Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
One morning it was plainly shown that there are countless things in every idea and little affection, and also that these ideas and affections penetrate into societies. I was kept for some time in a certain affection and consequent thought, and it was then shown how many societies concurred. There were five societies that plainly showed themselves by living discourse. They told what they were thinking, and also that they had noticed that the same thoughts were in me; and they said in addition that they knew things I paid no attention to, namely, the causes of the things being thought of, and also the ends of these. The rest of the societies (which were many) to which my thought was extended, were not so plainly shown; and were also more remote. The extension of the thought from the objects which are the things being thought of, is circumstanced as are the objects of sight. From these a sphere of rays diffuses itself to a considerable distance, which falls into a man's sight, and this to a greater or less distance according to the brightness and flaming in the object; for if the object is flaming, it is seen at a much greater distance than if it is cloudy and dusky. It is the same with the internal sight (which is that of the thought) from its objects. The objects of this sight are not material, like objects in this world; but they are spiritual, and therefore they diffuse themselves to such things as are in the spiritual world, thus to truths and goods there, consequently to the societies which are in these truths and goods; and just as a flaming object in this world shines around far and wide, so does good and its affection in the spiritual world; for flame corresponds to the affection of good. From all this it can be seen that the quality of a man's life is altogether according to the societies into which his thought and affection extend themselves, and according to the quality and amount of this extension.6602.
That the spheres of the thoughts and affections extend themselves round about into the spheres of societies which are far from the spot, was made evident to me also from the fact that while I was thinking from affection about such things as had a certain specific action on a distant society, the people in it spoke with me on the same subject, telling what they felt. This has been done repeatedly. One society was at the right, at a considerable distance, in the plane of the lower part of the chest; and another also was at the right, but nearer, in the plane of the knees. Distance is perceived from the state of the affection of truth and good. Insofar as the state of one society differs from the state of another, so far the societies appear to be remote from each other.6603.
But be it known that the thoughts and affections which penetrate into societies do not in a specific manner move the societies to think and will as does the man, spirit, or angel, from whom the thoughts and affections go forth; but they enter into the universal sphere of the affection and consequent thought of these societies. Consequently the societies know nothing about the matter; for the spiritual sphere in which all societies are, is varied with each society; and when the thoughts and affections enter into this sphere, the societies are not affected. All thoughts and affections enter into the spheres of the societies with which they are in agreement. Hence it is that there exist extensions in every direction in freedom, like the extension of rays from objects in this world, which freely penetrate all around to the sight of everyone who stands there, with variety according to the clearness and the dullness of the sight, and also according to the serenity or obscurity of the atmosphere. In the spiritual world the affection of knowing truth and good corresponds to the serenity of the atmosphere.6604.
There has occasionally appeared to me an angel, whose face, very plainly seen, was continually varied according to affections, as these succeeded one another with him in order, thus from one limit to the other-the universal ruling affection still remaining, by which it could be known that it was the same angel. And I was instructed that the changes of his face came from the societies with which he had communication, and that they came forth in accordance with the variations of the communication, as this was nearer with one society than with another, and so on in succession. For the extension of the affections and thoughts has its limits, and in the last societies vanishes, and passes away as does the sight into the universe. Within the limits of this general sphere the thoughts and affections can be varied, and may now be nearer to one society, and now to another. When they are in the midst of one, then the rest of the societies are to that one in the circumference; and so on with all variations in these limits.6605.
It is worthy of note, that as the universal heaven bears relation to a man, who from this is called the Grand Man (as shown at the end of many chapters), so each society in like manner bears relation to a man; for the image of the universal heaven flows into the societies, and causes them to be like it; and not only into the societies, but also into the individuals in the society, whence each individual has a human form; for everyone in an angelic society is a heaven in least form. The varieties of their human form are in accordance with the quality of good and of truth with them. Hence it is that every spirit and angel appears in a form wholly in accordance with the communication of his thoughts and affections with the societies. Hence the more they are in good and truth, so are they in a more beautiful form. But if the communication of the thoughts and affections has been diffused into societies not according to heavenly order, then the form is to the same extent unbeautiful. And if the communication is with infernal societies, then the form is ugly and devilish; and those who are in total opposition to good and truth, being in opposition to the form of heaven (which is the human form), in the light of heaven appear not as men, but as monsters. This is the case with the whole of hell, with the societies therein, and with the individuals in the societies; and this also with variety according to the degree of opposition of evil against good and of the derivative falsity against truth.6606.
When speaking with angelic spirits I have observed that the affections and thoughts appeared like a surrounding stream, and that the subject of the thought was in the middle with the stream all round it, and that this extended thence in every direction. From this also it was made manifest that the thoughts and affections extend themselves on all sides to societies.6607.
It has been shown that when thoughts together with affections diffuse themselves, they circulate almost according to the form of the convolutions of the gray substance in the human brain. I have seen these circumfluxions for a long while: they circled round, bent inward, and wound in and out, as do the convolutions of the gray substance of the brains. But the forms of heaven are still more wonderful, and such as can by no means be comprehended, not even by angels; in such a form are the angelic societies in the heavens, and into such a form the thoughts of the angels flow, and almost in an instant to a great distance, because according to the infinitely perfect form.6608.
Intellectual light has been given me, taken away, diminished, and moderated, in thinking, speaking, and writing, and this frequently; and it has been given me to perceive the variations and differences. The light itself was perceived as an illumination which enlightened the substances of the interior sight, as the light of the sun enlightens the organs of bodily sight. This general illumination caused the objects of things to appear, as the objects of the earth appear to an enlightened eye; and I have been instructed that these variations came forth according to the communications with heavenly societies.6609.
The thoughts and speech of the societies within which was my thought, have been occasionally represented to me by clouds which ascended and descended in the azure. From the forms of the clouds, their colors, thinness, and density, it was given to know what was flowing in. Truths were represented by the azure color mingled with a beautiful brilliant white, the brilliancy of which cannot be described; appearances of truth were represented by a dull whiteness; and falsities by black clouds; and thus the influx of thoughts and affections could also be known from these appearances.6610.
So long as a man lives, the ideas of his thought are varied, that is, they are multiplied and divided, and are thus extended to various and new societies; with those who are in evil, to infernal societies, as also with those who are in the persuasions of falsity. But with those who are in persuasions of truth, that is, in persuasive faith, the ideas of the thought are exceedingly confined; while with those who are being regenerated, the thoughts and affections are continually insinuated into new heavenly societies, and the extension increases. The former thoughts and affections are also divided; and being divided, are associated with ideas, which are again communicated to new societies. More especially generals are filled with particulars, and these with singulars, thus with new truths, whereby the illumination increases.6611.
I have spoken with spirits about the changes of state of man's life, that it is inconstant, and that he is borne upward and downward, now toward heaven and now toward hell. But they who suffer themselves to be regenerated are being borne continually upward, and thus always into more interior heavenly societies. Extension of sphere into these societies is given by the Lord to those who are being regenerated, especially to those who are being regenerated by means of temptations, in which resistance is made to evils and falsities; for the Lord then fights through angels against the evils and falsities; and in this way the man is introduced into the societies of these angels, which are more interior societies; and into whatever societies he has once been introduced, he there remains; and from this he also receives a more extended and elevated capacity of perception.6612.
From all this it is also evident that the more exteriorly a man thinks, the less extension he has, and the more interiorly, the greater extension. For they who think exteriorly, that is, who are in what is sensuous, communicate only with grosser spirits; whereas they who think interiorly, that is, from the rational, have communication with angels; and the nature of this difference can be seen from the density of the sphere in which the sensuous spirits are, and from the purity of the sphere in which the angels of heaven are. This difference is like that between the extension of sound, and the extension of light; and how great this is, is known to those who are skilled in the things of nature.6613.
That there are countless things in one idea of thought, and much more so in one thought composed of ideas, has been given me to know from much experience, some of which may be here adduced.6614.
It has been shown by living experience how angelic ideas flow into the ideas of spirits who are beneath, and therefore in grosser ideas. An abundance of ideas from the angelic heaven was shown as a bright cloud divided into little masses; each little mass, which consisted of countless ideas, produced in a spirit one simple idea; and it was afterward shown that thousands and thousands of things were in it, which were also represented by a cloud before the eyes of spirits. I afterward spoke of these things with the spirits, showing that they may be illustrated by the objects of sight; for an object which appears simple, when seen through a magnifying glass, immediately presents to the sight a thousand things not before visible; as in the case of animalcules which appear as one obscure object, but when viewed in a microscope not only become many, but each is seen in its form; and if subjected to still higher power of sight, there are seen organs, members, viscera, and also vessels and fibers. Such also is the case with the ideas of thought, thousands and thousands of things being in each of them, although the many ideas together of which the thought is composed, appear only as a simple thing. Nevertheless there are more things in the ideas of thought of one person than in the ideas of another, the abundance of ideas in the thought being according to the extension into societies.6615.
When the thought of angels descends to lower planes, it appears, as just said, like a bright cloud; but when the thought of the angels who are in the higher heavens descends, it appears like a flaming light, from which comes a quivering brightness. This bright cloud and flaming light are nothing else than the countless things that are in their thought. When these flow into the thought of the spirits who are beneath, they are there presented as only one thing; the light and brightness flow into their thought, and the flaming into their affection which is of love, which affection leads the ideas and joins them together. But the bright flaming and the quivering brightness do not appear to them, but were seen by me in order that I might know that higher things flow into lower ones; and that there are countless things which are perceived as one.6616.
That there are so many things in one idea has also been made evident to me from the fact that when I heard spirits speaking with me, I could perceive from the mere tone of their speech whether they were speaking from pretense, from sincerity, from a friendly feeling, or from the good of love. A man can see this from the expression of the face of another man, and can also in some measure hear it from his speech; for when a man sees a glad expression shown him, and hears fair-spoken words, he can perceive whether there is in it pretense, or deceit, whether a gaiety that is natural or accidental, whether modesty, or friendliness, or insanity, and so on; which also is a sign that there are countless things in every idea. When I have spoken with spirits on this subject, some of them were incredulous, and they were therefore taken up into a higher region, and speaking with me from thence they said that they saw countless things in every idea of my thought; and so they believed.6617.
That there are countless things in one idea, has also been made evident to me from the fact that the angels perceive in a moment the life of a spirit and of a man by merely hearing him speak, or by looking into his thought; the angels of a lower heaven can see this, and still more the angels of a higher one. A certain good spirit was taken up into the first heaven, and speaking with me from thence he said that he saw infinite things in what I was then reading in the Word; when yet I myself had only a simple thought on the subject. Afterward he was taken up into a more interior heaven, and he said from thence that he now saw still more things, and so many that what he had seen before were comparatively gross to him. He was next taken up into a heaven still more interior, where the celestial angels are, and he said from thence that what he had before seen was scarcely anything compared with the things he now saw. While this continued, various things flowed in, and I was affected with the various things that came from thence.6618.
Certain spirits boasted that they knew all things. In the Grand Man these spirits bear relation to the memory. But they were told that there are illimitable things which they do not know, nay, that one idea can be filled with illimitable ideas and still appear simple; and also that if their ideas were to be filled with many things every day to all eternity, they could not know even all the general things; and that from this they might conclude how much there is which they do not know. This was also shown them, so that they acknowledged it. An angel spoke with them by changes of state, but they could not understand what he spoke; and then they were told that every change contained illimitable things, which nevertheless were not even noticed by them, for besides not understanding, they were not even affected with them.6619.
That there are countless things in the ideas of thought, and that those which are in order within them are there from things more interior, was also evident to me while I read the Lord's Prayer morning and evening. The ideas of my thought were then always opened toward heaven, and countless things flowed in, so that I observed clearly that the ideas of thought taken from the contents of the Prayer were filled from heaven. And such things were also poured in as cannot be uttered, and also could not be comprehended by me; I merely felt the general resulting affection, and wonderful to say the things that flowed in were varied from day to day. From this I was given to know that in the contents of this Prayer there are more things than the universal heaven is capable of comprehending; and that with man there are more things in it in proportion as his thought has been opened toward heaven; and on the other hand, there are fewer things in it in proportion as his thought has been closed; for with those whose thought has been closed, nothing more appears therein than the sense of the letter, or that sense which is nearest the words.6620.
From all this it may be known how infinite are the contents also in everything of the Word (for the Word descends from the Lord through heaven), although it appears to those whose ideas have been closed, as a very simple thing. On this subject I once talked with spirits who denied that anything lies hidden in the Word; and I said that there are infinite and unutterable things therein, which cannot be perceived by those whose ideas are closed, and who admit nothing but the literal sense, which they interpret in favor of their own principles and cupidities, and thereby close to themselves access to what is stored within, and they either empty out their own ideas, or else close them tight. There was then also shown how an idea of thought appears when it has been enclosed, and how when it has been opened, for this can be easily shown in the light of heaven: the closed idea appeared like a black point, in which nothing was visible; but the opened idea appeared like a light in which there was something as of flame, and toward which everything there looked. The flame represented the Lord, and the things that looked to Him represented heaven; and it was said that in every idea which is from the Lord, there is an image of the whole heaven, because it is from Him who is heaven.6621.
The thoughts of those who in the life of the body have studied the mere art of criticism when reading the Word, being little concerned about the sense, were represented as lines closed and not capable of being opened, and as a texture formed of such lines. Some spirits of this kind have been with me, and then all that was being thought and written became confused, the thought being kept as it were in prison, for it was determined solely to words, by withdrawing the mind from the sense, so that they wearied me past expression; and yet they believed themselves wiser than others.6622.
I have spoken with spirits concerning influx into the ideas of thought, saying that men can by no means believe there are such countless things in them, for they conceive thought to be a merely simple and single thing; thus they judge from the exterior sensuous. The spirits with whom I then spoke were of the opinion that there is nothing within ideas, having impressed this upon themselves in the life of the body. But in order that they might comprehend that they perceive countless things as one, I was allowed to say that the motions of myriads of moving fibers concur in one action, and that also at the same time all things in the body move and adapt themselves for that action, both in general and in particular; and yet that little action appears simple and single, as if nothing of the kind were in it; and in like manner that countless things concur together to form one utterance, as the foldings of the lips and of all the muscles and fibers thereof; also the movements of the tongue, throat, larynx, windpipe, lungs, and diaphragm, with all the muscles thereof in general and in particular. Now as the man perceives one utterance therefrom as merely a simple sound which has nothing in it, it may be seen how gross is perception from the sensuous. What then must be the perception from the sensuous concerning those ideas of thought which are in a purer world, and thus more remote from what is sensuous!6623.
As there are things so countless in the ideas of thought, the angels can know merely from a single word which proceeds from the thought what is the quality of the spirit, or of the man. This also has been confirmed by experience. When the word "truth" was only mentioned, as was done by several spirits in succession, it was instantly heard whether there was in it what is hard, harsh, soft, childlike, dear, innocent, full, empty, also whether there was in it what is false, feigned, closed, or open, and in what degree; in a word, the very quality of the idea was heard, and this only in what is general. What then must be the case in the singulars which the angels perceive!6624.
As man thinks from what is sensuous, such things are obscure to him, nay, so obscure that he does not know what an idea is, and especially that thought is divided into ideas, as speech is into words; for thought appears to him continuous, and not discrete, when yet the ideas of thought are the words of spirits, and the ideas of a thought yet more interior are the words of angels. As ideas are the words of their speech, they are also sonorous among spirits and angels; hence the silent thought of man is audible to spirits and angels when it so pleases the Lord. How perfect the ideas of thought are in comparison with the words of speech, may be seen from the fact that a man can think more things within a minute than he can utter or write in an hour. The same could also be seen from speech with spirits and angels, for then in a moment I have filled a general subject with singulars, with the affection adjoined, whence the angels and spirits distinctly apprehended all things, and many more, which appeared about the subject like a cloud.6625.
From all this it may now be seen what is the nature of the ideas of those who live evilly, and thence think evilly, namely, that therein are hatreds, revenges, envies, deceits, adulteries, haughtinesses, outward decorum simulating honor, also chastities for the sake of appearance, friendships for the sake of honor and gain and yet no friendships, besides foul and filthy things unmentionable. And moreover there are certain doctrinal matters of faith which countenance cupidities, and unless they did so there would be unbeliefs and also mockings. These and other such things are in the ideas of those who live evilly and consequently think evilly. Such things being within their ideas, it must needs be that when such persons come into the other life, they are separated and removed far from heaven, where such things excite horror.6626.
I will relate some wonderful things. The Lord, who alone is Man, and from whom angels, spirits, and the inhabitants of earth are called men, does Himself, by His influx into heaven cause the universal heaven to represent and bear relation to a man, and by influx through heaven and from Himself immediately into the individuals there, cause each one to appear as a man, the angels in a more beautiful and resplendent form than can be described; and in like manner by His influx into the spirit of man. Nay, with an angel, a spirit, and a man who lives in charity toward the neighbor and in love to the Lord, the very smallest things of thought bear relation to a man, for the reason that this charity and this love are from the Lord, and whatever is from the Lord bears relation to a man. Moreover it is these things that make man. On the other hand, in hell, because they who are there are in things contrary to charity and celestial love, in their own light they do indeed appear like men, but in the light of heaven as dreadful monsters, in some of whom scarcely anything of the human form is recognizable. The reason is that the Lord's influx through heaven is not received, but is either rejected, or extinguished, or perverted, causing them to have such an appearance. They are in like manner such forms in the smallest things of their thought or in their ideas; for such as anyone is in the whole, such he is in part; these being analogous and homogeneous. That form in which they appear is also the form of the hell in which they are; for every hell has its own form, which in the light of heaven is like a monster; and those of them who appear from this light show by their form from what hell they are. They have appeared to me at the gates which opened into the world of spirits, and they were seen as monsters, with much variety. That the gates of hell open into the world of spirits may be seen above (n. 5852). [End of Vol. 8, also the book of Genesis, and of Part 5 of the original Latin work.]6627.
Exodus 1 PREFACE Prefatory to the chapters of the Book of Exodus are to be Doctrinal things; first, Doctrinal things of Charity; afterward, Doctrinal things of Faith; in order that what has been delivered in the Explications in a scattered form may be set forth in a connected one; and that in this way the Doctrine may appear in its order, such as is and ought to be the Doctrine of the church that it may agree with the good and truth in heaven.6628.
In the preceding Explications it has been shown, as occasion offered, that the Doctrine of Charity was the doctrine in the Ancient Churches, and that this doctrine conjoined all the churches, and so made one out of many; for they acknowledged as men of the church all who lived in the good of charity, and called them brethren, however greatly they might be at variance in the truths which at this day are called the truths of faith. In these one instructed another, and this was among their works of charity; nor were they indignant if one did not accede to the opinion of another, knowing that everyone receives truth in proportion as he is in good.6629.
Such being the character of the Ancient Churches, they were more interior men, and being more interior they were more wise; for those who are in the good of love and of charity are as to the internal man in heaven, and in an angelic society there which is in like good. From this they have an elevation of mind to interior things, and consequently to the things of wisdom; for wisdom can come from no other source than heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord; and in heaven there is wisdom, because there they are in good.6630.
But in course of time this ancient wisdom decreased; for insofar as the human race removed itself from the good of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor, so far it also removed itself from wisdom, because so far it removed itself from heaven. From this it is that man from internal became external, and this successively.6631.
And when man became external, he also became worldly and corporeal; and when he is of this character he no longer cares for the things of heaven; for they have been so far removed as not to be believed to exist; because the delights of earthly loves, and with these all evils which from these loves are delightful to him, then take complete possession of the whole man; and then all that he hears about the life after death, about heaven, and about hell, is like chaff in the wind, which flies away as fast as it is seen.6632.
From this also it is that the Doctrine of Charity, which was so precious among the ancients, is at this day one of the lost things; for who at this day knows what in the genuine sense charity is, and what in the genuine sense the neighbor is? when yet this doctrine abounds in arcana so many and so great that it cannot be described as to a thousandth part. The whole Sacred Scripture is nothing else than the doctrine of love and of charity, as the Lord also teaches, saying, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and in all thy soul, and in all thy mind; this is the first and great commandment: the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself; on these two commandments hang the law and the prophets" (Matt. 22:37-40). "The law and the prophets" are the Word in all and each of its parts.6633.
As the doctrine of charity is at this day one of the lost things, and as the doctrine of faith is consequently much alienated from the truth, this doctrine may of the Lord's Divine mercy be delivered before the several chapters of the Book of Exodus, and thus be restored to the church. EXODUS 1 1. And these are the names of the sons of Israel that came into Egypt with Jacob; a man and his house they came. 2. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; 3. Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; 4. Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5. And all the souls that came out of the thigh of Jacob were seventy souls: and Joseph was in Egypt. 6. And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation. 7. And the sons of Israel were fruitful, and were productive, and multiplied, and become very exceeding numerous; and the land was filled with them. 8. And there arose a new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph. 9. And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the sons of Israel are many and numerous more than we. 10. Come, let us use prudence with it, 6633-1 peradventure it will be multiplied, and it will be that wars will happen, and it will also join itself to our enemies, and fight against us, and go up out of the land. 11. And they set over it princes of tributes, in order to afflict it with burdens. And it built cities of storehouses for Pharaoh, Pithom and Raamses. 12. And as they afflicted it, so it was multiplied, and so it was increased. And they were moved with loathing because of the sons of Israel. 13. And the Egyptians made the sons of Israel to serve with cruelty: 14. And they rendered their life bitter with grievous service, in clay, and in bricks, and in all service in the field, with all their service wherein they made them serve with cruelty. 15. And the king of Egypt said to the midwives of the Hebrew women, of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah; 16. And he said, When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then ye shall kill him; and if it be a daughter, then she shall live. 17. And the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt spoke to them, and they kept the boys alive. 18. And the king of Egypt called the midwives, and said to them, Wherefore do ye this word, and keep the boys alive? 19. And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are living, and have brought forth before the midwife comes unto them. 20. And God did well to the midwives; and the people was multiplied and became very numerous. 21. And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that He made them houses. 22. And Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, Every son that is born, ye shall cast him forth into the river, and every daughter ye shall keep alive.6634.
THE CONTENTS. In the first chapter, in the internal sense, the subject treated of is the state of the renewed church, when good acts the first part, and is made fruitful by the multiplication of the truths of faith.6635.
Afterward the infestation of these truths by falsities and evils in the natural is treated of, and that through this infestation the good would be made still more fruitful by means of truths. Down to the end the chapter continues to treat of this infestation and its increase in the series in which it takes place, and of the consequent implantation and confirmation of truth from good.6636.
The Internal Sense. Verses 1-5. And these are the names of the sons of Israel that came into Egypt with Jacob; a man and his house they came. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; Dan and Naphtali; Gad and Asher. And all the souls that came out of the thigh of Jacob were seventy souls: and Joseph was in Egypt. "And these are the names of the sons of Israel," signifies the quality of the church; "that came into Egypt with Jacob," signifies after truths had been initiated into memory-knowledges; "a man and his house they came," signifies as to truth and as to good; "Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher," signify this process from beginning to end; "and all the souls that came out of the thigh of Jacob," signifies all things that were from general truth; "were seventy souls," signifies what is full; "and Joseph was in Egypt," signifies that the internal celestial was in the natural.6637.
And these are the names of the sons of Israel. That this signifies the quality of the church, is evident from the signification of "name," as being the quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2628, 2724, 3006, 3421); from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being spiritual truths (n. 5414, 5879, 5951); and from the representation of Israel, as being the good of truth, or spiritual good (n. 3654, 4598, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833). As Israel represents the good of truth, or spiritual good, and his sons spiritual truths in the natural, therefore the sons of Israel represent the church; for the church is the church from spiritual good and from the derivative truths. He who is not in spiritual good, that is, in the good of charity, and in spiritual truths, that is, in the truths of faith, is not of the church, in spite of his having been born within it. For the whole heavenly kingdom of the Lord is in the good of love and of faith; and unless the church is in the like, it cannot be the church, because it is not conjoined with heaven, for the church is the Lord's kingdom on earth.  Its being called the church is not from the fact that the Word is there, and that there are doctrinal things therefrom, nor from the fact that the Lord is known there, and that the sacraments are there; but it is the church from the fact that men live according to the Word, or according to doctrine from the Word, and so that the doctrine is the rule of life. They who are not of this character are not of the church, but are outside of it; and they who live in evil, thus they who live contrary to doctrine, are further outside the church than the Gentiles who know nothing whatever of the Word, of the Lord, and of the sacraments; for the former, because they know the goods and truths of the Church, extinguish the church in themselves, which the Gentiles cannot do, because they do not know them. Be it further known that everyone who lives in the good of charity and of faith is a church and kingdom of the Lord, and from this is called a temple, and also a house, of God. The church in general is constituted of those who are churches in particular, however far apart they may be. This then is the church which is meant here and in what follows by the "sons of Israel."6638.
That came into Egypt with Jacob. That this signifies after truths had been initiated into memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of "Egypt," as being memory-knowledges (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 4749, 4964, 4966, 5700, 5702, 6004, 6015, 6125); and from the representation of Jacob, as being truth, and also good, in the natural, or the natural as to truth and good (n. 3305, 3509, 3525, 3546, 3576, 3599, 3659, 3669, 3677, 3775, 3829, 4009, 4234, 4286, 4337, 4538, 5306, 5533, 5535, 6001, 6236). That to "come into Egypt" is to be initiated into memory-knowledges, can be seen from the explications of the things in those chapters which treat of the journeying of the sons of Jacob to Egypt to buy corn, and afterward of their coming thither with Jacob. (How the case is with the initiation of the truths of the church into memory-knowledges, see n. 6004, 6023, 6052, 6071, 6077.) From all this it is evident that by the sons of Israel coming into Egypt are signified truths initiated into memory-knowledges.6639.
A man and his house they came. That this signifies as to truth and as to good, is evident from the signification of a "man" [vir] as being truth (see n. 3134, 3459); and from the signification of a "house," as being good (n. 3720, 4982). As in those chapters in Genesis which treat of the coming of the sons of Jacob, and of Jacob himself, into Egypt to Joseph, the subject treated of in the internal sense was the initiation of the truths of the church into memory-knowledges, and as the church has not been set up anew until this initiation has taken place, here therefore, according to the series of things in the internal sense, the renewed church is treated of, and how it is continually infested by memory-knowledges and falsities. For however well truths have been initiated and the church set up with a man, still such knowledges and falsities are continually rising up and assaulting what is of the church in him. It is this which is represented by Pharaoh and the Egyptians afflicting the sons of Israel, and being desirous to kill their infant boys.  He who does not know how the case is with the assailing of the truth of the church by such knowledges and falsities with those who are of the church in the other life, can in no wise believe that it is so. The man of the church who comes into the other life must be purified from such things as infest truths and goods; otherwise he cannot be uplifted into heaven, and be there in a society which has been purified from such things. If he were to be uplifted thither sooner, he would be like a dense earthly vapor in a serene aura, or like a black mass in a bright light. In order therefore that a man of the church who has recently come from the world may be purified, he is kept in a state to be assailed by memory-knowledges which disagree with truths, and also by falsities, and this until these knowledges become of no account, and are removed. This seldom takes place with man during his life in the body, but in the other life it takes place with those who are to be uplifted into heaven, and this with much variety. From much experience, which would fill many pages if all were adduced, it has been given me to know that it is so.  These are the things which in the internal sense are described by the sons of Israel being oppressed by the Egyptians, and being afterward delivered, and at last, after various states in the wilderness, being brought into the land of Canaan. That such is the case can in no wise be comprehended by those who believe that salvation is merely an introduction into heaven from mercy, that is granted to everyone who from apparent trust, which is called faith, has thought that because the Lord has suffered for him, he will be saved no matter how he has lived. For if salvation were merely an introduction into heaven from mercy, all in the whole world would be saved, because the Lord, who is mercy itself, wills the salvation of all, and the death or damnation of no one.6640.
Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. That these signify this process from beginning to end, namely, that of the setting up anew of the church, to be described in what follows, is evident from the signification of the sons of Jacob, and also of the tribes named from them, as being all things of good and of truth, that is, all things of love and of faith, in the complex (see n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060, 6335); but with variety according to the order in which they are named (see n. 3862, 3926, 3939, 4603 seq.); thus things innumerable, and all things of the Lord's church and kingdom both in general and in particular (n. 6337). But what they specifically signify when named in this or in another order, no one knows but the Lord alone, nor anyone in heaven but from the Lord, where the truths and goods which are signified are shown by means of lights to which is adjoined perception.  As the twelve tribes represented the Lord's kingdom and all things therein, therefore in order that these lights also might be represented, and thereby all the truths and goods of the church, twelve precious stones in their order were engraved and set in gold, one stone for each tribe, and this was called the "breastplate," and was placed on Aaron's ephod, and from this by varying flashes of light they received answers, to which was adjoined either a living voice, or an internal perception. Hence also it is evident that the twelve tribes of Israel signify all the truths and goods of the Lord's kingdom and church in the complex, and this variously according to the order in which they are named. That they are here named in another order than that of birth, is plain from the fact that Issachar and Zebulun are named before Dan and Naphtali, though the latter were born before them; also Benjamin before Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher, when yet Benjamin was born last; also that Gad and Asher are named last of all. In like manner in other parts of the Word, where they are named in still different orders.6641.
And all the soul that came out of the thigh of Jacob. That this signifies all things that were from general truth, is evident from the signification of soul," as being in the general sense man, here the man of the spiritual church (but in the internal sense "soul" denotes truth and good, because from this man is man, see n. 6605, 6626); from the signification of "thigh," as being conjugial love (n. 3021, 4277, 4280, 5050-5062); and as the "thigh" denotes conjugial love, it denotes all love both celestial and spiritual (n. 3021, 4277, 4280, 4575); hence to "come out of the thigh" signifies truth and good from the heavenly marriage, consequently the truth and good of the church, for these, when they are genuine, have been born of the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth; and from the representation of Jacob, as being truth and also good in the natural, but in general, because his "sons" are the distinct truths and goods in this general (n. 6637). That Jacob here represents truths in general, is because the spiritual church is treated of, for this church begins from truths in general, and by means of these is introduced to its good; for with the man of the spiritual church it is not known what spiritual good is, and so it is not acknowledged except through truth, because he has no perception of truth from good, as the man of the celestial church has.6642.
Were seventy souls. That this signifies what is full, is evident from the signification of "seventy," as being what is full (see n. 6508).6643.
And Joseph was in Egypt. That this signifies that the internal celestial was in the natural, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being the internal celestial (see n. 5869, 5877, 6224); and from the signification of "Egypt," as being the natural (n. 6147, 6252). That the internal celestial was in the natural where memory-knowledges are, and there disposed all things, was represented by Joseph's being made ruler over all the land of Egypt, and by his being set over the house of Pharaoh. This was represented because the subject treated of in the internal sense is the setting up anew of a spiritual church; and because the natural could not be made a church unless the internal celestial were there, and did all things. (But on this subject see what has been said above, n. 6275, 6284, 6299, 6451, 6587.)6644.
Verses 6, 7. And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation. And the sons of Israel were fruitful, and were productive, and multiplied, and became very exceeding numerous; and the land was filled with them. "And Joseph died," signifies that the case would now be different with the internal of the church; "and all his brethren, and all that generation," signifies also with the external in particular and in general; "and the sons of Israel were fruitful, and were productive," signifies that the truths of the church increased as to good; "and multiplied, and became very exceeding numerous," signifies that they increased very much as to truths from good; "and the land was filled with them," signifies even to fullness of the church.6645.
And Joseph died. That this signifies that the case would now be different with the internal of the church, is evident from the signification of "dying," as being the end of a former state and the beginning of a new one, thus that the state of the church would now be different (that "to die" denotes to cease to be such, see n. 494, 6587, 6593, and that it denotes the end of a former representation, n. 3253, 3259, 3276, 6302); and from the representation of Joseph, as being the internal (n. 6177, 6224). The state of the church as it now is, is described in what follows in the internal sense; also the state of its external, which is signified by "his brethren died, and all that generation."  The case with the church in man is that it successively undergoes new states; for as man is strengthened in the truth of faith and the good of charity, so he is introduced into other states, the former state then serving as a plane for the following state, and so on continually. Thus the man who is a church, or who is being regenerated, is continually led toward more interior things, thus more interiorly into heaven. That it is so done is because the Lord from love, which is infinite because Divine, wills to draw man even to Himself, and so to bless him with all glory and happiness, as also is very evident from the Lord's words in John: I pray that they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us. The glory which Thou hast given Me I have given them, that they may be one even as We are one; I in them and Thou in Me. Father, I will that they whom Thou hast given Me be also with Me where I am; that they may see My glory which Thou hast given Me; for I have made known unto them Thy name, and I will make it known; that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them (John 17:21-24, 26).  That these are words of Divine love toward all who receive, is very evident, and may be further evident from the fact that the Lord appears in the other life as a sun, and from it fills the universal heaven with heat and light. The flame of this sun is nothing else than the Divine love, and the light from it is the holy of love, which is the Divine truth. From this can be seen how great the Lord's love is. From this then it is that they who are of the church are successively brought into new states, and thus continually more interiorly into heaven, consequently nearer to the Lord.6646.
And all his brethren, and all that generation. That this signifies with the external also in particular and in general, is evident from the representation of the sons of Jacob who are here the "brethren," as being the truths of the church in the natural (n. 5403, 5419, 5427, 5458, 5512); thus its external; and from the signification of "that generation," as being the external of the church in general, for "generation" here involves the same as the "brethren of Joseph," but in a relatively general sense.6647.
And the sons of Israel were fruitful, and were productive. That this signifies that the truths of the church increased as to good, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being spiritual truths (see n. 5414, 5879), and the church (n. 6637); from the signification of "to be fruitful," as being to increase as to good (n. 43, 55, 913, 983, 2846, 2847, 3146); and from the signification of "to be productive," as being further derivation; for when the church has been set up anew with man, then good continually increases and is derived, both in the internal, and also toward and in the external. That with those of the spiritual church good increases by means of truths, has already been often shown; for the man of the spiritual church has not perception, as the man of the celestial church has, and therefore he does not know what the good of the church, or spiritual good, is, except by means of truths. Therefore when the man of the spiritual church is being regenerated, truths are stirred up by the Lord through the angels who are with him, and thereupon he is led into good. But when the man has been regenerated, then both truth and good together are stirred up, and in this way he is led. With the man of the spiritual church however, such as is the truth, such is the good, and hence such is the conscience, which is to him as perception, according to which he lives.6648.
And multiplied, and became very exceeding numerous. That this signifies that they increased very much as to truths from good, is evident from the signification of "being multiplied," as being to increase as to truths (see n. 43, 55, 913, 983, 2846, 2847); and from the signification of "becoming numerous," as being further derivation, thus the increase of truth continually. The reason why it denotes the increase of truth from good, is that the subject now treated of is the renewed church; for with the church in man the case is this: while it is being set up anew the man is in truths and by means of these good increases; but when the church with him has been set up anew, then the man is in good, and from good in truths, which then increase continually-but little during his life in the world, because here cares for food and clothing, and for other things, act as a hindrance; but in the other life immeasurably, and this perpetually to eternity; for the wisdom which is from the Divine has no end. Thus the angels are perfected continually, and thus all are perfected who become angels when they come into the other life; for everything which is of wisdom is of infinite extension, and the things of wisdom are infinite in number. From this it can be seen that wisdom can increase to eternity, and yet not reach far beyond the first degree; for the reason that the Divine is infinite, and that such is the case with what is from the infinite.6649.
And the land was filled with them. That this signifies even to fullness of the church, is evident from the signification of "being filled," as being what is full; and from the signification of "land," as being the church (n. 82, 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1411, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577). By the "land of Goshen," where the sons of Israel now were, is signified the church. That the church was there before the sons of Israel came into the land of Canaan, is evident from what follows, namely, that none of the plagues were there which were in other parts of Egypt, also that there was light there, when in other places there was darkness (Exod. 10:21-23), and that thus that land was quite separated from the rest of the lands in Egypt; and it is further evident from the fact that by the "land of Goshen" is signified the middle or inmost in the natural (n. 5910, 6028, 6031, 6068), thus the church, for the spiritual church is in the inmost of the natural.6650.
Verses 8-14. And there arose a new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph. And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the sons of Israel are many and numerous more than we. Come, let us use prudence with it; 6650-1 peradventure it will be multiplied, and it will be that wars will happen, and it will also join itself to our enemies, and fight against us, and go up out of the land. And they set over it princes of tributes, in order to afflict it with burdens. And it built cities of store-houses for Pharaoh, Pithom and Raamses. And as they afflicted it, so it was multiplied, and so it was increased. And they were moved with loathing because of the sons of Israel. And the Egyptians made the sons of Israel to serve with cruelty; and they rendered their life bitter with grievous service, in clay, and in bricks, and in all service in the field, with all their service wherein they made them serve with cruelty. "And there arose a new king over Egypt," signifies separated memory-knowledges which are opposed to the truths of the church; "who knew not Joseph," signifies which were completely alienated from the internal; "and he said unto his people," signifies subordinate memory-knowledges; "Behold, the people of the sons of Israel are many and numerous more than we," signifies that the truths of the church prevail over alienated memory-knowledges; "come, let us use prudence with it," signifies cunning; "peradventure it will be multiplied, and it will be that wars will happen," signifies prevalence if it grows; "and it will also join itself to our enemies and fight against us," signifies that thus their companions who would occasion evil would be strengthened; "and go up out of the land," signifies that thus the church will be set up anew; "and they set over it princes of tributes," signifies falsities that would compel to serve; "to afflict it with burdens," signifies a growing worse through servitudes; "and it built cities of storehouses for Pharaoh," signifies doctrines from falsified truths in the natural where alienated memory-knowledges are; "Pithom and Raamses," signifies their quality; "and as they afflicted it, so it was multiplied," signifies that truths grew according to the infestations; "and so it increased," signifies that they were strengthened; "and they were moved with loathing because of the sons of Israel," signifies greater aversion; "and the Egyptians made the sons of Israel to serve," signifies an intention to subjugate; "with cruelty," signifies unmercifulness; "and they rendered their life bitter with grievous service," signifies until the intention to subjugate became troublesome; "in clay, and in bricks," signifies by reason of the evils which they contrived, and the falsities which they devised; "and in all service in the field," signifies the intention to subjugate directed against the things of the church; "with all their service wherein they made them serve with cruelty," signifies the intention to subjugate in many ways by reason of unmercifulness.
6633-1 The singular number is here used in both the Hebrew and the Latin. The same peculiar form is found also in the English Bible (Gen. 11:6),"Behold the people is one."
6650-1 The singular number is here used in both the Hebrew and the Latin. The same peculiar form is found also in the English Bible (Gen. 11:6),"Behold the people is one."