Apocalypse Revealed, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by John Whitehead , at sacred-texts.com
Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand signifies wisdom from celestial love, with those who will be in the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Reuben," in the highest sense is signified omniscience; in the spiritual sense, wisdom, intelligence, and science, also faith; and, in the natural sense sight; but here by "Reuben" is signified wisdom, because it follows after "Judah," by whom is signified celestial love, and celestial love produces wisdom; for love does not exist without its consort, which is science, intelligence, and wisdom. The consort of natural love is science, that of spiritual love is intelligence, and that of celestial love is wisdom.  That these things are signified by "Reuben," follows from his being named from "sight," and spiritual-natural sight is science, spiritual sight is intelligence, and celestial sight is wisdom. Reuben was also the first born of Jacob, and therefore was called by Israel: His might, the beginning of his strength, excellent in eminence, and excellent in valor (Gen. 49:3). Such indeed is wisdom from celestial love. And as Reuben from his primogeniture represented, and thence signified, the wisdom of the men of the church, therefore: He exhorted his brethren not to kill Joseph, and was grieved when Joseph was not found in the pit (Gen. 37:21-22, 29). And on this account: His tribe encamped on the south, and was called the camp of Reuben (Num. 2:10-16). The "south" also signifies wisdom from love; therefore they who are in that wisdom dwell to the south in heaven, as may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 148-150). This wisdom is signified by "Reuben" in the prophecy of Deborah and Barak by these words: For the divisions of Reuben were great statutes of heart. Why abodest thou among the sheepfolds to hear the bleatings of the flocks? In the divisions of Reuben there were great searchings of heart (Judg. 5:15-16). "The divisions of Reuben" are the knowledges of every kind which have relation to wisdom.  As all the tribes have an opposite signification also, the tribe of Reuben, in this sense, signifies wisdom separated from love, and thence also faith separated from charity; wherefore: He was cursed by his father Israel (Gen. 49:3-4). And therefore he was deprived of his birthright (1 Chron. 5:1). See above (n. 17); and therefore: An inheritance was given him on the other side Jordan, and not in the land of Canaan; and instead of Reuben and Simeon, the sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, were acknowledged (Gen. 48:5). Nevertheless he retained the representation and thence the signification of wisdom.352.
Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand, signifies uses of life, which are of wisdom from that love, also with those who will be in the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Gad," in the highest sense, is signified omnipotence; in the spiritual sense, the good of life, which also is use; and, in the natural sense, work; in this instance uses of life, because it follows after Reuben and Judah, and celestial love through wisdom produces uses. There are three things which cohere and cannot be separated: love, wisdom, and use of life; if one is separated, the other two fall to the ground, as may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom Concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 241, 297, 316). That by "Gad" is signified use of life, which is also called fruit, may appear from his being named from a troop or a heap (Gen. 30:10-11); as also from his father Israel's blessing (Gen. 49:19); and from the blessing of him by Moses (Deut. 33:20-21); and likewise from his inheritance (Num. 32:1-42; 34:14; Deut. 3:16-17; Josh. 13:24-28). Also from the signification of "Gad" in the opposite sense (Isa. 65:11; Jer. 49:1-3). It must be known, that all the tribes of Israel are here divided into four classes, as in the Urim and Thummin, and in the encampments, and that each class contains three tribes, by reason that three cohere as one, as love, wisdom, and use, and as charity, faith, and work; for, as was said, if one is wanting, the other two are not anything.353.
Verse 6. Of the tribe of Asher were sealed twelve thousand, signifies mutual love, which is the love of doing good uses to the community or society, with those who will be of the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Asher," in the highest sense, is signified eternity; in the spiritual sense, eternal happiness; and, in the natural sense, the affection of good and truth; but here by "Asher" is signified the love of doing uses, which is with those who are in the Lord's celestial kingdom, and is there called mutual love. This love descends proximately from love to the Lord, because the love of the Lord is to do uses to the community, and to each society in the community, and He does these by means of men who are in love to Him. That Asher has the above signification, may in some measure be seen from the blessing of his father Israel: Of Asher; his bread shall be fat, and he shall give the dainties of a king (Gen. 49:20). And from his blessing by Moses: Blessed above sons is Asher; let him be acceptable to his brethren, and as his day his fame shall be (Deut. 33:24-25). He was named also from blessing; and they who are in the love of doing uses to the community and to society, enjoy happiness above all others in heaven.354.
Of the tribe of Naphtali were sealed twelve thousand, signifies the perception of use and what use is, with those who will be in the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Naphtali" in the highest sense, is signified the proper power of the Lord's Divine Human; in the spiritual sense, temptation and victory; and, in the natural sense, resistance by the natural man; for he was named from wrestlings. But "Naphtali" here signifies the perception of use, and what use is, because it follows in the series after Asher, by whom is signified the love of uses; and also because they who have conquered in temptation, have an interior perception of uses; for by temptations the interiors of the mind are opened. The perception which they have is described in Jeremiah 31:33, 34; they feel in themselves what is good, and see in themselves what is true. That "the tribe of Naphtali" signifies angels and men as to that perception, may be confirmed from these things in the Word: Naphtali is upon the heights of the field (Judg. 5:18). The heights of "the field" are the interiors of the church as to perception. Naphtali is satisfied with good pleasure, and full with the blessing of Jehovah; possess thou the west and the south (Deut. 33:23). "To possess the west," is the good of love serving, and "to possess the south," is the light of wisdom, which is that perception. Naphtali is a hind let loose, giving discourses of elegance (Gen. 49:21). Thus is described the state after temptation as to free eloquence from perception. It is also recorded that: One of the tribe of Naphtali was filled with wisdom, intelligence and knowledge and made all Solomon's work about the temple in brass (1 Kings 7:14). The historical parts of the Word, as to names and tribes, are equally as significative as the prophetical.355.
Of the tribe of Manasseh were sealed twelve thousand, signifies the will of serving and of action, with those also who will be of the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. There are three things which follow in order: love to the Lord, wisdom, and use, as was said above (n. 352); so also here, mutual love, understanding or perception, and will or action; these likewise make one, so that if one of them is wanting, the other two are not anything; the will of serving with the action, is the effect, thus the ultimate, in which the two former are and co-exist. The reason why "Manasseh" has this signification, is, because Joseph, who was the father of Manasseh and Ephraim, signifies the spiritual of the church; and the spiritual of the church is the good of the will, and at the same time the truth of the understanding; hence it is that "Manasseh" signifies the voluntary of the church, and "Ephraim" its intellectual. "Manasseh" signifies the voluntary of the church, because "Ephraim" signifies its intellectual, as appears manifestly in Hosea, where Ephraim is so frequently mentioned; and as "Manasseh" signifies the voluntary of the church, he also signifies act, for the will is the endeavor of every act, and where there is endeavor, there is action, when it is possible. Mention is made of "Manasseh" in several places, as when he was born (Gen. 41:50-52); when he was accepted of Jacob as if instead of Simeon (Gen. 48:3-5) and blessed by him (Gen. 48:15, 16); and by Moses, (Deut. 33:17) and moreover in Isaiah 9:18-20; Psalms 60:7; 80:2; 108:8. From which it may in some measure be seen, that by "Manasseh" is signified the voluntary of the church.356.
Verse 7. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand, signifies spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor or charity, with those who will be of the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Simeon," in the highest sense, is signified providence; in the spiritual sense, love towards the neighbor or charity; and, in the natural sense, obedience and hearing. In the two foregoing series they are treated of who are in the Lord's celestial kingdom; but in this series they are treated of who are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom; the love of the latter is called spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor, and charity. The reason why Simeon and his tribe represented this love, and therefore signify it in the Word, is because he was born after Reuben, and immediately before Levi, and by these three, Reuben, Simeon, and Levi, in their order, is signified truth in the understanding, or faith; truth in the will, or charity; and truth in act, or good work; in like manner as by Peter, James, and John. That Simeon and his tribe might therefore represent truth in the will, which is both charity and obedience, he was named from hearing, and to hear signifies both to understand truth and to will or obey it; to understand it when it is said to hear anyone, and to will and obey it, when it is said to listen to anyone, or to hearken.  Here something shall be said concerning love towards the neighbor, or charity: love towards the neighbor, is the love of obeying the Lord's commandments, which are chiefly those contained in the second table of the Decalogue, and which are, thou shalt not kill; thou shalt not commit whoredom; thou shalt not steal; thou shalt not bear false witness; thou shalt not covet the things which are thy neighbor's. The man who will not do such things because they are sins, loves the neighbor; for he does not love the neighbor who hates him, and from hatred wishes to kill him; he does not love the neighbor who desires to commit whoredom with his wife; nor does he love the neighbor who wishes to steal and plunder his goods, and so on. This, also, Paul teaches in the following words: For he that loveth another, hath fulfilled the law. For this, Thou shalt not commit whoredom, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet, and if there be any other commandment, it is comprehended in this word, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself; therefore charity is the fulfilling of the law (Rom. 8:8-10).357.
Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand, signifies the affection of truth from good, from whence comes intelligence with those who will be of the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Levi," in the highest sense, is signified love and mercy; in the spiritual sense, charity in act, which is the good of life; and, in the natural sense, consociation and conjunction. He was named the name also from adhering, by which, in the Word, is signified conjunction through love. But by "Levi" is here signified the love or affection of truth, and thence intelligence, because it follows after Simeon, and in this series forms the intermediate. Since Levi represented these things, therefore this tribe was appointed to the priesthood (Num. 3:1 to the end; Deut. 21:5; and in other places). That the tribe of Levi signifies the love of truth, which is the essential love from which the church is a church, and thence intelligence, may appear from these passages: The sons of Levi are chosen by Jehovah to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name (Deut. 21:5). "To bless in the name of Jehovah" is to teach; which they alone can do, who are in the affection of truth, and thence in intelligence. They guard Thy Word, and kept Thy covenant; they shall teach Jacob Thy judgments, and Israel Thy law (Deut. 33:8-11). The Lord shall suddenly come to His temple, and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and He shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver (Mal. 3:1, 3). "To purify the sons of Levi," is to purify those who are in the affection of truth. As that affection flourishes from intelligence, therefore: The rod of Levi, upon which was written the name of Aaron, blossomed with almonds (Num. 17:2-11).358.
Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand, signifies the good of life with those who will be of the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Issachar" is signified, in the highest sense, the Divine good of truth, and the truth of good; in the spiritual sense, celestial conjugial love, which is the love of good and truth; and, in the natural sense, remuneration; but here the good of life, because in this class it is the third in order, and the third in any class signifies the ultimate, which is produced from the two former, as the effect from its causes; and the effect from spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor, and is signified by Simeon, through the affection of truth, which is signified by Levi, produces the good of life, which is "Issachar." He was also named from "hire" (Gen. 30:17, 18), thus from remuneration, and the good of life has remuneration in itself. Something of this sort is also signified by Issachar in his blessing by Moses: Be glad Zebulon in thy going out, and Issachar in thy tents. They shall call the people unto the mountain; there shall they sacrifice the sacrifices of justice, for they shall suck the abundance of the sea, and the hidden things concealed in the sand (Deut. 33:18-19). But by "Issachar," in his blessing by his father Israel (Gen. 49:14, 15) is signified meritorious good of life, as may be seen in The Arcana Coelestia, published at London (n. 6388).359.
Verse 8. Of the tribe of Zebulon were sealed twelve thousand, signifies the conjugial love of good and truth also with those who will be of the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Zebulon," in the highest sense, is signified the union of the Divine Itself and the Divine Human in the Lord; in the spiritual sense, the marriage of good and truth with those who are in heaven and in the church; and, in the natural sense, conjugial love itself; therefore here, by "Zebulon" is signified the conjugial love of good and truth; he was also named from "cohabitation" (Gen. 30:19, 22); and cohabitation is predicated of married partners whose minds are joined into one, for such conjunction is spiritual cohabitation. The conjugial love of good and truth, which is here signified by "Zebulon," is the conjugial love of the Lord and the church. The Lord is the good of love itself, and gives to the church to be truth from that good; and cohabitation is effected, when the man of the church receives good from the Lord in truths. In this case the marriage of good and truth takes place with man, which is the church itself, and he becomes a heaven. Hence it is that the kingdom of God, that is, heaven and the church, is so often compared in the Word to a marriage.360.
Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand, signifies the doctrine of good and truth with those who will be of the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. By "Joseph" is signified the Lord as to the spiritual Divine, in the spiritual sense, the spiritual kingdom; and, in the natural sense, fructification and multiplication; but by "Joseph" is here signified the doctrine of good and truth, which is with those who are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom. Joseph here has this signification, because he is named after the tribe of Zebulon, and before the tribe of Benjamin, thus in the middle; and the tribe which is first named in a series or class, signifies some love which is of the will; and the tribe which is named after it signifies something of wisdom which is of the understanding; and the tribe which is named last signifies some use or effect derived from them. Thus each series is full. As Joseph signifies the Lord's spiritual kingdom, therefore he was made ruler in Egypt (Gen. 41:38-44; Psalm 105:17-22); where each particular signifies such things as are of the Lord's spiritual kingdom. The spiritual kingdom is the Lord's royalty; and the celestial kingdom is His priesthood.  "Joseph," here signifies the doctrine of good and truth, because he is here in the place of Ephraim; and by "Ephraim" is signified the intellectual of the church; see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 79); and the intellectual of the church is all from the doctrine of good and truth from the Word. The reason why Joseph is here in the place of Ephraim, is because Manasseh, who was Joseph's other son, and signified the voluntary of the church, was before reckoned among the tribes (n. 355). The intellectual of the church being derived from the doctrine of good and truth, therefore that intellectual, and also that doctrine, are signified by "Joseph" in the following passages: Joseph is the son of a fruitful one, even a fruitful one near a fountain; in the strength of his bow he shall sit; he shall be blessed with the blessings of heaven from above, and with the blessings of the deep that lieth below (Gen. 49:22-26). "A fountain" signifies the Word, and "a bow" doctrine (n. 299). Blessed of Jehovah is the land of Joseph, for the precious things of heaven, for the dew, and for the deep lying below; and for the precious things of the products of the sun, and for the precious things of the products of the moons, and for the precious things of the earth and its fulness; let it come upon the head of Joseph (Deut. 33:13-17). By "the precious things" are signified the knowledges of good and truth, from which is doctrine: Who drink from bowls of wine, and are not grieved for the breaking of Joseph (Amos 6:6). And I will make the house of Judah powerful, and I will save the house of Joseph; and they shall be like mighty Ephraim, and their heart shall rejoice as through wine (Zech. 10:6-7). Here also "Joseph" signifies doctrine, and "wine," the truth of it from good (n. 316).361.
Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand, signifies the life of truth from good according to doctrine, with those who will be in the Lord's New Heaven and New Church. When by "Zebulon" is signified the conjugial love of good and truth; and by "Joseph," the doctrine of good and truth; then by "Benjamin" because he is third in the series, is signified the life of truth from good. Benjamin has this signification, because he was born last, and was called by his father Jacob, "the son of his right hand" (Gen. 35:18), and by the son of the right hand is signified truth from good; therefore also his tribe dwelt round about Jerusalem, where the tribe of Judah was, and the city of Jerusalem signified the church as to doctrine, and its environs the things which are from doctrine (see Josh. 18:11-28; Jer. 17:26; 32:8, 44; 33:13; and other places).362.
In the enumeration of the tribes of Israel neither Dan nor Ephraim is named; the reason is, because Dan was the last of the tribes, and his tribe dwelt in the most remote part of the land of Canaan, and thus could not signify anything in the Lord's New Heaven and New Church, where there will be only celestial and spiritual things; wherefore Manasseh is put in the place of Dan, while Joseph is put in the place of Ephraim; see above (n. 360).363.
Verse 9. After this I saw, and behold, a great multitude, which no one could number, signifies all the rest who are not of those enumerated, and yet are in the Lord's New Heaven and New Church, being those who make the ultimate heaven and the external church, whose quality no one knows but the Lord alone. That by "a great multitude" are signified the rest who are not enumerated above, and yet are in the Lord's Heaven and Church, is plain from verses 9-10, 13-17, where it is said, that "they stood before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palms in their hands;" and that "they serve Him in His temple; and He that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them;" besides many other things. By "numbering," in the spiritual sense, is signified to know what or of what quality they are; that such is the signification of numbering, will be seen in the next paragraph. But who they are in particular, who are meant by those who are called "a great multitude," cannot be known without first revealing an arcanum. The arcanum is this:  The whole heaven, together with the church on the earth, before the Lord, is as one Man; and because it is as one Man, there are those there who make the head, and thus the face with all its organs of the senses; and there are those who make the body with all its members. Those who are enumerated above make the face with all its organs of the senses; but these now mentioned, are those who make the body with all its members. That this is the case has been revealed to me; as also, that they who make the first class of the tribes (verse 5), are those who correspond to the forehead down to the eyes; that they who are of the second class (verse 6) are those who correspond to the eyes, together with the nose; the third class (verse 7), those who correspond to the ears and cheeks; and the fourth class (verse 8), those who correspond to the mouth and tongue.  The Lord's church is also internal and external; those who are meant by "the twelve tribes of Israel" are those who make the Lord's internal church, but they who are now mentioned are those who make the external church, and cohere as one with those enumerated above, as lower things with higher, thus as the body does with the head; therefore the twelve tribes of Israel signify the higher heavens and also the internal church, but these signify the lower heavens and the external church. That elsewhere these are also called "a great multitude," see below (n. 803, etc., and 811).364.
"To number," in the spiritual sense, signifies to know the quality, because a "number" in the Word does not signify a number, but its quality (n. 10); in this passage therefore, by "a great multitude which no one could number," in the natural sense, is meant what the words import, that there was an immense multitude; but in the spiritual sense, is meant that no one but the Lord alone knows their quality. For the Lord's heaven consists of innumerable societies, and these societies are distinguished according to the varieties of affections in general; in like manner all in each society, are distinguished in particular. The Lord alone knows the quality of the affection of each individual, and disposes all in order according thereto. By "numbering," the angels understand, to know this quality. The same is meant, in the Word, in these passages: When Belshazzar drank wine out of the vessels of the temple of Jerusalem, there was written upon the wall, Thou art numbered, thou art numbered (Dan. 5:2, 5, 25). I shall go to the gates of hell, I am numbered (Isa. 38:10). A voice of the tumult of the kingdoms, Jehovah of hosts numbereth the host of war (Isa. 13:4). See, who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number (Isa. 40:26). Jehovah who numbereth the host of the stars (Ps. 147:4). The flocks shall pass again under the hands of him that numbereth (Jer. 33:13). My steps are numbered (Job 14:16). The houses and towers of Zion and of Jerusalem are numbered (Isa. 22:9-10; 33:18-19; Ps. 48:12-14). To "number" is to know the quality. From the signification of "numbers" and of "numbering," it may appear why punishment was denounced against David for numbering the people or the tribes of Israel, and why he said to the prophet Gad: I have sinned greatly in what I have done (2 Sam. 24:1, to the end). And why, when the people were numbered by Moses as to all their tribes, it was commanded that: Everyone should give an expiation of his soul to Jehovah in numbering, that there be no plague among them in numbering them (Exod. 30:12). The reason was, because "to number" signified to know their quality as to their spiritual state, thus as to the state of the church meant by "the twelve tribes of Israel," which the Lord alone knows.365.
Of every nation, and tribes, and peoples, and tongues, signifies all in the Christian world, who are in religion from good and in truths from doctrine. By "every nation and tribes," are meant those who are in religion from good, who are of the lowest heaven (n. 363); by "nations," those who are in good (n. 920, 921); and by "tribe," religion (n. 349); by "peoples and tongues" are meant those who are in truths from doctrine; by "peoples," those who are in truths (n. 483); and by "tongue," doctrine (n. 282). By "out of every nation, tribes, peoples, and tongues," taken together in the spiritual sense, are therefore signified all who are in religion from good, and in truths from doctrine.366.
Standing before the throne, and before the Lamb, signifies hearing the Lord, and doing what He commands. By "standing before God," is signified to hear and do what He commands, as he who stands before a king. The same is also signified by "standing before God," in other parts of the Word; thus: The angel said to Zacharias, I am Gabriel, that standeth before God (Luke 1:19). There shall not be cut off a man standing before Me all the days (Jer. 35:19). These are the two sons of oil standing before the Lord of the whole earth (Zech. 4:14). He hath separated the tribe of Levi to stand before Jehovah (Deut. 10:8; and in other places).367.
Clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands, signifies communication and conjunction with the higher heavens, and confession from Divine truths. That "to be clothed with white robes," signifies to have communication and conjunction with the heavens, may be seen above (n. 328). "To hold palms in their hands" signifies confession from Divine truth because "palms" signify Divine truths; for every tree signifies something of the church, and "palms" signify the Divine truth in ultimates, which is the Divine truth of the sense of the letter of the Word; for this reason: On all the walls of the temple of Jerusalem, within and without, and also upon the doors, were carved cherubim and palms (1 Kings 6:29, 32). The same in the new temple, mentioned in Ezekiel 41:18-20. By "cherubim" is signified the Word (n. 239), and by "palms" Divine truths therein. That by "palms" are signified the Divine truths of the Word, and by "palms in their hands" confessions from them, may appear from its being commanded that: At the feast of tabernacles they should take fruits of the tree of honor, and leaves of palms, and should be glad before Jehovah (Lev. 23:39-40). When Jesus went to Jerusalem to the feast, they took branches of palms, and went to meet Him, crying, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord (John 12:12-13). By which was signified confession from Divine truths concerning the Lord. "The palm" signifies Divine truth also in David: The just shall flourish like the palm, those that be planted in the house of Jehovah shall grow, he shall spring up in the courts of our God (Ps. 92:12-13). In like manner in other places. Because Jericho was a city near Jordan, and by "the river Jordan" was signified that which is first in the church, and this is the Divine truth, such as it is in the sense of the letter of the Word, therefore it was called "the city of palms" (Deut. 34:3; Judg. 1:16; 3:13). For Jordan was the first boundary or entrance into the land of Canaan, and by the land of Canaan is signified the church.368.
Verse 10. And crying with a great voice, saying, Salvation to our God, that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, signifies the acknowledgment from the heart that the Lord is their Savior. To cry with a great voice, signifies acknowledgment from the heart; "Salvation to our God that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb," signifies that the Lord is salvation itself, and that the salvation of all is from Him, thus that He is the Savior. By "Him that sitteth upon the throne and the Lamb," is meant the Lord alone; by "Him that sitteth upon the throne," His Divine from which all things are, and by "the Lamb," His Divine Human; as may also be seen above (n. 273); they are both named, because from His Divine, from which all things are by means of His Divine Human, He was the Saviour; that they are one, is evident from the passages where it is said: The Lamb in the midst of the throne (Rev. 5:6; 7:17). The Lord many times in the Word is called "salvation," by which is meant that He is the Saviour; as: My salvation shall not tarry, and I will give salvation in Zion (Isa. 46:13). Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh (Isa. 62:11). I will give thee that thou mayest be My salvation unto the end of the earth (Isa. 49:6). This is Jehovah whom we have waited for, we will exult and be glad in His salvation (Isa. 25:9). Salvation, in the Hebrew language, is called Joschia, which is Jesus.369.
Verse 11. And all the angels stood around the throne, and the elders, and the four animals, signifies all in the whole heaven hearing and doing what the Lord commands. By "the animals and elders" are meant the angels of the higher heavens, as above, and also below (n. 808); but by "angels" are here meant the angels of the lower heavens, thus all in the whole heaven. "To stand," signifies to hear and do what He commands (n. 366).370.
And fell before the throne on their faces and adored God, signifies the humiliation of their heart, and, from humiliation, adoration of the Lord. That "to fall upon their faces and adore," is humiliation of heart, and thence adoration, is evident. Humiliation before the Lord and adoration of Him, is signified by "falling before the throne and adoring God," because by "God" is meant His Divine, which is the Divine from which all things are, and at the same time, His Divine Human (n. 368); for both together are one God, because they are one Person.371.
Verse 12. Saying, Amen, signifies the Divine truth and confirmation therefrom; as may be seen above (n. 23, 28, 61).372.
Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, signifies the Divine spiritual things of the Lord. All acknowledgment and confession of the Lord in general, comprehends these two, that He is the Divine love itself and the Divine wisdom itself, and consequently that love, and all that is of it, with those who are in heaven and in the church, is from Him; in like manner wisdom, and all that is of it. Whatsoever proceeds from the Lord's Divine love, is called the celestial Divine, and what from His Divine wisdom, is called the spiritual Divine. The Lord's spiritual Divine is meant by "glory, wisdom, and thanksgiving;" and His celestial Divine, by "honor, power, and might," which follow. "The blessing" which precedes, signifies both, as may be seen above (n. 289). That "glory" is predicated of the Divine truth, thus of the spiritual Divine (see n. 249). That "wisdom" has relation to the same, is evident. That "thanksgiving" has also a like reference, is, because it is performed from the Divine truth; for man gives thanks from it and by it.373.
And honor, and power, and might, signifies the Lord's celestial Divine. In the preceding article it is said that these three, "honor, power, and might," in the Word, when applied to the Lord, are predicated of the celestial Divine, or the Divine love, or His Divine good. That "honor" is so predicated, may be seen (n. 249); and "might" (n. 22); and that "power" is so likewise, may be evident from the passages in the Word where it is mentioned. It is to be known, that in all the particulars of the Word there is a marriage of good and truth, and that there are expressions which have relation to good, and expressions which have relation to truth; but these expressions can only be distinguished by those who study the spiritual sense. From that sense it appears what expressions have relation to good or love, and what to truth or wisdom; and from many passages it has been given to know, that "honor, power, and might," occur when it treats of the Divine good. That "power" also relates to the Divine good may be seen in Matthew 13:54; 24:30; Mark 13:25-26; Luke 1:17, 35; 9:1; 21:27; and elsewhere. That in the particulars of the Word there is a marriage of the Lord and the church, and thence a marriage of good and truth, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 80-90).374.
Be unto our God for ages of ages, signifies these things in the Lord and from the Lord to eternity. This is evident from what was said above; and also that "for ages of ages," is to eternity.375.
Amen, signifies the consent of all. In this verse "Amen" is said at the beginning, and again at the end; when it is said at the beginning it signifies truth, and thence confirmation (n. 371); but when at the end, it signifies the confirmation and consent of all that it is the truth.376.
Verse 13. And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, Who are these that are arrayed in white robes, and whence came they? Verse 14. And I said unto him, Lord, thou knowest, signifies the desire of knowing, and the will of interrogating, and the answer and information. The reason why John was questioned concerning these things, is, because it is common in all Divine worship, that man should first will, desire, and pray, and the Lord then answer, inform, and do; otherwise man does not receive anything Divine. Now as John saw "those who were arrayed in white robes," and was desirous to know and to ask who they were, and as this was perceived in heaven, therefore he was first asked and then informed. The same occurred to the prophet Zechariah, when he saw several things represented to him, as may appear from Zech. 1:9, 19, 21; 4:2, 5, 11-12; 5:2. 6, 10; 6:4. Besides, we frequently read in the Word, that the Lord answers when they call and cry; as in Psalms 4:1; 17:6; 20:9; 34:4; 91:15; 120:1; also, that he gives when they ask (Matthew 7:7, 8; 21:22; John 14:13, 14; 15:7; 16:23-27). But yet the Lord gives them to ask, and what to ask; therefore the Lord knows it beforehand; but still the Lord wills that man should ask first, to the end that he may do it as from himself, and thus that it should be appropriated to him; otherwise, if the petition itself were not from the Lord, it would not be said in those places, that "they should receive whatsoever they asked."377.
And he said, These are they that come out of great affliction, signifies that they are those who have been in temptations, and have fought against evils and falsities. That "affliction" is infestation from evils and falsities, and spiritual combat against them, which is temptation (see n. 33, 95, 100-101).378.
And have washed their robes, signifies, and who have cleansed their religions principles from the evils of falsity. By "washing," in the Word, is signified to cleanse from evils and falsities; and by "robes" are signified general truths (n. 328). General truths are the knowledges of good and truth from the sense of the letter of the Word, according to which they have lived, and thence they are religious principles; and as every religious principle relates to good and truth, therefore robes are twice mentioned, namely, "they have washed their robes" and "have made their robes white." "Robes," or religious principles, are cleansed only with those who fight against evils, and so reject falsities; thus by temptations, which are signified by "great affliction" (n. 377). That "to be washed" signifies to be cleansed from evils and falsities, and so to be reformed and regenerated, may be seen evidently from the following passages: When the Lord hath washed off the filth of the daughters of Zion, and hath washed away the blood of Jerusalem by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of purifying (Isa. 4:4). Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doing from Mine eyes; cease to do evil (Isa. 1:16). Wash thy heart from wickedness, O Jerusalem, that thou mayest be saved (Jer. 4:14). Wash me from my iniquity, and I shall be whiter than snow (Ps. 51:2, 7). If thou shouldst wash thee with nitre, and shouldst take thee much soap, thy iniquity will still retain its spots (Jer. 2:21). If I should wash me in the waters of snow, and should cleanse my hands with soap, still my garments shall abhor me (Job 9:30-31). Who washed his garment in wine, his covering in the blood of grapes (Gen. 49:11). This is said of the celestial church, from which they are who are in love to the Lord, and in the highest sense it is concerning the Lord; "wine" and "the blood of grapes" is the Divine truth spiritual and celestial. I have washed thee with waters, and I have washed away the blood from off thee (Ezek. 16:9). This is said of Jerusalem; "waters" are truths, and "bloods" are the adulterations of truth.  It may be evident from these things what was represented and thence signified by the "washings" in the Israelitish church. Aaron should wash himself before he put on the garments of ministry (Lev. 16:24). And before he drew near to the altar to minister (Exod. 30:18-21; 40:30-31). In like manner the Levites (Num. 8:6-7). In like manner others, who were made unclean by sins; even that they washed the vessels (Lev. 11:32; 14:8-9; 15:5-13; 17:15-16; Matt. 23:25-26). They were sanctified by the washings (Exod. 29:4; 40:12; Lev. 8:6). Naaman of Syria washed himself in the Jordan (2 Kings 5:10, 14). Therefore: That they might wash themselves, the brazen sea and many lavers were placed near the temple (1 Kings 7:23-39). And that the Lord washed the feet of the disciples (John 13:5-10). And He said to the blind man that he should wash in the pool of Siloam (John 9:6-7, 11).  From these things it may appear that "washing" with the sons of Israel represented spiritual washing, which is cleansing from evils and falsities, and thence reformation and regeneration. From what has been said above, it is also evident what was signified by: The baptism in Jordan by John (Matt. 3:5-7; Mark 1:4-13). And what by these words of John concerning the Lord, that: He would baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Luke 3:16; John 1:33). And of himself, that: He baptized with water (John 1:26). The meaning of which is, that the Lord washes or purifies man by the Divine truth and the Divine good, and that John represented this by his baptism; for the "Holy Spirit" is the Divine truth, "fire" is the Divine good, and "water" is the representative of both; for "water" signifies the truth of the Word, which becomes good by a life according to it (n. 50).379.
And made their robes white in the blood of the Lamb, signifies, and have purified them from the falsities of evil by truths, and thus are reformed by the Lord. There are evils of falsity and falsities of evil; evils of falsity with those who from religion believe that evils do not condemn, provided they confess with their lips that they are sinners; and falsities of evil with those who confirm evils in themselves. By "robes" are here signified general truths from the Word, which constitute their religious principles as above (n. 378). It is said, "they made white their robes in the blood of the Lamb," because "white" is predicated of truths (n. 167, 231, 232); thus, that they purified falsities by truths. It also signifies that thus they were reformed by the Lord; because all who have fought against evils in the world, and have believed in the Lord, after their departure out of the world, are taught by the Lord, and are withdrawn from the falsities of their religion by truths, and thus are reformed. The reason is because they who shun evils as sins are in the good of life; and the good of life desires truths, and acknowledges and accepts them; but evil of life never. By "the blood of the Lamb" here, and in other parts of the Word, it is believed that the Lord's passion of the cross is signified; but the passion of the cross was the last temptation, by which the Lord fully conquered the hells, and fully glorified His Human, by which two He saved man; see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 12-14, 15-17;6 also above n. 67). And because the Lord thus fully glorified His Human, that is made it Divine, therefore nothing else can be meant by His "flesh," and "blood" but the Divine in Him and from Him; by "flesh," the Divine good of the Divine love; and by "blood," the Divine truth from that good.  "Blood" is mentioned in many places in the Word, and everywhere signifies, in the spiritual sense, the Divine truth of the Lord, which also is the Divine truth of the Word; and, in the opposite sense, the Divine truth of the Word falsified or profaned, as may appear from the following passages: First: that "blood" signifies the Divine truth of the Lord or of the Word is manifest from these considerations: that blood was called "the blood of the covenant," and "covenant" is conjunction, and this is effected from the Lord by His Divine truth; as in Zechariah: By the blood of thy covenant I will send forth the bound out of the pit (Zech. 9:11). And in Moses: Moses, after he had read the book of the Law in the ears of the people, sprinkled half of the blood upon the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which Jehovah hath made with you concerning all these Words (Exod. 24:3-8). And Jesus took the cup, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for this is My blood, that of the New Covenant (Matt. 26:27-28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20). By "the blood of the New Covenant" or Testament, nothing else is signified but the Word, which is called "Covenant" and "Testament," Old and New, thus the Divine truth therein.  As this is signified by "blood," therefore the Lord gave them the wine, saying, "This is my blood"; and "wine" signifies the Divine truth (n. 316); it is also on this account called "the blood of grapes" (Gen. 49:11; Deut. 32:14). This is again evident from these words of the Lord: Verily, verily, I say unto you, except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you. For my flesh is truly food, and my blood is truly drink. He that eateth My flesh and drinketh My blood, abideth in Me, and I in him (John 6:53-56). That by "blood" is here meant the Divine truth, appears manifestly, because it is said that he who drinks has life, and abideth in the Lord, and the Lord in him. That the Divine truth and a life according to it effects this, and that the Holy Supper confirms it, can be known in the church.  Since "blood" signifies the Divine truth of the Lord, which is also the Divine truth of the Word, and this is the Old and New Covenant or Testament itself, therefore blood was the most holy representative in the Israelitish church, in which each and all things were correspondences of spiritual things; as that: They should take of the paschal blood, and put it upon the posts and the lintels of the houses, that the plague might not come upon them (Exod. 12:7, 13, 22). The blood of the burnt-offering should be sprinkled upon the altar, on the foundations of the altar, upon Aaron, his sons, and their garments (Exod. 29:12, 16, 20-21; Lev. 1:5; 11, 15; 3:2, 8, 13; 4:25, 30, 34; 5:9; 8:15, 24; 17:6; Num. 18:17; Deut. 12:27). Also upon the veil which was over the ark, upon the mercy-seat, and upon the horns of the altar of incense (Lev. 4:6, 7, 17-18; 16:12-15).  The same is signified by "the blood of the Lamb" in the following passage in Revelation: And there was war in heaven; Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony (Rev. 12:7, 11). For it cannot be thought that Michael and his angels overcame the dragon by anything else than the Divine truth of the Lord in the Word; for, in heaven, the angels cannot think of any blood; nor do they think of the Lord's passion, but of the Divine truth and of His resurrection. Therefore, when man thinks of the Lord's blood, the angels perceive His Divine truth; and when he thinks of the Lord's passion, they perceive His glorification, and then His resurrection only. It has been granted me to know this by much experience.  That "blood" signifies the Divine truth is also evident from these words in David: God will preserve the souls of the needy, and precious shall their blood be in His eyes; and they shall live, and He shall give them of the gold of Sheba (Ps. 72:13-15). "Blood precious in the eyes of God" is for the Divine truth with them; "the gold of Sheba" is wisdom from it. In Ezekiel: Gather yourselves together to the great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh and drink blood; ye shall drink the blood of the princes of the earth, and ye shall drink blood even to drunkenness, of My sacrifice which I sacrifice for you; thus I will give My glory among the nations (Ezek. 39:17-21). By "blood" here cannot be meant blood, because it is said that "they shall drink the blood of the princes of the earth," and that "they shall drink blood even to drunkenness." But the true sense of the Word results, when by "blood" is understood the Divine truth. The Lord's church also is there treated of, which He was about to establish with the Gentiles.  Secondly: that "blood" signifies the Divine truth, may be clearly seen from its opposite sense, in which it signifies the Divine truth of the Word falsified or profaned, as is evident from the following passages: Who stoppeth his ears lest he hear of blood, and shutteth his eyes lest he see evil (Isa. 33:15). Thou shalt destroy them that speak a lie; Jehovah abhorreth the man of blood and deceit (Ps. 5:6). Everyone that is written for life in Jerusalem when the Lord shall have washed away the blood thereof from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of purifying (Isa. 4:3-4). In the day that thou wast born, I saw thee trampled down in blood; and I said, In thine own blood live; I washed thee, and washed away the blood from off thee (Ezek. 16:5-6, 9, 22, 36, 38). The blind wandered in the streets, they were polluted with blood, and what they cannot do, they touch with their garments (Lam. 4:13-14). The garment is polluted with blood (Isa. 9:5). Also in thy skirts is found the blood of the souls of the innocents (Jer. 2:34). Your hands are full of blood; wash you, purify you; put away the wickedness of your doings (Isa. 1:15-16). Your hands are polluted with blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips have spoken a lie, they make haste to shed innocent blood (Isa. 59:3, 7). For Jehovah goeth out to visit the iniquity of the earth; then the earth shall reveal its blood (Isa. 26:21). As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, who were not of blood (John 1:12-13). In Babylon was found the blood of the prophets and saints (Rev. 18:24). The sea became as the blood of one dead, and the fountains of waters became blood (Rev. 16:3-4; Isa. 15:9; Ps. 105:29). The same is signified by the rivers, collections, and lakes of waters in Egypt being turned into blood (Exod. 7:15, 25). The moon shall be turned into blood before the great day of Jehovah cometh (Joel 2:31). The moon became blood (Rev. 6:12). In these places, and many others, "blood" signifies the truth of the Word falsified, and also profaned; which yet may be seen more manifestly still by reading those passages in the Word in their series. Since therefore by "blood," in the opposite sense, is signified the truth of the Word falsified or profaned, it is evident that by "blood," in the genuine sense, is signified the truth of the Word not falsified.380.
Verse 15. Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple; and He that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them, signifies that they are in the presence of the Lord, and constantly and faithfully live according to the truths which they receive from Him in His church, and that the Lord continually gives good in their truths. "Therefore are they before the throne of God," signifies that they are in the Lord's presence; "and serve Him day and night," signifies that they constantly and faithfully live according to the truths, that is, the precepts, which they receive from Him. By "serving the Lord" nothing else is signified; "in His temple" signifies in the church (n. 191). "He that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them," signifies that the Lord continually gives good in the truths which they receive from Him. That this is signified by "dwelling among them," is because in the Word, "to dwell" is predicted of good, and "to serve," of truth. This arcanum now is to be disclosed, that the marriage of the Lord with the church consists in this: that the Lord flows into angels and men with the good of love, and that angels and men receive Him, or the good of His love, in truths; that hereby the marriage of good and truth is effected, which marriage is the church itself, and becomes heaven with them. Such being the nature of the Lord's influx and reception of Him, therefore the Lord looks at angels and men in the forehead, and they look at the Lord through the eyes; for the forehead corresponds to the good of love, and the eyes correspond to truths from that good, which thus by conjunction become the truths of good. But the Lord's influx with truths into angels and men, is not as the influx of good into them, for it is mediate, flowing from good, as light does from fire, being received by them in the understanding, and only so far in the will as they do truths. This then is the marriage of love and wisdom, or of good and truth from the Lord, with those who receive them in the heavens and on earth. This arcanum was disclosed for the sake of making it known how it is to be understood, that the Lord continually gives good in their truths.381.
Verse 16. They shall not hunger any more, neither thirst anymore signifies that hereafter there shall be no deficiency of goods and truths with them. By "not hungering" is signified to have no lack of good, and by "not thirsting" is signified to have no lack of truth; for to hunger is predicated of bread and food, and to thirst, of wine and water; and by "bread" and "food" is signified good and by "wine" and "water" is signified truth; see above (n. 323).382.
Neither shall the sun fall upon them, nor any heat, signifies that hereafter they shall not have lusts to evil, nor to the falsity of evil. "The sun shall not fall upon them," signifies that they shall not have lusts to evil, "neither shall any heat fall upon them," signifies that they shall not have lusts to falsity. That "the sun" signifies the Divine love and thence the affections of good; and, in the opposite sense, diabolical love and thence lusts to evil, may be seen above (n. 53). But the reason why "heat" signifies lusts to the falsities of evil, is, because falsity is produced from evil, as heat is from the sun; for when the will loves evil, the understanding loves falsity, and burns with the lust of confirming it, and evil confirmed in the understanding, is the falsity of evil; consequently the falsity of evil is evil in its form. "Heat" and "to be hot" have a like signification in the following passages: Blessed is the man that trusteth in Jehovah, he shall not see when heat cometh (Jer. 17:7-8). For thou hast been a refuge to the needy from the inundation, a shade from the heat; He tempered the heat with the shadow of a cloud (Isa. 25:4-5). When they are heated, I will make them drunken, that they may sleep the sleep of an age (Jer. 51:39). They are all hot as an oven, there is none among them that calleth unto Me (Hos. 7:7). He beholdeth not the way of the vineyards. Drought and heat seize the waters of the snow (Job 24:18-19). The fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and it was given unto him to scorch men with great heat, and they blasphemed the name of God (Rev. 16:8-9). To say to the bound, Go forth; they shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat smite them (Isa. 49:9-10).383.
Verse 17. For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, signifies that the Lord alone will teach them. By "the Lamb in the midst of the throne," is signified the Lord as to His Divine Human in the inmost, and thus in all things of heaven; "in the midst" is in the inmost, and thus in all things (n. 44); "the throne" is heaven (n. 14); and "the Lamb" is the Lord as to His Divine Human (n. 269, 291); and He who is in the inmost, and thus in all things of heaven, alone feeds, that is, teaches all. If it be asked, how He alone can feed all, be it known that it is because He is God, and because in the whole heaven He is as the soul in its body, for heaven is from Him as one man. "To feed" is to teach, because the church, in the Word, is called "a flock" and the men of the church are called "sheep" and "lambs," hence "to feed" signifies to teach, and "the shepherd" one that teaches; and this in many places, as: In that day they shall feed the flocks in a wide meadow (Isa. 30:23). He shall feed his flock like a shepherd (Isa. 40:11). They shall feed in the ways 383-1 and their pastures shall be in all hillsides (Isa. 49:9). Israel shall feed in Carmel and Bashan (Jer. 50:19). I will seek my flock, I will feed them in a good pasture, and in a fat pasture upon the mountains of Israel (Ezek. 34:12-14). Feed thy people, let them feed in Bashan and Gilead (Micah. 7:14). The remnant of Israel shall feed, and they shall rest (Zeph. 3:13). Jehovah is my Shepherd, I shall not want, He maketh me to lie down in the pastures of herb (Ps. 23:1-2). The Lord hath chosen David to feed Jacob and Israel, and he fed them (Ps. 78:70-72). Jesus said to Peter, Feed My lambs, the second and third time He said, Feed My sheep (John 21:15-17).384.
And shall lead them unto living fountains of waters, signifies, and lead them by the truths of the Word to conjunction with Himself. Since by "a living fountain of waters" is signified the Lord, and also the Word, and by "waters" are signified truths (n. 50), and since by the Divine truths of the Word, when they are made of the life, which is done when one lives according to them, conjunction is effected with the Lord, therefore by "leading them to living fountains of waters," is signified to lead by the truths of the Word to conjunction with the Lord. That by "a fountain" and "fountains" is signified the Lord, and also the Word, is evident from these passages: All my fountains are in Thee, O Jehovah (Ps. 87:7). They have deserted Jehovah, the fountain of living waters (Jer. 17:13). The people deserted Me the fountain of living waters (Jer. 2:13). Thou makest them drink of the river of pleasures, for with Thee is the fountain of life (Ps. 36:8-9). In that day shall a fountain be opened to the inhabitants of Jerusalem (Zech. 13:1). Israel dwelt securely solitary at the fountain of Jacob (Deut. 33:28). When the Lord sat at the fountain of Jacob, He said to the woman, The water that I shall give shall become a fountain of water springing up into eternal life (John 4:5-20). Joseph is the son of a fruitful one near a fountain (Gen. 49:22). Bless the Lord from the fountain of Israel (Ps. 68:26). Then with joy shall ye draw waters from the fountains of salvation (Isa. 12:3). Unto him that thirsteth I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely (Rev. 21:6). I will lead them to the fountains of waters in a straight way (Jer. 31:9). Similar to these and the above in Revelation, are said also in Isaiah: They shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat smite them, for He that hath mercy on them shall lead them even to the fountains of waters (Isa. 49:10).385.
And God shall wipe away every tear from their eyes, signifies that they shall no longer be in combats against evils and their falsities, and thus not in grief, but in goods and truths, and thence in celestial joys from the Lord. That these things are signified by the Lamb "wiping away every tear from their eyes," is, because above (in verse 14), it is said, that "these are they which come out of great affliction," by which is signified that they are those who have been in temptations, and have fought against evils (n. 377); and who afterwards are not in combats against evils, the same are in goods and truths, and thence in celestial joys. The following passage in Isaiah has a similar signification: He will swallow up death forever, and the Lord Jehovah will wipe away the tears from all faces. Then they shall say in that day, Behold this is our God, whom we have waited for that He might deliver us; This is Jehovah, whom we have waited for, we will exult and be glad in His salvation (Isa. 25:8-9).386.
To the above I will add this Relation. Once when I looked around in the spiritual world, I heard as it were the gnashing of teeth, and also as it were a knocking, and mixed with them a grating sound; and I inquired what they were. And the angels who were with me said, "There are colleges which are called by us diversoria, where disputations are carried on. These disputations are so heard at a distance, but on coming near to them they are only heard as disputations." I drew near and saw small houses, constructed of reeds plastered with mud. And I desired to look in through a window, but there was none; for it was not allowed to enter through the door, because the light from heaven would flow in and confuse them. But suddenly a window was made on the right side; and then I heard them complain that they were in darkness. Shortly afterwards a window was made on the left side, and that on the right was closed; upon which the darkness gradually dispersed, and they seemed to themselves to be in the light. After this I was permitted to go in through the door and hear. There was a table in the middle, and benches round about; but they all seemed to me to stand upon the benches, and to dispute sharply with one another concerning Faith and Charity: on one side, that faith was the principal thing of the church; on the other, that charity was. They who made faith the principal, said, "Have we not to do with God by faith, and with man by charity? Is not faith therefore heavenly, and charity earthly? Are we not saved by what is heavenly, and not by what is earthly? Again, cannot God give faith from heaven, because it is heavenly, and must not man procure to himself charity, because it is earthly? And what man procures for himself, is not of the church, and therefore does not save? Can anyone be justified in the sight of God by works, which are called works of charity? Believe us, we are not only justified, but also sanctified by faith alone, provided that faith be not defiled by things meritorious, which are from the works of charity." Besides many more things.  But they who made charity the principal thing of the church, sharply refuted these things, saying, "That charity saves, and not faith; are not all dear to God, and does He not will the good of all? How can God effect this, except by men? Does God only give to men to talk with one another about such things as relate to faith? and does He not give to men to do those things which are of charity? Do you not see that it is absurd in you to say that charity is earthly? Charity is heavenly, and because you do not do the good of charity, your faith is earthly. How do you receive faith but as a stock or a stone? You say by the hearing of the Word only. But how can the Word operate by being heard only, and this too upon a stock or a stone? Perhaps you are vivified without knowing it; but what is this vivification except in being enabled to say that faith alone saves? But what faith is, and what saving faith, you do not know."  But there then arose one, who, by the angel that was talking with me, was called a Syncretist. He took off a turban from his head, and placed it on the table; but suddenly put it on again, because he was bald. He said, "Attend! you are all in error; it is true that faith is spiritual, and charity, moral; but yet they are joined together; and this by the Word, by the Holy Spirit, and by effect, without man's knowledge, which indeed may be called obedience, but in which man has no part. I have thought of these things with myself for a long time, and have at length discovered, that man may receive faith from God, which is spiritual, but that he cannot be moved by God to charity, which is spiritual, except as a pillar of salt."  Having said this, he was applauded by those who were in faith alone, but hooted by those who were in charity; and the latter said, with indignation, "Hear, friend; you do not know that there is a moral life which is spiritual, and that there is a moral life merely natural; a moral life which is spiritual with those who do good from God, and yet as if from themselves; and a moral life merely natural with those who do good from hell, and yet as if from themselves."  It was said that the disputation was heard as a gnashing of teeth, and as a knocking, with which a grating sound was mixed. The disputation heard as a gnashing of teeth, was by those who were in faith alone; but the disputation heard as a knocking, was by those who were in charity alone; and the grating sound that was mixed with them was from the Syncretist. The sounds of them were so heard at a distance, because when in the world, they all spent their time in disputations and did not shun any evil, and therefore they did not do any spiritual moral good; and, moreover, they were entirely ignorant that the all of faith is truth, and the all of charity, good, and that truth without good is not truth in spirit, and that good without truth is not good in spirit, and that thus one must make the other. The reason why there was darkness when a window was made on the right side, is because light from heaven flowing in on that side affects the will; and the reason why there was light when the window on the right side was shut, and another was made in the left, is because light flowing in from heaven on the left side affects the understanding, and every man may be in the light of heaven as to his understanding, provided the will be closed as to its evil.387.
Revelation 8 1. And when He had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven as of half an hour. 2. And I saw the seven angels, who stood before God; and there were given to them seven trumpets. 3. And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer; and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne. 4. And the smoke of the incense went up with the prayers of the saints out of the hand of the angel before God. 5. And the angel took the censer, and filled it with the fire of the altar, and cast it unto the earth: and there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings, and an earthquake. 6. And the seven angels that had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound. 7. And the first angel sounded, and there became hail and fire, mingled with blood; and they were cast upon the earth; and the third part of the trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. 8. And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea; and the third part of the sea became blood. 9. And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea that had souls died; and the third part of the ships perished. 10. And the third angel sounded, and there fell from heaven a great star burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters. 11. And the name of the star is called Wormwood; and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter. 12. And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so that the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise. 13. And I saw, and I heard an angel flying in the midst of heaven, saying with a great voice, Woe, woe, woe, to them that dwell on the earth, by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels that are about to sound. THE SPIRITUAL SENSE The contents of the whole chapter The church of the Reformed is here treated of, as to the quality of those therein who are in faith alone: the preparation of the spiritual heaven for communication with them (verses 1-6). The exploration and manifestation of those therein, who are in the interiors of that faith (verse 7). Of those who are in its exteriors (verses 8-9). What they are as to the understanding of the Word (verses 10-11). That they are in falsities and thence in evils (verses 12-13). The contents of each verse Verse 1. "And when He had opened the seventh seal," signifies exploration by the Lord of the state of the church, and thence of the life of those who are in His spiritual kingdom, being those who are in charity and its faith, in this case who are in faith alone (n. 388). "There was silence in heaven as of half an hour," signifies that the angels of the Lord's spiritual kingdom were greatly amazed when they saw those who said they were in the faith in such a state (n. 389). Verse 2. "And I saw the seven angels who stood before God," signifies the entire spiritual heaven in the presence of the Lord, hearing and doing what He commands (n. 390). "And there were given to them seven trumpets," signifies the exploration and disclosure of the state of the church, and thence of the life of those who are in faith alone (n. 391). Verse 3. "And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer," signifies spiritual worship, which is from the good of charity by the truths of faith (n. 392). "And there was given him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne," signifies propitiation lest the angels of the Lord's spiritual kingdom should be hurt by the spirits of the satanic kingdom that were below (n. 393). Verse 4. "And the smoke of the incense went up with the prayers of the saints out of the hand of the angel before God," signifies the protection of them by the Lord (n. 394). Verse 5. "And the angel took the censer, and filled it with the fire of the altar, and cast it unto the earth," signifies spiritual love, in which is celestial love, and its influx into lower things, where they were who were in faith separated from charity (n. 395). "And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings, and an earthquake," signifies that after communication was opened with them, there were heard reasonings concerning faith alone, and confirmations in favor of it (n. 396). Verse 6. "And the seven angels that had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound," signifies that they were prepared and girded to explore the state of the church and thence the state of life with those whose religion is faith alone (n. 397). Verse 7. "The first angel sounded," signifies the exploration and manifestation of the quality of the state of the church with those who are interiorly in that faith (n. 398). "And there became hail and fire mingled with blood," signifies falsity from infernal love destroying good and truth, and falsifying the Word (n. 399). "And they were cast upon the earth, and the third part of the trees was burnt up," signifies that with them, every affection and perception of truth, which constitute the man of the church, had perished (n. 400). "And all green grass was burnt up," signifies thus every living thing of faith (n. 401). Verse 8. "And the second angel sounded," signifies the exploration and manifestation of what the state of the church is with those who are exteriorly in that faith (n. 402). "And as it were a mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea," signifies the appearance of infernal love with them (n. 403). "And the third part of the sea became blood," signifies that all general truths with them were falsified (n. 404). Verse 9. "And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea that had souls, died," signifies that they who have lived and do live this faith cannot be reformed and receive life (n. 405). "And the third part of the ships perished," signifies that all the knowledges of good and truth from the Word, serving for the use of life, were destroyed with them (n. 406). Verse 10. "And the third angel sounded," signifies the exploration and manifestation of the state of the church with those whose religion is faith alone, as to the affection and reception of truths from the Word (n. 407). "And there fell from heaven a great star, burning as it were a lamp," signifies the appearance of their own intelligence from pride arising from infernal love (n. 408). "And it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters," signifies that thence all the truths of the Word were altogether falsified (n. 409). Verse 11. "And the name of the star is called Wormwood; and the third part of the waters became wormwood," signifies the infernal falsity from which their own intelligence is derived, by which all the truths of the Word are falsified (n. 410). "And many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter," signifies the extinction of spiritual life from the falsified truths of the Word (n. 411). Verse 12. "And the fourth angel sounded," signifies the exploration and manifestation of the state of the church with those whose religion is faith alone, as being in the evils of falsity, and in the falsities of evil (n. 412). "And the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars, and the third part of them was darkened," signifies that by reason of evils from falsities and of falsities from evils, they did not know what love is, or what faith is, or any truth (n. 413). "And the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise," signifies that there is no longer any spiritual truth nor natural truth serviceable for doctrine and life from the Word with them (n. 414). Verse 13. "And I saw, and I heard an angel flying in the midst of heaven," signifies instruction and prediction from the Lord (n. 415). "Saying with a great voice, Woe, woe, woe, to them that dwell on the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels which are about to sound," signifies the deepest lamentation over the damned state of those in the church, who in doctrine and life have confirmed themselves in faith separate from charity (n. 416). THE EXPLANATION There are two kingdoms into which the entire heaven is divided, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom. The celestial kingdom consists of those who are in love to the Lord and thence in wisdom; and the spiritual kingdom consists of those who are in love towards the neighbor, and thence in intelligence; and as love towards the neighbor is at this day called "charity" and intelligence, "faith," the latter kingdom consists of those who are in charity, and thence in faith. Now, because heaven is distinguished into two kingdoms, hell also is distinguished into two kingdoms that are opposite to them; into the diabolical kingdom and into the satanic kingdom. The diabolical kingdom consists of those who are in the love of dominion from love of self and thence in foolishness; for this love is opposite to celestial love, and its foolishness is opposite to celestial wisdom; but the satanic kingdom consists of those who are in the love of dominion from the pride of their own intelligence, and thence in insanity; for this love is opposite to spiritual love, and its insanity is opposite to spiritual intelligence. By foolishness and insanity are meant foolishness and insanity in things celestial and spiritual. Similar things are to be understood of the church on earth as are said of heaven, for they make one. Concerning these two kingdoms, see the work on Heaven and Hell, published at London (n. 20-28), and see also many other places.  Now, as Revelation treats only of the state of the church at its end (as was observed in the preface, and at n. 2), therefore what now follows treats of those who are in the two kingdoms of heaven, and of those who are in the two kingdoms of hell, and of their quality. From this chapter (Rev. 8:8-16), of those who are in the spiritual kingdom, and in the satanic kingdom opposite to it; in chapters 17-18, of those who are in the celestial kingdom, and in the diabolical kingdom opposite to it; and afterwards of the Last Judgment; and at length of the New Church which is the New Jerusalem; this bringing all that goes before to a conclusion, because it is the end on account of which they are. In many parts of the Word "the Devil" and "Satan" are mentioned, and by both is meant hell; it is so named, because all in one hell are called devils, and all in the other are called satans.388.
Verse 1. And when He had opened the seventh seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of the state of the church, and thence of the state of life of those who are in His spiritual kingdom, being those who are in charity and its faith; in this case, who are in faith alone. That this is the signification of these words, may appear from all the particulars of this chapter when understood in the spiritual sense. For this chapter and the following to chapter 16 treat of those who are in the spiritual kingdom, or those who are in love towards the neighbor and thence in intelligence, as was said above (n. 387). But since, at this day, they say "charity" instead of love towards the neighbor, and "faith" instead of intelligence; and here there is not any exploration of those who are in charity and thence in faith, because these belong to such as are in heaven; therefore exploration is here made of those who are in faith alone. Faith alone is also faith separated from charity, there being no conjunction (see below, n. 417). That "to open the seal" signifies to explore states of life, or, what is the same thing, the states of the church and thence of life, see above, n. 295, 302, 309, 317, 324.389.
There was silence in heaven as of half an hour, signifies that the angels of the Lord's spiritual kingdom were greatly amazed, when they saw those who said they were in faith, in such a state. By "silence in heaven," nothing else is meant but amazement there in regard to those who say they are in faith, and yet are in such a state; for their state is described in what follows, the quality of which can be seen from the explanation. By "half an hour" is signified greatly, because by "an hour" is signified a full state. That "time" signifies state, will be seen below.390.
Verse 2. And I saw the seven angels who stood before God, signifies the entire spiritual heaven in the presence of the Lord, hearing and doing what He commands. By "seven angels" is signified the entire heaven, because "seven" signifies all, or all things, thence the whole and entire (n. 10); and by "angels," in the highest sense, is signified the Lord, and, in a relative sense, heaven (n. 5, 65, 342, 344); here, the spiritual heaven, as may appear from what was said above (n. 387, 388). That "to stand before God" signifies to hear and do what He commands, see above (n. 366).391.
And there were given to them seven trumpets, signifies the exploration and disclosure of the state of the church, and thence of the life of those who are in faith alone. Here, by "trumpets" the same thing is signified as by "sounding," because they sounded with them, and by "sounding with trumpets" is signified to call together upon solemn occasions, which were various; in this case, to explore and discover the quality of those who are in faith alone, thus the quality of those who are at this day of the churches of the Reformed. It should be known, that the church in the Reformed world is at this day divided into three, from the three leaders, Luther, Calvin, and Melancthon, and that these three churches differ in various things; but in this article, that man is justified by faith without the works of the law, they all agree, which is remarkable. That by "sounding with trumpets" is signified to call together, will be seen below (n. 397).392.
Verse 3. And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer, signifies spiritual worship, which is from the good of charity by the truths of faith. By "the altar" at which the angel stood, and by "the golden censer" which he had in his hand, is signified the worship of the Lord from spiritual love, which worship is from the good of charity by the truths of faith. With the sons of Israel there were two altars, one without the tent, and the other within it; the altar without the tent was called "the altar of burnt-offering," because burnt-offerings and sacrifices were offered upon it. The altar within the tent was called "the altar of incense," as also "the golden altar." There were two altars, because the worship of the Lord is from celestial love and from spiritual love; from celestial love by those who are in His celestial kingdom, and from spiritual love by those who are in His spiritual kingdom; concerning these two kingdoms, see above (n. 387). Concerning the two altars, see the following passages in Moses: concerning the altar of burnt offering see Exod. 20:24-26; 27:1-8; 39:38-39; Lev. 7:1-5; 8:11; 16:18, 19, 33-34; concerning the altar of incense see Exod. 30:1-10; 31:8; 37:25-29; 40:5-26; Num. 7:1. That altars, censers, and incense, were seen by John, was not because such things exist in heaven, these were only representative of the worship of the Lord there; the reason is, because such things were instituted among the sons of Israel, and are therefore often mentioned in the Word; and that church was a representative church, for all things of their worship represented and thence they now signify the Divine celestial and spiritual things of the Lord, which are of His church in the heavens and on the earth.  The same is therefore signified by the two altars spoken of in the Word, in the following passages: O send out Thy light and Thy truth, let them lead me to Thy habitation, and I will go to the altar of God, unto God (Ps. 43:3-4). I will wash my hands in innocence; and so will I compass Thy altar, O Jehovah; and I will make the voice of thanksgiving to be heard (Ps. 26:6-7). The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron upon the tablet of their heart, and upon the horns of your altars (Jer. 17:1-2). God is Jehovah, Who enlighteneth us; bind the festal-offering with cords unto the horns of the altar (Ps. 118:27). In that day shall there be an altar in the midst of the land of Egypt (Isa. 19:19). "The altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt," signifies the worship of the Lord from love in the natural man. The thistle and the thorn shall come up upon their altars (Hos. 10:8). By this is signified worship from evil and from the falsities of evil. (Besides other places; as Isaiah 27:9; 56:6, 7; 60:7; Lamentations 2:7; Ezekiel 6:4-6, 13; Hosea 8:11; 10:1, 2; Amos 3:14; Psalms 51:19; 84:3; Matthew 5:23, 24; 23:18-20).  Since the worship of the Lord was represented and thence signified by "the altar," it is evident that by "altar" here in Revelation nothing else is meant, and also elsewhere; as: I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God (Rev. 6:9). The angel stood and said, Measure the temple of God and the altar, and them that adore therein (Rev. 11:1). I heard another angel from the altar, saying, True and just are Thy judgments (Rev. 16:7). Since representative worship, which was performed chiefly upon two altars, was abrogated by the Lord when He came into the world, because He Himself opened the interiors of the church; therefore it is said in Isaiah: In that day shall a man look to his Maker, and his eyes shall have respect to the Holy One of Israel, and not to the altars, the work of his hands (Isa. 17:7-8).393.
And there was given him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne, signifies propitiation lest the angels of the Lord's spiritual kingdom should be hurt by the spirits of the satanic kingdom, that were below. By "the incense" and by "the golden altar" is signified the worship of the Lord from spiritual love (n. 277, 392); by "prayers" are signified those things which relate to charity and thence to faith in worship (n. 278); and by "saints" are meant those who are of the Lord's spiritual kingdom; and by "the just," those who are of His celestial kingdom (n. 173). From this it may appear, that they who are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom are here treated of. That here "much incense offered with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar" signifies propitiation lest they should be hurt by the spirits of the satanic kingdom who were below, because propitiations and expiations were made by incense, especially when dangers threatened; as may appear from the following passages: When the congregation murmured against Moses and Aaron, and were affected with a plague, Aaron took fire from the altar, and put incense into a censer, and ran between the living and the dead to expiate, and the plague was stayed (Num. 16:42-50). The altar of incense was also placed in the tent, before the mercy-seat that was over the ark, and incense was offered on it every morning when the lamps were trimmed (Exod. 30:1-10). And it was commanded, that as often as Aaron entered within the veil, he should offer incense, and the cloud of incense should cover the mercy-seat, lest he should die (Lev. 16:11-13). From these things it may appear, that propitiations in the representative Israelitish church were made by offering incense; in like manner here, that they might not be hurt by the satanic spirits who were below.394.
Verse 4. And the smoke of the incense went with the prayers of the saints, out of the hand of the angel before God, signifies the protection of them by the Lord. By "the smoke of the incense went up before God" is signified what is accepted and grateful; wherefore the like is said by David: Let my prayers be accepted before Thee as incense (Ps. 141:2). The reason was, because the smoke of the incense was fragrant from the aromatics of which it was composed, which were stacte, onycha, galbanum, and frankincense (Exodus 30:34); and the fragrance of those aromatics corresponds to such things as are of spiritual love or charity, and thence of faith; for in heaven most fragrant odors are sensibly perceived corresponding to the perceptions of the angels originating from their love. Therefore it is also said in many parts of the Word, that "Jehovah smelled an odor of rest." That protection by the Lord is signified, follows from what was said above (n. 393).395.
Verse 5. And the angel took the censer, and filled it with the fire of the altar, and cast it unto the earth, signifies spiritual love, in which is celestial love, and its influx into the lower parts, where they were who are in faith separated from charity. That by "a censer," as well as by "incense," is signified worship from spiritual love, is evident from what was shown above; and also from this, that in the Word, the thing containing signifies the same as the thing contained, as a cup and platter signify the same as wine and food (Matthew 23:25, 26; Luke 22:20; and in other places). By "the fire of the altar of burnt-offering," is signified the Divine celestial love, because by that altar was signified worship from that love, as may be seen above (n. 392); and by "fire," in the highest sense, is signified the Divine love (n. 494). Spiritual love, which is charity, derives its essence from celestial love, which is love to the Lord; without this love there is nothing vital in spiritual love or charity, for spirit and life is from no other source than from the Lord. This was represented in the Israelitish church by their taking fire for the censers when they offered incense, only from the altar of burnt-offering; as may appear in Moses (Leviticus 16:12-13, Numbers 16:46-47); and that: The two sons of Aaron were consumed by fire from heaven, because they offered incense from strange fire (that is, from fire not taken from the altar) (Lev. 10:1-2). Therefore it was also ordained, that: Fire should burn continually on the altar of burnt-offering, and should not be put out (Lev. 6:13). This was because the fire of that altar signified the Divine love of the Lord, and thence love to the Lord. By "casting the censer upon the earth" is signified influx into lower things.396.
And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings and an earthquake, signifies that after communication was opened with them, there were heard reasonings concerning faith alone, and confirmations in favor of it, and that the state of the church with them was perceived to be tottering to destruction. That "lightnings, thunders, and voices," signify enlightenments, perceptions, and instructions, by influx from heaven (see above, n. 236); but here, with those who were in faith alone, who have no enlightenment, perception, and instruction by influx from heaven, by voices, thunders, and lightnings, are signified reasonings about faith alone, and arguments and confirmations in favor of it; by "earthquakes" are signified changes of the state of the church (n. 331), in this case, that the state of the church among them was perceived to be tottering to destruction. For earthquakes take place in the world of spirits, when the state of the church in the societies is perverted and inverted. The reason why the censer was cast unto the earth by the angel, before the seven angels began to sound with the trumpets, was that by influx communication might be opened between those who were in the spiritual heaven, with those below who were in faith alone; from which communication there arose reasonings and confirmations in favor of it, which were also heard and perceived; wherefore it is said that after communication was opened, they were heard and perceived.397.
Verse 6. And the seven angels that had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound, signifies that they were prepared and girded to explore the state of the church, and thence the state of life, with those whose religion is faith alone. What is signified by "trumpets," appears from the statute respecting the use of them with the sons of Israel, concerning which it is thus written in Moses: Jehovah spake unto Moses to make trumpets of silver for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps; and that they should sound with them on days of joy, festivals, new moons, over burnt-offerings and sacrifices; also, that when they went to war against enemies that infested them, they should blow an alarm with the trumpets, and that then they should come into remembrance before Jehovah God, and should be preserved from their enemies (Num. 10:1-10). From these words it may be seen what is signified by "sounding with trumpets." That here by "the seven angels sounding," is signified the exploration and manifestation of what the state of the church is with those whose religion is faith alone, is evident from the particulars of this chapter, and from the particulars of the chapters that follow as far as the sixteenth inclusive, when understood in the spiritual sense.  From the use of trumpets with the sons of Israel may also be seen what is signified by "trumpets," and by "sounding with them," in the following passages: Sound ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound in the mountain of holiness, for the day of Jehovah cometh (Joel 2:1-2). Jehovah shall appear upon them, and His arrow shall go forth as the lightning, and the Lord Jehovih shall sound the trumpet (Zech. 9:14). Jehovah shall go forth as a lion and sound (Isa. 42:13). In that day the great trumpet shall be sounded, and they shall come that are perishing in the land of Assyria, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall bow themselves down to Jehovah in the mountain of holiness (Isa. 27:13). He shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other (Matt. 24:31). Happy is the people who know the sound; they shall walk, O Jehovah, in the light of Thy countenance (Ps. 89:15). When the morning stars sing, and the sons of God sound (Job 38:7).  Since "the sounds of trumpets" signify such things, and as, in the Israelitish Church, all things were represented to the life according to correspondences and thence significations, therefore it came to pass: When Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai, that there were voices, and lightnings, and a heavy cloud, and a vehement voice of a trumpet, and the voice of the trumpet going and strengthening itself greatly, and the people in the camp trembled exceedingly (Exod. 19:16-25). And for the same reason it came to pass: When the three hundred with Gideon sounded with the trumpets against Midian, then the sword of a man was against his companion, and they fled away (Judges 7:16-22). In like manner, that: Twelve thousand of the sons of Israel with vessels of holiness and trumpets in their hands overcame Midian (Num. 31:1-8). As also that: The wall of Jericho fell down, after the seven priests with seven trumpets compassed the city seven times (Josh. 6:1-20). Wherefore it is said in Jeremiah: Sound against Babylon round about, her walls are destroyed (Jer. 50:15). And in Zephaniah: A day of darkness and thick darkness, a day of the trumpet and sounding against the fortified cities (Zeph. 1:15-16).398.
Verse 7. And the first angel sounded, signifies exploration and manifestation of the quality of the state of the church with those who are interiorly in that faith. By "sounding" is signified to explore and make manifest (n. 397). The reason why by "the sounding of this first angel," is meant the exploration and manifestation of the state of the church with those who are interiorly in that faith, is, because its operation was directed upon "the earth," as appears from what follows; and the operation of the sounding of the second angel was into "the sea," and by "the earth and the sea," throughout Revelation, when named together, is meant the entire church; by "the earth," the church consisting of those who are in its internals, and by "the sea," the church consisting of those who are in its externals: for the church is internal and external; internal with the clergy, and external with the laity; or internal with those who have studied its doctrinals interiorly, and have confirmed them from the Word, and external with those who have not.  Both are meant by "the earth and the sea" in the following passages in Revelation: That the wind should not blow upon the earth, nor on the sea (Rev. 7:1). Hurt not the earth, neither the sea (Rev. 7:3). The angel descending out of heaven set his right foot upon the sea, and his left upon the earth (Rev. 10:2, 8; also in Rev. 7:5). I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, and another beast coming up out of the earth (Rev. 13:1, 11). Praise God who made the heaven, the earth, and the sea (Rev. 14:7). The first angel poured out his vial upon the earth, and the second angel his upon the sea (Rev. 16:2-3). "The earth and the sea" signify the church internal and external, thus the entire church, because, in the spiritual world, they who are in the internals of the church appear upon dry land, and they who are in its externals, as in the seas; but the seas are appearances from the general truths in which they are. That "earth" signifies the church, may be seen (n. 285); so also "the world" (n. 551).399.
And there became hail and fire mingled with blood, signifies falsity from infernal love destroying good and truth, and falsifying the Word. By "hail" is signified falsity destroying good and truth; by "fire" is signified infernal love; and by "blood" is signified the falsification of truth. That "hail" signifies falsity destroying good and truth, will be seen below; that "fire" is love in both senses, celestial and infernal, may be seen (n. 468); that blood is the Divine truth of the Lord, which is also the Word, and, in the opposite sense, the Word falsified (n. 379). On joining these together into one sense, it is plain, that by "there became hail and fire mingled with blood," is signified falsity from infernal love destroying good and truth and falsifying the Word. This is signified, because such things appear in the spiritual world when the sphere of the Lord's Divine love and Divine wisdom descends from heaven into the societies below, where there are falsities from infernal love, and the Word is falsified thereby.  "Hail" and "fire" together have a like signification in the following passages: At the brightness before Him the clouds passed by, hailstones and coals of fire; the Most High gave a voice, hailstones and coals of fire; and He sent out His many arrows and scattered them (Ps. 18:12-14). And I will plead with pestilence and blood, and I will make to rain upon them hailstones, fire, and brimstone (Ezek. 38:22). And Jehovah shall cause His voice to be heard, in the flame of a devouring fire and hailstone (Isa. 30:30). He gave them hail for their rains, the fire of flames in their land, and broke the tree of their coasts (Ps. 105:32-33). The hail smote their vine, and their sycamore trees with grievous hail, and their cattle with burning coals; in the wrath of His anger He sent an incursion of evil angels (Ps. 78:47-49). These words are applied to Egypt. Concerning them it is thus written in Moses: Moses stretched forth his rod, and Jehovah gave voices and hail; and there was hail and fire together walking in the midst of the grievous hail; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and broke every tree of the field (Exod. 9:23-35). All the miracles that were wrought in Egypt signified the evils and falsities from infernal love, which were with the Egyptians; each miracle signifying some particular evil and falsity: for with them was a representative church, as in many kingdoms of Asia, but it became idolatrous and magical; by the "Red Sea" is signified hell, in which at last they perished.  Something similar is signified by: The hailstones, by which more of the enemy perished than by the sword (Josh. 10:11). The same, also, is meant by "hail" in the following passages: Woe to the crown of pride, the Lord is strong, like an inundation of hail; the hail overturneth the refuge of lies (Isa. 28:1-2, 17). It shall hail, until the forest sinketh itself down (Isa. 32:19). The temple of God was opened in heaven, and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunders, and an earthquake, and great hail (Rev. 11:19). And there came down upon men out of heaven a great hail, about the weight of a talent (Rev. 16:21). Hast thou seen the treasures of hail which I have reserved unto the day of battle and war? (Job 38:22-23). Say unto them which daub with what is unfit, that it shall fall; there shall be an inundating rain, in which you, O hailstones, shall fall (Ezek. 13:11). "To daub with what is unfit" is to confirm falsity that it may appear like truth; they therefore who do so are called "hailstones."400.
And they were cast upon the earth, and the third part of the trees was burnt up, signifies that with those who are in the internals of the church and in faith alone, every affection and perception of truth, which make the man of the church, perished. By "the earth," upon which were cast "hail and fire mingled with blood," is signified the church with those who are in its internals, and in faith alone. That these are the clergy, may be seen above (n. 398). By "the third part" is signified all as to truth, as by "the fourth part," all as to good (n. 322). That by "three" is signified all, full, and altogether, will be seen below (n. 505); thence, by "a third," which is "a third part," the same is signified. By "being burnt up" is signified to perish, here by falsity from infernal love, which is meant by "hail and fire mingled with blood," see above (n. 399). By "a tree" is signified man; and as man is man from affection, which is of the will, and from perception, which is of the understanding, therefore these also are signified by "a tree." There is also a correspondence between man and a tree; wherefore in heaven there appear paradises of trees, which correspond to the affections and the perceptions therefrom of the angels; and, likewise, in some places in hell there are forests of trees which bear evil fruits, according to correspondence with the lusts and the thoughts therefrom of those who are there. That "trees" in general signify men as to their affections and perceptions therefrom, may appear from the following passages: All the trees of the field shall know, that I Jehovah have brought down the high tree, I have exalted the low tree, I have dried up the green tree, and I have made the dry tree to shoot forth (Ezek. 17:24). Happy is the man that trusteth in Jehovah, for he shall be like a tree planted by the waters, he shall not cease from bearing fruit (Jer. 17:7-8). Happy is the man whose good pleasure is in the law; he shall be like a tree planted by the brooks of waters, that giveth fruit in its season (Ps. 1:1-3). Praise Jehovah, ye trees of fruit (Ps. 148:9). The trees of Jehovah are full (Ps. 104:16). The axe is laid at the root of the tree, every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down (Matt. 3:10; 7:16-20). Either make the tree good and the fruit good; or make the tree corrupt and the fruit corrupt; for the tree is known from the fruit (Matt. 12:33; Luke 6:43-44). I will kindle a fire which shall devour every green tree, and every dry tree (Ezek. 20:47). Since a tree signifies man, therefore it was ordained that: The fruit of a tree serving for food in the land of Canaan should be circumcised (Lev. 19:23-25). Also: When any city was besieged, they should not put forth an axe against any tree of good fruit (Deut. 20:19-20). As also that: At the feast of tabernacles they should take fruit of the tree of honor, and be glad before Jehovah (Lev. 23:40-41). Besides other passages, which are not here adduced by reason of their abundance.
383-1 The original Latin has "clivis" for "viis;" the Hebrew is "ways" ("viis").