Perfect Human Form (n. 453-460). IV. After Death Man has every Sense, and all the Memory, Thought, and Affection, which He had in the World; and that He Leaves Nothing but His Terrestrial Body (n. 461-469). V. Man after Death is Such as his Life had Been in the World (n. 470-484). VI. The Delights of Everyone's Life are Turned into Corresponding Things (n. 485-490). VII. Of Man's First State after Death (n. 491-498). VIII. Of Man's Second State after Death (n. 499-511). IX. Of Man's Third State after Death, which is a State of Instruction for Those that Come into Heaven (n. 512-520). X. That Heaven and Hell are from the Human Race (311-317). Concerning the Last Judgment, spoken of above at n. 226, see the work on The Last Judgment, and Babylon Destroyed, from the beginning to the end; where it is shown that the Last Judgment will not be attended with the destruction of the world.


XVIII. HEAVEN AND HELL. There are two things which constitute the life of man's spirit, namely, love and faith; love constituting the life of his will, and faith the life of his understanding. The love of good and the faith of truth thence derived, constitute the life of heaven; and the love of evil, and the faith of falsity thence derived, constitute the life of hell.


Love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor constitute heaven; and also faith, so far as it has life from those loves. And because both the love and the faith thence derived, are from the Lord, it is evident that the Lord Himself constitutes heaven.


Heaven is with every man according to his reception of love and faith from the Lord; and they who receive heaven from the Lord while they live in the world, come into heaven after death.


They who receive heaven from the Lord are they who have heaven in themselves, for heaven is in man, as the Lord also teaches: Neither shall they say, The kingdom of God, lo it is here, or lo there, for the Kingdom of God is in you (Luke 17:21).


Heaven is with man in his internal, thus in his willing and thinking from love and faith, and thence in his external, which is in acting and speaking from love and faith. But heaven is not in man's external without the internal; for all hypocrites can act and speak well, but they cannot will and think well.


When man comes into the other life, which takes place immediately after death, it is evident whether heaven is in him or not; but not while he lives in the world. For in the world the external appears, and not the internal, but in the other life the internal is made manifest, because man then lives as to his spirit.


Eternal happiness, which is also called heavenly joy, is imparted to those who are in love and faith in the Lord, from the Lord; for this love and faith have that joy in them; into it the man comes after death who has heaven in him; in the meantime it lies hidden in his internal man. In the heavens there is a communion of all goods; there the peace, the intelligence, the wisdom, and the happiness of all are communicated to each; yet to everyone according to his reception of love and faith from the Lord. Hence it may appear how great is the peace, intelligence, wisdom and happiness in heaven.


As love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor constitute the life of heaven with man, so the love of self and the love of the world, when they reign, constitute the life of hell with him; for these loves are opposite to those. Therefore they with whom the loves of self and of the world reign, can receive nothing from heaven, but what they receive is from hell; for whatever a man loves, and whatever he believes, is either from heaven or from hell.


Those with whom the love of self and the love of the world reign, do not know what heaven and heavenly happiness are; and it appears incredible to them that happiness is given in any other loves than in them. Nevertheless, the happiness of heaven enters so far as the loves of self and the world, regarded as ends, are removed; and the happiness which succeeds on their removal is so great as to exceed all human comprehension.


The life of man cannot be changed after death. It then remains such as it had been. For the quality of man's spirit is in every respect the same as that of his love, and infernal love can never be transcribed into heavenly love, because they are opposite. This is meant by the words of Abraham to the rich man in hell: Between us and you there is a great gulf; so that they which would pass to you cannot; neither can they pass to us from thence (Luke 16:26). Hence it is evident that all who come into hell remain there to eternity; and they who come into heaven remain there to eternity.


Since the subject of heaven and hell has been treated of in a separate work, wherein is also adduced what is contained in the Arcana Coelestia concerning it, it is therefore unnecessary here to add anything further.


XIX. THE CHURCH. That which constitutes heaven with man, also constitutes the church; for as love and faith constitute heaven, so they also constitute the church; thus, from what has been already said concerning heaven, it is evident what the church is.


The church is said to be where the Lord is acknowledged and where the Word is, for the essentials of the church are love and faith in the Lord from the Lord; and the Word teaches how man must live that he may receive love and faith from the Lord.


That there may be a church, there must be doctrine from the Word, since without doctrine the Word is not understood. Doctrine alone, however, does not constitute the church with man, but a life according to it. Hence it follows that faith alone does not constitute the church with man, but the life of faith, which is charity. Genuine doctrine is the doctrine of charity and faith together, and not the doctrine of faith separate from charity; for the doctrine of charity and faith together is the doctrine of life; but not the doctrine of faith without the doctrine of charity.


They who are out of the church and acknowledge one God, and live according to their religious principle, and in some charity towards the neighbor, are in communion with those who are of the church; for no man who believes in God and lives well, is condemned. Hence it is evident, that the church of the Lord is in the whole world, although specifically, where the Lord is acknowledged, and where the Word is.


Everyone with whom the church exists, is saved; but everyone in whom it is not, is condemned.


FROM THE ARCANA COELESTIA. The church exists specifically where the Word is, and where the Lord is thereby known, and thus where Divine truths are revealed (n. 3857, 10761). Still they who are born where the Word is, and where the Lord is thereby known, are not of the church, but they who are regenerated by the Lord by the truths of the Word, that is, they who live the life of charity (n. 6637, 10143, 10153, 10578, 10645, 10829). They who are of the church, or in whom the church is, are in the affection of truth for the sake of truth, that is, they love truth because it is truth; and they examine from the Word whether the doctrinals of the church in which they were born are true (n. 5432, 6047). Otherwise the truth possessed by everyone would be derived from another, and from his native soil (n. 6047). The church of the Lord is with all in the whole world who live in good according to their religious principles (n. 3263, 6637, 10765). All who live in good wherever they are, and acknowledge one God, are accepted by the Lord and come into heaven; since all who are in good acknowledge the Lord, because good is from the Lord, and the Lord is in good (n. 2589-2604, 2861, 2863, 3263, 4190, 4197, 6700, 9256). The universal church on earth before the Lord is as one man (n. 7396, 9276). As heaven is, because the church is heaven or the kingdom of the Lord on earth (n. 2853, 2996, 2998, 3624-3629, 3636-3643, 3741-3745, 4625). But the church, where the Lord is known and where the Word is, is like the heart and lungs in man in respect to the other parts of the body, which live from the heart and lungs as from the fountains of their life (n. 637, 931, 2054, 2853). Hence it is, that unless there were a church where the Word is, and where the Lord is thereby known, the human race could not be saved (n. 468, 637, 931, 4545, 10452). The church is the foundation of heaven (n. 4060). The church is internal and external (n. 1242, 6587, 9375, 9680, 10762). The internal of the church is love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbor. Thence they who are in the affection of good and truth from love to the Lord and from charity towards the neighbor, constitute the internal church; and they who are in external worship from obedience and faith, constitute the external church (n. 1083, 1098, 4288, 6380, 6587, 7840, 8762). To know truth and good, and to act from thence, is the external of the church, but to will and love truth and good, and to act from thence, is the internal of the church (n. 4899, 6775). The internal of the church is in the worship of those who are of the external church, although in obscurity (n. 6775). The internal and external church make one church (n. 409, 10762). Man has an internal and an external, an internal after the image of heaven, and an external after the image of the world; and therefore, in order that the man may be a church, his external must act in unity with his internal (n. 3628, 4523, 4524, 6057, 6314, 9706, 10472). The church is in the internal of man and at the same time in the external, but not in the external without the internal (n. 1795, 6580, 10691). The internal of the church is according to truths and their quality, and according to their implantation in good by life (n. 1238). The church like heaven is in man, and thus the church in general consists of the men in whom the church is (n. 3884). In order that a church may exist, there must be the doctrine of life, that is, the doctrine of charity (n. 3445, 10763, 10764). Charity makes the church, and not faith separated from charity (n. 916). Consequently, not the doctrine of faith separated from charity, but the doctrine of faith conjoined therewith, and a life conformable to it (n. 809, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844, 4468, 4672, 4689, 4766, 5826, 6637). The church is not with man, unless the truths of doctrine are implanted in the good of charity with him, thus in the life (n. 3310, 3963, 5826). There is no church with man, if he is only in the truths, which are called the truths of faith (n. 5826). How much good would be in the church, if charity were in the first place and faith in the second (n. 6269). And how much evil, if faith is in the first place (n. 6272). In the ancient churches charity was the principal and essential of the church (n. 4680). The church would be like heaven, if all had charity (n. 2385, 2853). If good were the characteristic of the church, and not truth without good, thus if charity were its characteristic, and not faith separate, the church would be one, and differences with respect to the doctrinals of faith, and external worship, would be accounted as nothing (n. 1285, 1316, 2982, 3267, 3445, 3451). Every church begins from charity, but declines therefrom in process of time (n. 494, 501, 1327, 3773, 4689). Thus to falsities from evil, and at length to evils (n. 1834, 1835, 2910, 4683, 4689). A comparison of the church at its beginning and decline with the infancy and old age of man (n. 10134). And also with the rising and the setting of the sun (n. 1837). Concerning the successive states of the Christian Church even to its last state; wherein are explained the particulars which the Lord foretold concerning "the consummation of the age," and His "coming," in Matt. chap. 24 from the beginning to the end (n. 3353-3356, 3486-3489, 3650-3655, 3571-3757, 3897-3901, 4057-4060, 4229-4335, 4422-4424, 4635-4638, 4807-4810, 4954-4959, 5063-5071). The Christian church is at this day in its last states, there being no faith therein because there is no charity (n. 3489, 4689). The Last Judgment is the last time of the church (n. 2118, 3353, 4057, 4333, 4535). Of the vastation of the church (n. 407-411). The consummation of the age and the coming of the Lord is the last time of the old church and the beginning of the new (n. 2243, 4535, 10622). When the old church is vastated, interior truths are revealed for the service of the new church which is then established (n. 3398, 3786). Concerning the establishment of the church with the Gentiles (n. 1366, 2986, 4747, 9256).


Of the Ancient Churches. The first and Most Ancient Church on this earth, which is described in the first chapters of Genesis, was a celestial church, and the chief of all the rest (n. 607, 895, 920, 1121-1124, 2896, 4493, 8891, 9942, 10545). Of the quality of those in heaven who belonged to it (n. 1114-1125). They are in the highest degree of light (n. 1116, 1117). There were various churches after the flood, called in one word, the Ancient Church, concerning which (n. 1125-1127, 1327, 10355). Through how many kingdoms of Asia the Ancient Church was extended (n. 1238, 2385). The quality of the men of the Ancient Church (n. 609, 895). The Ancient Church was a representative church, and its representatives were collected into one by certain men of the Most Ancient Church (n. 519, 521, 2896). The Ancient Church had a Word, but it was lost (n. 2897). The quality of the Ancient Church when it began to decline (n. 1128). The difference between the Most Ancient and the Ancient Churches (n. 597, 607, 640, 641, 765, 784, 895, 4493). The Most Ancient Church and the Ancient were also in the land of Canaan, and hence came the representatives of the places therein (n. 3686, 4447, 4454). Of the church that began from Eber, which was called the Hebrew Church (n. 1238, 1241, 1343, 4516, 4517). The difference between the Ancient and the Hebrew Churches (n. 1343, 4874). Eber instituted sacrifices which were wholly unknown in the Ancient Churches (n. 1343). The Ancient Churches agreed with the Christian Church as to internals, but not as to externals (n. 3478, 4489, 4772, 4904, 10149). In the Most Ancient Church there was immediate revelation; in the Ancient Church, revelation by correspondences; in the Jewish Church, by a living voice; and in the Christian Church, by the Word (n. 10355). The Lord was the God of the Most Ancient Church, and was called Jehovah (n. 1343, 6846). The Lord is heaven, and He is the church (n. 4766, 10125, 10151, 10157). The Divine of the Lord makes heaven, see the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 7-12 and 78-86); and thus also the church, since what constitutes heaven with man, constitutes also the church, as was shown in the doctrine above.


Of the Jewish Church and of the Jews. The statutes, judgments, and laws, which were commanded in the Jewish Church, were in part like those in the Ancient Church (n. 4449, 4835). In what respect the representative rites of the Jewish Church differed from those of the Ancient Church (n. 4288, 10149). A representative church was instituted with that nation, but there was no church in that nation itself (n. 4899, 4912, 6304). Therefore as to that nation itself, it was the representative of a church, but not a church (n. 4281, 4288, 4311, 4500, 6304, 7048, 9320, 10396, 10526, 10535, 10698). The Israelitish and Jewish nation was not elected, but only received, in order that it might represent a church, on account of the obstinacy with which their fathers and Moses insisted (n. 4290, 4293, 7051, 7439, 10430, 10535, 10632). Their worship was merely external, without any internal worship (n. 1200, 3147, 3479, 8871). They were entirely unacquainted with the internals of worship, and were not willing to know them (n. 301-303, 3479, 4429, 4433, 4680, 4844, 4847, 10396, 10401, 10407, 10694, 10701, 10707). In what manner they consider the internals of worship, of the church, and the Word (n. 4865). Their interiors were filthy, full of the loves of self and of the world, and of avarice (n. 3480, 9962, 10454-10457, 10462-10466, 10575). On this account the internals of the church were not disclosed to them, because they would have profaned them (n. 2520, 3398, 3480, 4289). The Word is wholly shut to them (n. 3769). They see the Word from without and not from within (n. 10549-10551). Therefore their internal, when in worship, was shut (n. 8788, 8806, 9320, 9377, 9380, 9962, 10396, 10401, 10407, 10492, 10498, 10500, 10575, 10629, 10694). That nation was of such a quality, that they could be in a holy external, when the internal was shut, more than others (n. 4293, 4311, 4903, 9373, 9377, 9380). Their state at that time (n. 4311). They are therefore preserved to this day (n. 3479). Their holy external was miraculously elevated by the Lord into heaven, and the interior things of worship, of the church, and the Word perceived there (n. 3480, 4307, 4311, 6304, 8588, 10492, 10500, 10602). For this purpose they were forced by external means strictly to observe their rites in their external form (n. 3147, 4281, 10149). Because they could be in a holy external without an internal, they could represent the holy things of the church and heaven (n. 3479, 3881, 4208, 6306, 8588, 9377, 10430, 10500, 10570). Still those holy things did not affect them (n. 3479). The quality of the person who represents is of no importance, because the representation regards the thing represented, and not the person (n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4292, 4307, 4444, 4500, 6304, 7048, 7439, 8588, 8788, 8806). That nation was worse than other nations, their quality also described from the Word of both Testaments (n. 4314, 4316, 4317, 4444, 4503, 4750, 4751, 4815, 4820, 4832, 5057, 5998, 7248, 8819, 9320, 10454-10547, 10462-10466). The tribe of Judah departed into worse things than the other tribes (n. 4815). How cruelly they treated the Gentiles, from delight (n. 5057, 7248, 9320). That nation was idolatrous in heart; and more than other nations worshiped other gods (n. 3732, 4208, 4444, 4825, 5998, 6877, 7401, 8301, 8871, 8882). Even their worship was idolatrous when considered as to that nation itself, because it was external without internal (n. 4281, 4825, 8871, 8882). They worshiped Jehovah only in name (n. 6877, 10559-10561, 10566). And only on account of miracles (n. 4299). They who believe that the Jews will be converted at the end of the church, and brought again into the land of Canaan, think erroneously (n. 4847, 7051, 8301). Many passages adduced from the Word concerning this matter, but which are to be understood according to the internal sense, and differently from the sense of the letter (n. 7051). The Word was changed on account of that nation, as to its external sense, but not as to its internal sense (n. 10453, 10461, 10603, 10604). Jehovah appeared to them on Mount Sinai, according to their quality, in a consuming fire, a thick cloud, and smoke as of a furnace (n. 1861, 6832, 8814, 8819, 9434). The Lord appears to everyone according to his quality, as a vivifying and recreating fire to those who are in good, and as a consuming fire to those who are in evil (n. 934, 1861, 6832, 8814, 8819, 9434, 10551). One origin of that nation was from a Canaanitess and the two others from whoredom with a daughter-in-law (n. 1167, 4818, 4820, 4874, 4899, 4913). These origins signify the nature of their conjunction with the church, as being like conjunction with the Canaanitess, and whoredom with a daughter-in-law (n. 4868, 4874, 4899, 4911, 4913). Of the state of the Jews in the other life (n. 939, 940, 5057). Since this nation, although of such a quality, represented the church; and since the Word was written among them and concerning them; therefore Divine celestial things were signified by their names, as by "Reuben," "Simeon," "Levi," "Judah," "Ephraim," "Joseph," and the rest. That "Judah," in the internal sense, signifies the Lord as to celestial love, and His celestial kingdom (n. 3654, 3881, 5583, 5603, 5782, 6363). The prophecy of Israel concerning Judah, in which the Lord is treated of, explained, Gen. 49:8-12 (n. 6362-6381). "The tribe of Judah" and "Judea" signify the celestial church (n. 3654, 6364). The twelve tribes represented, and thence signified all things of love and faith in the complex (n. 3858, 3926, 4060, 6335); thus also heaven and the church (n. 6337, 6637, 7836, 7891). They signify according to the order in which they are named (n. 3862, 3926, 3939, 4603, seq., 6337, 6640). The twelve tribes were divided into two kingdoms, in order that the Jews might represent the celestial kingdom, and the Israelites the spiritual kingdom (n. 8770, 9320). "The seed of Abraham," of "Isaac," and of "Jacob," signifies the goods and truths of the church (n. 3373, 10445).


XX. THE SACRED SCRIPTURE, OR THE WORD. Without a revelation from the Divine, man cannot know anything concerning eternal life, nor even anything concerning God, and still less concerning love to, and faith in Him; for man is born into mere ignorance, and must therefore learn everything from worldly things, from which he must form his understanding. He is also born hereditarily into every evil which is from the love of self and of the world; the delights from thence reign continually, and suggest such things as are diametrically contrary to the Divine. Hence it is that man knows nothing concerning eternal life; wherefore there must necessarily be a revelation from which he may know.


That the evils of the love of self and of the world induce such ignorance concerning those things which are of eternal life, appears manifestly from those within the church; who, although they know from revelation that there is a God, that there is a heaven and a hell, that there is eternal life, and that eternal life is to be acquired by the good of love and faith, still lapse into denial concerning those things, both the learned and the unlearned. Hence it is further evident how great ignorance there would be, if there were no revelation.


201-1 The translator omits the phrase "beyond all others." But the Latin, "prae omnibus" requires it.

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