Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
Verses 5-7. Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of violence are their swords. Into their secret let not my soul come; in their assembly let not my glory be united; for in their anger they slew a man, and in their good pleasure they unstrung an ox. Cursed be their anger for it was vehement, and their wrath for it was hard. I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel. "Simeon and Levi are brethren," signifies faith in the will, and charity, here the reverse, because they signify faith separate from charity; "instruments of violence are their swords," signifies that doctrinal things serve to destroy the works of charity, thus charity itself; "into their secret let not my soul come," signifies that spiritual good does not desire to know the evils which are of their will; "in their assembly let not my glory be united," signifies that neither does the truth of spiritual good desire to know the falsities of their thought thence derived; "for in their anger they slew a man," signifies that they utterly averted themselves, and in their turning away extinguished faith; "and in their good pleasure they unstrung an ox," signifies that from a depraved will they utterly weakened the external good of charity; "cursed be their anger for it was vehement," signifies a grievous turning away from good, and the consequent condemnation; "and their wrath, for it was hard," signifies a turning away from the derivative truth, that it was confirmed; "I will divide them in Jacob," signifies that they must be banished from the natural man; "and scatter them in Israel," signifies from the spiritual man also.6352.
Simeon and Levi are brethren. That this signifies faith in the will, and charity, here the reverse, because they signify faith separated from charity, is evident from the representation of Simeon, as being faith in the will (see n. 3869-3872, 4497, 4502, 4503, 5482, 5626, 5630); and from the representation of Levi, as being charity (n. 3875, 3877), but here the reverse, because they signify faith separate from charity. For when this faith is represented by Reuben (as is plain from the explication of verse 4), it follows that no faith in the will, and thus no charity, are what are represented by Simeon and Levi, for these things follow in a series from their beginning. Therefore by Simeon is represented falsity in the will, and by Levi evil in act, for these are opposite to faith in the will and to charity. That these are signified is plain from Simeon and Levi being cursed.6353.
Instruments of violence are their swords. That this signifies that doctrinal things serve to destroy the works of charity, thus charity itself, is evident from the signification of "instruments of violence," as being what serves to destroy charity (that "instruments" denote things that are of service is evident, and that "violence" denotes the destruction of charity, will be seen presently); and from the signification of "swords," as being doctrinal things. For "swords" [gladii] denote the truths of faith, by means of which combat is waged against falsities and evils (see n. 2799), thus "swords" [machaerae] are doctrinal things, here the doctrinal things by means of which combat is waged against truth and good, and by means of which these are extinguished, because this is done by those who are in faith alone, or in faith separate from charity, with whom the reverse prevails.  The doctrinal things of those who are in faith alone, whereby they destroy the works of charity, are chiefly those which teach that man is saved by faith alone without the works of charity, and that these are not necessary, and that man is saved by faith alone even in the last hour, no matter how he had lived through the whole course of his life, thus those who have practiced nothing but cruelties, those who have practiced nothing but adulteries, those who have practiced nothing but profane things; and hence that salvation is merely admission into heaven, none being admitted but they who have received this grace at the end of their life; and thus that some have been elected out of mercy, and some damned out of unmercifulness; when yet heaven is denied by the Lord to no one, but the life and the communication of life (which are there perceived as an odor is perceived by those exposed to it on earth) render it impossible for the wicked to dwell there, because they are tormented by the evil of their life there more than in the deepest hell.  That a "sword" signifies falsity combating and slaying, is evident in John: There went forth another horse that was red, and to him that sat thereon it was given to take peace from the earth, that they should kill one another, whence there was given unto him a great sword (Rev. 6:4). Again: If anyone shall kill with the sword, with the sword must he be killed (Rev. 13:10, 14).  That "violence" is violence inflicted on charity, is clear from many passages in the Word, as in Isaiah: The violent one shall cease, and the scorner shall be consumed, all who ripen iniquity shall be cut off, who make a man sin in a word, and ensnare him who reproveth in the gate, and turn aside the just into emptiness (Isa. 29:20, 21); in this passage the "violent one" is expressed by another word in the original, but of similar signification; that the "violent one" is one who inflicts violence on charity, is signified by "making a man sin in a word," and "turning aside the just."  In the same: Their works are works of iniquity, and the deed of violence is in their hands. Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood (Isa. 59:6, 7); where "violence" is violence inflicted on charity, which is also signified by "shedding blood" (see n. 374, 1005). Again: Violence shall no more be in thy land, wasting and a breach in thy borders (Isa. 60:18); where "violence" denotes the destruction of charity, for hence comes "wasting and breach in the land," that is, in the church.  In Jeremiah: I proclaim violence and vastation; because the word of Jehovah is made a reproach unto me, and a shame all the day (Jer. 20:8); where "violence" also denotes violence in spiritual things, thus the destruction of charity and also of faith. In Ezekiel: The land is full of judgment of bloods, and the city is full of violence (Ezek. 7:23); where "judgment of bloods" denotes the destruction of faith; and "violence," the destruction of charity.  Again: If he beget a son that is violent, a shedder of blood, that doeth any one of these things: if he hath eaten upon the mountains, and defiled his companion's wife, hath oppressed the poor and needy, hath seized spoil, hath not restored the pledge, and hath lifted up his eyes to idols, hath committed abomination, hath given upon interest, and hath received usury; shall he live? He shall not live, dying he shall die (Ezek. 18:10-13); here a "son that is violent and a shedder of blood" is described, and all the works of charity which it destroys are recounted; thus a "son that is violent and a shedder of blood" is a destroyer of charity and faith.  In David: Deliver me O Jehovah from the evil man, preserve me from the man of violences, who think evils in their heart, the whole day they gather themselves together for war; they sharpen their tongue like a serpent, the poison of the asp is under their lips. Keep me O Jehovah from the hands of the wicked; preserve me from the man of violences. Let not the man of tongue subsist in the earth; let evil hunt the man of violence to overthrow him (Ps. 140:1-4, 11); a "man of violences" denotes those who destroy the truths of faith and the goods of charity; their fighting against these truths and goods is signified by their "gathering themselves together the whole day for war, sharpening the tongue as a serpent, the poison of the asp under their lips, and evil hunting him to overthrow him." (And so in other passages, as Ezek. 12:19; Joel 4:19; Mal. 2:16, 17; Zeph. 3:4; Ps. 18:48; 55:9-11; 58:3-6; Deut. 19:16.)6354.
Into their secret let not my soul come. That this signifies that spiritual good does not desire to know the evils that are of their will, is evident from the representation of Israel, who says this of himself, as being spiritual good (see n. 6340); and from the signification of "not coming into a secret," as being not to desire to know, namely, the evils of the will that are signified by "Simeon and Levi" (n. 6352); it is said "my soul" because by "soul" is here signified the life of good belonging to spiritual good; the life of its truth is signified by "glory," of which in what follows.6355.
In their assembly let not my glory be united. That this signifies that neither does the truth of spiritual good desire to know the falsities of their thought thence derived, is evident from the representation of Israel, as being spiritual good (see n. 6340); and from the signification of "not being united in their assembly," as being not to desire to be conjoined with the falsities of their thought, thus also not to desire to know them (falsities of thought being signified by "assembly," which like "multitude," is predicated of truths, and in the opposite sense of falsities); and from the signification of "glory," which is predicated of truth (n. 4809, 5922), for truth is glory to those who are in spiritual good.6356.
For in their anger they slew a man. That this signifies that they utterly averted themselves, and in their turning away extinguished faith, is evident from the signification of "anger," as being a receding from charity, and a turning away (see n. 357, 5034, 5798); from the signification of "slaying" as being to extinguish; and from the signification of "man" [vir] as being the truth of faith (n. 3134, 3309, 3459, 4823).6357.
And in their good pleasure they unstrung an ox. That this signifies that from a depraved will they utterly weakened the external good of charity, is evident from the signification of "good pleasure," as being the will, here a depraved will; from the signification of "unstringing," as being to weaken; and from the signification of an "ox," as being the natural or external good of charity (see n. 2180, 2566, 2781). The reason why an "ox" is here spoken of, and just before a "man," is that by a "man" is signified the truth of faith, and by an "ox" the good of charity; and in order that when good is treated of, truth may also be treated of, because of the heavenly marriage in everything of the Word (n. 6343).6358.
Cursed be their anger for it was vehement. That this signifies a grievous turning away from good and the consequent condemnation, is evident from the signification of "being cursed," as being condemnation, for he who has been cursed has been condemned; and from the signification of "anger," as being a turning away from good (n. 357, 5034, 5798, 6356); thus "vehement anger" denotes a grievous turning away.6359.
And their wrath for it was hard. That this signifies a turning away from the derivative truth, that it was confirmed, is evident from the signification of "wrath," as being a turning away from truth (that "wrath" is predicated of truth, and "anger" of good, may be seen above, n. 3614); and from the signification of "hard," as being what is confirmed, for the falsity which has been confirmed even to persuasion, is hard. That it is hard has been given to know from experience, for among spirits and among the angels truth from good appears and is presented to view as soft, but falsity from evil as hard, and this in proportion as the falsity from evil is more confirmed. When persuasion has been brought about by means of confirmation from many things, this hardness appears there like the hardness of bone. Such hardness is also like the hardness in this world, in that it reflects the rays of light. Thus when the light of heaven from the Lord falls upon the hardness produced by falsity from evil, it is reflected; but on the other hand, when the light of heaven from the Lord falls upon the softness produced by truth from good, it is received.6360.
I will divide them in Jacob. That this signifies that they must be banished from the natural man, is evident from the signification of "dividing," as being separation and removal from truth and good (see n. 4424), thus banishment; and from the representation of Jacob, as being the natural or external man (n. 3305, 3576, 4286, 4292, 4570, 6236).6361.
And scatter them in Israel. That this signifies from the spiritual man also, is evident from the signification of "scattering," as being banishment; but "scattering" is distinguished from "dividing" in that the latter is predicated of the external man and of truth, but "scattering" of the internal man and of good. (That Jacob represents the natural or external man, and Israel the spiritual or internal, may be seen above, n. 4286, 4292, 4570.) That these things which were said by Israel of Simeon and Levi, and also those which were said of Reuben, do not signify what would befall their descendants in the end of the days, as is said in the first verse, may be seen from the fact that the descendants of Simeon and Levi were not cursed, and divided in Jacob and scattered in Israel; for the tribe of Simeon was among the rest of the tribes as one of them; and the tribe of Levi was made the priesthood, thus was rather blessed than cursed; and so with the tribe of Reuben, which also was not more vile than the other tribes. Hence it is very manifest that what is said in this chapter of the sons of Jacob, as to what should befall them in the end of the days, is not what should befall themselves, but what should befall those who are meant by them in the internal sense; and here those who are in faith separated from charity, for these are here meant in the internal sense by "Reuben," "Simeon," and "Levi." From this it is very evident that there is an internal sense of the Word which does not appear in the letter, nor to anyone unless he knows the correspondences of natural things with spiritual, and not at all to him who does not know what the spiritual and what the celestial are.6362.
Verses 8-12. Thou Judah, thy brethren shall celebrate thee, thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies, thy father's sons shall bow down to thee. Judah is a lion's whelp; from the prey my son thou art gone up; he bowed, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? The scepter shall not be removed from Judah, and a lawgiver from between his feet, even until Shiloh come; and to him is the obedience of the peoples. He binds his young ass unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washes his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes; his eyes are red with wine, and his teeth are white with milk. "Thou Judah," signifies the celestial church, in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine celestial; "thy brethren shall celebrate thee," signifies that this church is eminent above the rest; "thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies," signifies that the infernal and diabolical crew will flee at his presence; "thy father's sons shall bow down to thee," signifies that truths will submit themselves of their own accord; "Judah is a lion's whelp," signifies innocence with innate forces; "from the prey my son thou art gone up," signifies that from the Lord through the celestial there is deliverance of many from hell; "he bowed, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion," signifies the good of love and the derivative truth in their power; "who shall rouse him up?" signifies that he is safe among all in the hells; "the scepter shall not be removed from Judah," signifies that sovereignty shall not depart from celestial good; "and a lawgiver from between his feet," signifies truths from this good in lower things; "until Shiloh come," signifies the coming of the Lord, and the tranquillity of peace then; "and to him is the obedience of the peoples," signifies that from His Divine Human shall proceed truths; "he binds his young ass unto the vine," signifies truth in the natural for the external church; "and his ass's colt unto the choice vine," signifies truth from the rational for the internal church; "he washes his clothing in wine," signifies that His natural is Divine truth from His Divine good; "and his covering in the blood of grapes," signifies that His intellectual is Divine good from His Divine love; "his eyes are red with wine," signifies that the intellectual, or internal Human, is nothing but good; "and his teeth are white with milk," signifies that the Divine natural is nothing but the good of truth.6363.
Thou Judah. That this signifies the celestial church, in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine celestial, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine of love, or as to the Divine celestial; but in the relative sense the Lord's celestial kingdom, thus the celestial church (see n. 3881). (What the celestial kingdom, the celestial church, and the celestial are, may be seen above, n. 640, 641, 765, 895, 2048, 2088, 2669, 2708, 2715, 2718, 2896, 3235, 3246, 3374, 3886, 3887, 4448, 4493, 5113, 5922, 6295.)6364.
Thy brethren shall celebrate thee. That this signifies that this church is eminent above the rest, is evident from the signification of "being celebrated," as being to be eminent; from the representation of Judah, here meant by "thee," as being the celestial church (see n. 6363); and from the signification of "brethren," as being the truths of this church, thus also the churches which are in these truths, and which are represented by the brethren of Judah, for truths and goods constitute the church. The truths of the celestial church are signified by "thy brethren," that is, the brethren of Judah; but the truths of the spiritual church by the "sons of his father" (see n. 6366).6365.
Thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies. That this signifies that the infernal and diabolical crew will flee at his presence, is evident from the signification of "enemies," as being the infernal and diabolical crew, for these are enemies in the spiritual sense; and from the signification of the "hand in their neck," as being to pursue those who are in flight; for when an enemy flees, the hand of the conqueror is in his neck. It is said that they shall flee at his presence, because when any one of the infernal crew approaches any angel of the Lord's celestial kingdom, he flees at his presence, being unable to endure it, because he cannot endure the sphere of celestial love, which is that of love to the Lord; this sphere being to him like burning and tormenting fire. Moreover a celestial angel never fights, still less is his hand in the neck of his enemies, nor indeed does he regard anyone as an enemy insofar as he is concerned; yet it is so expressed on account of the conditions in this world; but the real meaning is that the infernals, regarding themselves as his enemies, flee from his presence.6366.
Thy father's sons shall bow down to thee. That this signifies that truths will submit themselves of their own accord, is evident from the signification of "bowing down," as being to submit themselves; and from the signification of the "father's sons," as being the truths that are from spiritual good, for the "sons of Israel" denote spiritual truths (see n. 5414, 5879, 5951), and "Israel" is spiritual good (n. 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833). That these truths will submit themselves of their own accord, is because when celestial love, which is represented by Judah, flows into the spiritual truths which are represented by the sons of Israel, it disposes them into order, and thus submits them to the Lord; for the celestial has this efficacy through influx into spiritual things, that is, good through influx into truth. For this reason also the Lord's celestial kingdom is the inmost or third heaven, thus is nearest the Lord; and His spiritual kingdom is the middle or second heaven, thus is further away from the Lord. It is from this order that the Lord flows into the spiritual kingdom, both mediately through the celestial kingdom, and also immediately. The influx is of such a nature that the spiritual kingdom is kept in order by means of the celestial kingdom, and in this way is submitted to the Lord. The influx from the celestial kingdom is effected by means of love toward the neighbor, for this is the external of the celestial kingdom and the internal of the spiritual kingdom; hence the conjunction of both (see n. 5922).6367.
Judah is a lion's whelp. That this signifies innocence with innate forces, is evident from the signification of a "lion," as being the good of love and the truth thence derived in their power (of which in what follows); thus a "lion's whelp" denotes innocence with forces. The reason why it is said "with innate forces" is that "Judah" here is the celestial of love, and the celestial of love is in the will part (see n. 895, 927, 4493, 5113), thus it has innate forces; for man is born into the things of the will part; hence they of the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, were born into the good of love insofar as they had good in their will. From this then it is that the forces are said to be "innate." The reason why a "lion's whelp" denotes innocence, is that a "lion" denotes the good of celestial love, and a "whelp" is as it were its infant, thus is innocence.  That a "lion" denotes the good of celestial love and the derivative truth, in its power, and also that in the opposite sense it denotes the evil of the love of self in its power, is evident from passages in the Word where a "lion" is mentioned. That it denotes the good of celestial love is evident in John: Behold the lion that is of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, hath conquered to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof (Rev. 5:5); here the Lord is called a "lion" from the omnipotence belonging to His Divine love and the Divine truth thence derived. In other passages in the Word, Jehovah or the Lord is compared to a "lion," as in Hosea: They shall go after Jehovah; He shall roar like a lion; for He shall roar, and the sons shall come with honor from the sea (Hos. 11:10).  In Isaiah: Thus said Jehovah unto me, Like as when the lion roareth, and the young lion over his prey, if a fullness of shepherds come running upon him, he is not dismayed at their voice, and is not afflicted by their tumult; so shall Jehovah Zebaoth come down to fight upon Mount Zion and upon the hill thereof (Isa. 31:4); here the omnipotence of Divine good is compared to a "lion," and the omnipotence of the Divine truth thence derived is compared to a "young lion," for it is said that "Jehovah Zebaoth shall come down to fight upon Mount Zion and upon the hill thereof;" for "Mount Zion" signifies the good of Divine love, and the "hill thereof," the Divine truth thence derived (see n. 795, 796, 1430, 4210).  For the same reason the four animals in Ezekiel and in John, by which are meant cherubs, had the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle. In Ezekiel: The likeness of the faces of the four animals: the face of a man and the face of a lion on the right side had they four; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; and they four had the face of an eagle (Ezek. 1:10; 10:14). And in Revelation: Before the throne were four animals full of eyes before and behind. And the first animal was like a lion, and the second animal like a calf, the third animal had a face as a man, the fourth animal was like a flying eagle (Rev. 4:6, 7). That these animals were cherubs is said in Ezekiel 10, and is also plain from the description of them in John, namely, that they had eyes before and behind; for by "cherubs" are signified the Lord's foresight and providence (n. 308); that they had the face of a lion was from the omnipotence of Divine truth from Divine good, which is of providence. It was similar with the cherubs about the new temple, in Ezekiel 41:19.  That the celestial, who are in power from good and the derivative truth, which are from the Lord, are meant by "lions," is evident in David: There is no want to them that fear Jehovah. The young lions do lack, and suffer hunger; but they that seek Jehovah shall not want any good (Ps. 34:9, 10). Again: The lions roar after their prey, and to seek their food from God. The sun ariseth, they are gathered together, and lay them down in their habitations (Ps. 104:21, 22). And in the prophecy of Balaam: At that time it shall be said to Jacob and Israel, What hath God wrought! Behold the people shall rise up as an old lion, and as a young lion shall he lift himself up; he shall not rest until he eat the prey (Num. 23:23, 24).  And again: When Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, he said, He boweth down, he coucheth as a lion, and as an old lion, who shall rouse him up? (Num. 24:2, 9). It is the celestial that is here described, because it was the celestial order that the tribes represented by their encampment which Balaam saw in spirit when he saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes (see n. 6335). This order is from the Divine good through the Divine truth from the Lord, and in this order is all power, here denoted by the "lion which boweth down and coucheth."  In Micah: The remains of Jacob shall be among the nations, in the midst of many peoples, as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep; who if he go through, treadeth down and scattereth, and there is none rescuing. Let thy hand be exalted over thine enemies, and let all thy foes be cut off (Mic. 5:8, 9); where the "lion" and "young lion" denote celestial good and celestial truth, which are the "remains of Jacob." The meaning is similar in Isa. 21:8; Jer. 25:38; Ezek. 32:2; Zech. 11:3. The like was represented by the lions at the ivory throne of Solomon, two at the sides of the throne, and twelve upon the six steps (1 Kings 10:18-20); also by the lions upon the borders of the ten bases of brass (1 Kings 7:29, 36).  That in the opposite sense a "lion" signifies the evil of the love of self in its power, is plain from the following passages: No lion shall be there, and no ravenous beast shall go up thereon, it shall not be found there; but they shall go free; thus the redeemed of Jehovah shall return and shall come to Zion with singing (Isa. 35:9, 10). In Jeremiah: Why is Israel become a prey? The young lions roar against him, they utter their voice, they reduce his land to a waste (Jer. 2:14, 15). Again: The lion cometh up from his bramble, and the destroyer of the nations hath journeyed, he went forth from his place to reduce the land into a waste (Jer. 4:7). Again: They have not known the way of Jehovah, the judgment of their God. Wherefore a lion out of the forest hath smitten them, and a wolf of the plains will lay them waste (Jer. 5:4, 6). And in Nahum: Where is the habitation of the lions, and the pasture of the young lions; where the lion stalked, the old lion, the lion's whelp, and none made afraid? The lion seizeth enough for his whelps, and strangleth for His old lionesses, and filleth his caves with prey, and his habitations with ravin. Behold I am against thee, saith Jehovah Zebaoth, and I will burn her chariot in the smoke, and the sword shall devour thy young lions; and I will cut off thy prey from the earth (Nah. 2:11-13); speaking of Nineveh. In the above passages a "lion" denotes the power possessed by the evil of the love of self when it destroys and lays waste; and so in Jer. 12:8; 49:19; 50:17, 44; 51:38; Ezek. 19:2-11; 33:2; Joel 1:6; Zeph. 3:3; Ps. 57:5; 58:6; 91:13; Rev. 13:2.6368.
From the prey my son thou art gone up. That this signifies that from the Lord through what is celestial there is deliverance of many from hell, is evident from the signification of "going up from the prey," as being deliverance from hell (of which below); and from the representation of Judah, who is here "my son," as being the Divine celestial (n. 6363). That "to go up from the prey" denotes deliverance from hell is because man of himself is in hell, for his will and thought from his own is nothing but evil and its falsity, by which he has been so bound to hell that he cannot be torn away without violence. This tearing away and deliverance is what is called the "prey;" and because this is done from the Lord's Divine good, it is said that from the Lord through what is celestial is the deliverance of many from hell.  But be it known that no one can be torn away and delivered from hell unless in the life of the body he has been in spiritual good, that is, in charity through faith; for unless he has been in this good through faith, there is nothing to receive the good which flows in from the Lord; but it flows through, except that which can be fixed somewhere; and therefore these persons cannot be torn away or delivered from hell. For all the states that a man has acquired in the life of the body are retained in the other life, and are filled; with the good the states of good are retained and filled with good, and by means of these states they are elevated into heaven; and with the evil the states of evil are retained and filled with evil, and by means of these states they sink down into hell. This is the meaning of the saying that as a man dies, so he remains. This shows who they are that can be delivered by the Lord from hell by means of the Divine celestial.6369.
He bowed, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion. That this signifies the good of love and the derivative truth in their power, is evident from the signification of "bowing," as being to put forth his power, for when a lion crouches (as when it sees its prey) it hardens its sinews and gathers strength; from the signification of "couching," as being to lie in safety and without dread; and from the signification of a "lion" and an "old lion," as being the good of love and the derivative truth in their power (see n. 6367). A "young lion" denotes one who is in power through truth from good, and an "old lion" one who is in power through good. For they who are in celestial good never fight, but are safe through good; because where they come, the evil flee away, for the evil cannot endure their presence (n. 6365); it is these who are signified by an "old lion."6370.
Who shall rouse him up? That this signifies that he is safe among all in the hells, is evident from the signification of "who shall rouse him up," as being to be safe. That it denotes among all in the hells is because he is safe among all evils, even in the midst of the hells; for love to the Lord and toward the neighbor has this effect, because they who are in this love are most closely conjoined with the Lord, and are in the Lord, because they are in the Divine which proceeds from Him; hence nothing of evil can reach them. Be it known that there are innumerable hells, distinct according to the genera of evils and the derivative falsities, and according to the species of these, and the details of the species; and that in each hell there is order; and that this order is preserved by the Lord, both immediately, and mediately through the celestial angels; at times also angels are sent thither to bring into order what is disorderly there; and when they are there, they are in safety. This is what is meant by the safety among all in the hells of him who is in what is celestial.6371.
The scepter shall not be removed from Judah. That this signifies that sovereignty shall not depart from the celestial kingdom, is evident from the signification of "being removed," as being to depart; from the signification of "scepter," as being sovereignty, and indeed the sovereignty of truth from good (see n. 4876), for a scepter is a badge of royal power, and by royalty is signified truth (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 6148); and from the representation of Judah, as being the celestial kingdom (n. 6363). Hence it is plain that by the "scepter not being removed from Judah" is signified that the sovereignty shall not depart from the celestial kingdom.  From the sense of the letter it appears that by what is contained in this verse is meant that the kingdom should not be removed from the Jewish people until the Lord came. This also is true, yet in this historic truth, as in everything else, there is an internal sense; for that the kingdom should not be removed from the Jewish people, is a worldly matter; but the spiritual truth of the internal sense appears when by "scepter" is understood sovereignty, and by "Judah" the celestial kingdom. But that sovereignty should depart from the celestial kingdom when the Lord came, is a secret that no one can know except from revelation. The case is this. Before the coming of the Lord into the world, there was influx of life with men and with spirits from Jehovah or the Lord through the celestial kingdom, that is, through the angels who were in that kingdom, and hence they then had the sovereignty. But when the Lord came into the world, and thereby made the Human in Himself Divine, He put on just that which was with the angels of the celestial kingdom, thus He put on this sovereignty. For previously the Divine transflux through that heaven had been the Divine Human; it was also the Divine Man which was presented to view when Jehovah so appeared; but this Divine Human ceased when the Lord Himself made the Human in Himself Divine. This shows how the case is with this secret. The angels of that kingdom have indeed great sovereignty now, but only insofar as they are in the Lord's Divine Human through love to Him. (See what has already been stated and shown, n. 1990, 2803, 3061, 4180, 4687, 5110, 6280.)6372.
And a lawgiver from between his feet. That this signifies truths from this good in lower things, is evident from the signification of a "lawgiver," as being truths (of which below); and from the signification of "feet," as being natural things (see n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952, 5327, 5328), thus lower things, for natural things are beneath, and celestial things (just now described) are above. It is said a "lawgiver from between his feet" in order that the spiritual of the celestial may be signified, or the truth which is from good, for at that time the spiritual kingdom was not such as it was after the Lord's coming-distinct from the celestial kingdom-but was one with the celestial kingdom, being merely its external; therefore also it is said "from between his feet," in order that truth which is from good may be signified; for this is signified by this inner side of the feet, from its communication with the loins. Of this truth it is also said that it should be "removed when Shiloh came," that is, its sovereignty should be removed, just as was the sovereignty of the celestial (see n. 6371); for the celestial kingdom at that time exercised its sovereignty by means of this truth; and because this was so, this truth is called a "lawgiver." This truth is also meant in the internal sense by a "lawgiver" in Isaiah: Jehovah is our judge, Jehovah is our lawgiver, Jehovah is our king (Isa. 33:22); where "judge" denotes that He acts from good; "lawgiver," that He acts from truth from this good; "king," that He acts from truth; thus they follow in order. And in David: Gilead is Mine, and Manasseh is Mine, and Ephraim is the strength of My head, Judah is My lawgiver (Ps. 60:7; 108:8); where "Judah a lawgiver" is celestial good and its celestial truth. In Moses: The fountain, the princes digged it, the nobles of the people digged it out, by the lawgiver, with their staves (Num. 21:18). And again: Gad saw the first fruits for himself, for there was the portion of the hidden lawgiver; whence came the heads of the people; he wrought the righteousness of Jehovah, and His judgments with Israel (Deut. 33:21); where also "lawgiver" denotes truth from good.6373.
Until Shiloh come. That this signifies the coming of the Lord, and the tranquillity of peace then, is evident from the signification of "Shiloh," as being the Lord, who is called "Shiloh" from the fact that He pacified and made all things tranquil; for in the original, "Shiloh" is derived from a word which means tranquillity. The reason why the Lord is here called "Shiloh" is plain from what was said above (n. 6371, 6372) about the celestial kingdom and its sovereignty; for when the Divine was presented to view through that kingdom there was in tranquillity, because the things in heaven, and the things in hell, could not thereby be reduced into order, for the Divine which flowed through that kingdom could not be pure, because heaven is not pure; thus neither was that kingdom so strong that all things could by means of it be kept in order; and therefore also the infernal and diabolical spirits were then raising themselves up from the hells and were ruling over the souls who were arriving from the world. The result was that none could be saved but the celestial; and at last scarcely they, unless the Lord had taken on the Human and had made this in Himself Divine; whereby the Lord reduced all things into order, first those in heaven, and afterward those in the hells; thus producing the tranquillity of peace. That the spiritual, that is, they who were of the spiritual church, were saved by the Lord's coming, may be seen above, n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834; and that the Lord, when in the world, reduced all things into order, n. 1820, 4286, 4287; that the Divine truth from Jehovah or the Lord flowed in through heaven into the human race, but because this did not suffice when man removed himself from good, the Lord came into the world and made the Human in Himself Divine, in order that from the very Divine Human of the Lord the Divine truth might proceed, and thus might save man, who should receive good through truth, may also be seen above, n. 4180, 6280.6374.
And to him is the obedience of the peoples. That this signifies that from His Divine Human should proceed truths which could be received, is evident from the signification of "obedience," as being the reception of truths which proceed from the Lord; and from the signification of "peoples," as being those who are in truths, thus also truths (see n. 1259, 1260, 3581), and hence those who are of the spiritual church (n. 2928).6375.
He binds his young ass unto the vine. That this signifies [conjunction through] truth in the natural for the external church, is evident from the signification of "binding," as being to be conjoined; from the signification of a "vine," as being the spiritual church (see n. 1069, 5113), here the external spiritual church, because by a "choice vine," presently mentioned, is signified the internal church; and from the signification of an "ass," as being truth in the natural (n. 2781). Hence it is plain that by "he binds to the vine his young ass" is signified conjunction through truth in the natural with the external church.6376.
And his ass's colt unto the choice vine. That this signifies [through] truth from the rational for the internal church, is evident from the signification of a "vine," as being the spiritual church (see n. 1069, 5113), thus a "choice vine" is the internal church, for the internal of the church is more excellent than its external; and from the signification of an "ass's colt," as being rational truth (n. 2781). The external of the church is distinguished from its internal in that the former is in the natural, thus in the external man; but the latter is in the rational, thus in the internal man. They who are in the external of the church are in truth, but they who are in its internal, are in good; the former are not so much affected with the good of charity as with the truth of faith; but the latter are affected with the good of charity and thence with the truth of faith. The latter are they who are signified by the "choice vine," but the former by the "vine."6377.
He washes his clothing in wine. That this signifies that His natural is Divine truth from His Divine good, is evident from the signification of "washing," as being to purify (see n. 3147); from the signification of "wine," as being the good of love toward the neighbor, and the good of faith, and in the supreme sense Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord (of which presently); and from the signification of "clothing," as being what is exterior, which covers what is interior (n. 5248); thus the natural, for this is exterior, and covers the rational which is interior; hence also "clothing" denotes truth, because truth is exterior, and covers good which is interior (n. 2576, 4545, 4763, 5319, 5954).  That "wine" denotes love toward the neighbor and the good of faith, may be seen from what has been shown in respect to the bread and wine in the Holy Supper (n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 4581, 5915), namely, that the "bread" is the good of celestial love, and that the "wine" is the good of spiritual love. This may be seen also from the meat-offering and the drink-offering in the sacrifices, in which the "meat-offering" signified the good of love, and the "drink-offering" the good of faith, the meat-offering consisting of such things as signified the good of love, and the drink-offering of wine which signified the good of faith; moreover the very sacrifices were called "bread" (n. 2165). That a drink-offering of wine was employed in the sacrifices may be seen in Exod. 29:40; Lev. 23:12, 13, 18, 19; Num. 15:2-15; 28:6, 7, 18 to the end; 29:1-7.  That "wine" signifies love toward the neighbor and the good of faith, is plain also from Isaiah: Everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver; come ye, buy and eat; yea come, buy wine and milk without silver and without price (Isa. 55:1); everyone must know that they were not to buy wine and milk, but that which is signified by wine and milk, that is, love toward the neighbor and faith; these are given by the Lord without silver and without price.  And in Hosea: The threshing-floor and the winepress shall not feed them, and the new wine shall deceive them. Ephraim shall return into Egypt, and they shall eat what is unclean in Assyria. They shall not pour out wine to Jehovah; and their sacrifices shall not be pleasing unto Him (Hos. 9:2-4); here also in the internal sense are meant the good of love and the good of faith, that they ceased; the good of love is the "threshing-floor," from the grain there and the bread that comes from it; and the good of faith is the "wine press," the "new wine," and the "libation of wine:" that "Ephraim shall return into Egypt" denotes that the intellectual should consult memory-knowledges with respect to the secrets of faith; "they shall eat what is unclean in Assyria" denotes that which results from the consequent reasoning. (That "Ephraim" is the intellectual of the church, may be seen, n. 5354, 6222, 6238, 6267; also that "Egypt" is memory-knowledge, n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 5702; and "Assyria" reasoning, n. 1186.) Moreover the very connection shows that there is more in the words than appears in the letter; for in the internal sense there is coherence, but not in the external; as when it is said that "the threshing-floor and the winepress shall not feed them," and that "the new wine shall deceive them," and presently that "Ephraim shall return into Egypt, and they shall eat what is unclean in Assyria;" and moreover without the internal sense what could be meant by "Ephraim returning into Egypt," and by their "eating what is unclean in Assyria?"  The cessation of mutual love and of the good of faith is also described by a "winepress" and "wine" in Jeremiah: Upon thy vintage hath the waster fallen; whence gladness was gathered, and joy from Carmel, and from the land of Moab, for I have caused wine to cease from the winepresses; he will not tread hedad 6377-1 (Jer. 48:32, 33).  That "wine" signifies the good of mutual love and of faith, is plain also in John: I heard a voice out of the midst of the four animals saying, Hurt not the oil and the wine (Rev. 6:6); where "oil" is the good of celestial love; and "wine," the good of spiritual love.  The like is meant by "oil and wine" in the Lord's parable about the Samaritan, in Luke: A certain Samaritan as he journeyed, and seeing him who had been wounded by thieves, was moved with compassion, wherefore coming to him he bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine (Luke 10:33, 34); where "pouring in oil and wine" signifies that he performed the works of love and of charity. (That "oil" denotes the good of love may be seen above, n. 886, 3728.) The like was meant by the ancients pouring oil and wine upon a pillar when they sanctified it (Gen. 35:14; n. 4581, 4582).  That "wine" denotes the good of love and of faith, is plain from the Lord's words which He said of wine when He instituted the Holy Supper: I say to you that I will not drink henceforth of this product of the vine until that day when I shall drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom (Matt. 26:29; Luke 22:17, 18); everyone can see that He would not drink wine there, but that there is signified the good of love and of faith, which He would give to those who are of His kingdom. The like is signified by "wine" in Isa. 24:9, 11; Lam. 2:11, 12; Hos. 14:7; Amos 9:13, 14; Zech. 9:15, 17; Luke 5:37-39.  As "wine" signifies the good of love and of faith, therefore in the supreme sense it signifies the Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord, for from this by influx the man who receives it has the good of love and of faith.  As most expressions in the Word have also a contrary sense, so also has "wine," in which sense "wine" signifies falsity from evil, as in Isaiah: Woe unto them that rise up in the morning under the dawn, and follow strong drink; that tarry into the twilight, that wine may inflame them! Woe to the heroes to drink wine, and to men of strength to mingle strong drink! (Isa. 5:11, 22). Again: These also err through wine, and through strong drink go astray; the priest and the prophet err through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they go astray through strong drink; they err among the seer, they stumble in judgment (Isa. 28:7). The shepherds know not to understand, they all look back to their own way. Come ye, I will take wine, and we will be drunken with strong drink; and let there be, on the morrow, as on this day, a great abundance (Isa. 56:11, 12). And further (in Jer. 13:12; Hos. 4:11; 7:5; Amos 2:8; Mic. 2:11; Ps. 75:8; Deut. 32:33). Falsity from evil is also signified by the "cup of the wine of anger" (Jer. 25:15, 16; Rev. 14:8, 10; 16:19); and by the "wine press of the wine of the fury of the anger of God" (Rev. 19:15); and by the "wine of whoredom" (Rev. 17:2; 18:3).6378.
And his covering in the blood of grapes. That this signifies that His intellectual is Divine good from His Divine love, is evident from the signification of the "blood of grapes," as being the good of love, and in the supreme sense the Lord's Divine good from His Divine love (of which in what follows); and from the signification of a "covering," as being the intellectual, for the intellectual is a recipient, and that which receives, being a vessel, is like a covering. That by a "covering" is signified the intellectual, and by "clothing" the natural (of which just above, n. 6377), is because there the subject treated of is what is external, but here what is internal; for in the Word, on account of the heavenly marriage, where it treats of what is external it treats also of what is internal; and where it treats of truth it treats also of good (see n. 6343). This sometimes appears like a repetition of the same thing, as here: "He washes his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes," where "wine" and the "blood of grapes" appear to be the same, and also "clothing" and "covering;" but they are not the same, because what is external and what is internal are thus expressed.  That the "blood of grapes" denotes the Divine good from the Divine love of the Lord, is plain from the signification of "blood," as being the Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord (n. 4735); and by "grapes" in the supreme sense is signified the Lord's Divine good which those have who are in His spiritual kingdom; and hence by "grapes" in the relative sense is signified the good of charity (n. 5117). By the "blood of the grape" the like is also signified in the song of Moses: Butter of the herd and milk of the flock, with fat of lambs and of rams the sons of Bashan, and of he-goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and thou shalt drink the blood of the grape unmixed (Deut. 32:14).6379.
His eyes are red with wine. That this signifies that the intellectual or internal Human is nothing but good, is evident from the signification of "red," as being the good of love, and this from fire and from blood, which are red (n. 3300), hence "red with wine" denotes that it is nothing but good; and from the signification of "eyes," as being the intellectual (n. 2701, 3820, 4403-4421, 4523-4534); and because the Lord is here treated of, it is His internal human which is meant by "the intellectual," for the external human is signified by "his teeth are white with milk," as now follows.6380.
And his teeth are white with milk. That this signifies that the Divine natural is nothing but the good of truth, is evident from the signification of "white," which is predicated of truth (see n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319); from the signification of "teeth," as being in the genuine sense what is natural; for the things in man which are hard, as his teeth, bones, cartilages, correspond to the truths and goods which are of the lowest natural; and from the signification of "milk," as being the celestial spiritual, or what is the same, the good of truth (n. 2184). That the Lord's Divine natural is the good of truth is said relatively to men who are in faith and in love to the Lord; for they who are of the external church are not able to elevate the thought higher than to the Lord's Divine natural; whereas they who are of the internal church elevate the thought above the natural to what is internal. For everyone who is in faith in the Lord has an idea of Him according to his capacity of elevating his thoughts; for they who know the nature of what is internal can have an idea of what is internal; but they who do not know the nature of what is internal have an idea of what is external. Hence it is that the Lord's Divine natural is called the "good of truth," when yet His whole Human is the Divine good of the Divine love.6381.
From what has now been said of Judah, it is very evident that there is an internal sense of the Word, and that unless what this sense involves is known, that which is signified by the things written of Judah cannot be known; as that he is a "lion's whelp," that he is "gone up from the prey," that he "bowed and couched as a lion," and "as an old lion;" and what is signified by a "lawgiver from between his feet," by "Shiloh," by "binding his young ass unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine," by "washing his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes," by "his eyes being red with wine, and his teeth white with milk." The meaning of all these things would lie completely hidden, unless they were uncovered by means of a sense that lies deeper.6382.
Verse 13. Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the seas, and he shall be at a haven of ships, and his side shall be toward Zidon. "Zebulun" signifies the cohabitation of good and truth; "shall dwell at the haven of the seas," signifies life where there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges; "and he shall be at a haven of ships," signifies where are doctrinal things from the Word; "and his side shall be toward Zidon," signifies extension on one side to the knowledges of good and truth.6383.
Zebulun. That this signifies the cohabitation of good and truth, is evident from the representation of Zebulun, as being the heavenly marriage (see n. 3960, 3961), thus the conjunction of good and truth, for this conjunction is the heavenly marriage. It is said "the cohabitation of good and truth" because in the original language "Zebulon" means "cohabitation." Here under the name of "Zebulon" are treated of those in the church who form conclusions about spiritual truths from memory-knowledges, and thus fortify them with themselves. But be it known that by "Zebulun" are not meant those who do not believe unless memory-knowledges and sensuous things declare for it, and who are until then in what is negative. Such never believe, for the reason that what is negative reigns universally, and when this is the case there flow in and are gathered together memory-knowledges which deny, but not those which confirm; the latter being cast to the sides, or explained to favor the negative memory-knowledges, whereby what is negative is fortified. But by "Zebulun" are here meant those who believe doctrinal things from the Word, thus with whom something affirmative reigns universally; and yet their faith has not its life in truths, but in memory-knowledges, for they apply these to doctrinal things, and thus fortify their affirmative. They who are "Zebulun," therefore, do not elevate themselves from memory-knowledges; but when they hear or think of any truth of faith they at once fall back into memory-knowledge. There are many such in the world, and the Lord provides that memory-knowledges and sensuous things may serve them for this use.6384.
Shall dwell at the haven of the seas. That this signifies life where there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of "haven," as being the residence where memory-knowledges terminate and begin; here, the residence where there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges, for under the name of "Zebulun" those are here treated of with whom the truths of faith are in this residence; from the signification of "seas," as being memory-knowledges in the complex (n. 28); and from the signification of "dwelling," as being life (n. 1293, 3384, 3613, 4451, 6051). From this it is plain that by "dwelling at the haven of the seas" is signified life where there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges. (As regards this life see what has been said above, n. 6383.) Be it known further that this life is in the external or natural man, and with some in the lowest natural, or in the sensuous, for they have the truths of faith so bound to memory-knowledges that they cannot be elevated. Hence also they are in obscurity more than all others in the spiritual church; for they have but little light from the intellectual, because this has been immersed in memory-knowledges and sensuous things. The case is different with those who have been in what is affirmative, and have fortified the truths of faith by means of memory-knowledges; but yet so that they can be elevated from these knowledges, that is, from the natural where these are. The intellectual of these men has been enlightened, and from this is in a certain perception of spiritual truth, to which the memory-knowledges that are beneath serve as a mirror wherein the truths of faith and of charity appear and are acknowledged, as affections are in the face.6385.
And he shall be at a haven of ships. That this signifies where are doctrinal things from the Word, is evident from the signification of "haven," as being a residence (see just above, n. 6384), thus where they are; and from the signification of "ships," as being doctrinal things from the Word. That "ships" have this signification is because they pass through seas and rivers, and carry things useful for life; for by "seas" and "rivers" are signified knowledges and memory-knowledges; the useful things of life which they carry, are the doctrinal things and also the very truths from the Word which are signified by "ships," as is plain from the following passages: The isles shall trust in Me, and the ships of Tarshish in the beginning, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them (Isa. 60:9); "ships of Tarshish" denote doctrinal things and truths from the Word, wherefore it is said that they should "bring their sons, their silver and gold;" for by "sons" are signified those who are in truths; by "silver," the truth itself; and by "gold," good. Everyone can see that ships of Tarshish are not here meant, nor sons, silver, and gold.  In Ezekiel: Thy borders are in the heart of the sea, thy architects have perfected thy beauty. They have built all thy planks of fir-trees from Senir; they have taken the cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for thee. Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars; they have made thy beam of ivory; the daughter of a step from the Isles of Kittim. Of fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thy sail, that it might be to thee for an ensign; blue and crimson from the isles of Elishah was thy covering. The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy rowers: thy wise men, O Tyre, who were in thee, were thy pilots. The elders of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy caulkers; all the ships of the sea and their sailors were in thee, to trade thy trading (Ezek. 27:4-9); this is said of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth (see n. 1201), which are described by what belongs to a ship, as "planks," "mast," "oars," "beam," "sail," a "covering," "rowers," "pilots," and "sailors." That all these are not to be understood according to the letter must be plain to everyone; but when the knowledges of truth and good, which are "Tyre," together with doctrinal things from the Word, are understood by "ships," then all things fit together beautifully.  In David: O Jehovah, how manifold are Thy works! in wisdom hast Thou made them all. This sea great and wide in spaces; there go the ships; the whale which Thou hast formed to play therein (Ps. 104:24-26). Again: Let them sacrifice the sacrifices of confession; and declare the works of Jehovah with rejoicing. They that go down to the sea in ships, that do work in many waters, these see the works of Jehovah and His wonders in the deep (Ps. 107:22-24); here also "ships" denote knowledges and doctrinal things; the "whale" denotes the generals of memory-knowledges (n. 42); and as "ships" are knowledges and doctrinal things, therefore it is said, "they that go down to the sea in ships see the works of Jehovah and His wonders in the deep;" for those see these things who are in the knowledges and doctrinal things from the Word.  In Revelation: The second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea, and the third part of the sea became blood, whence the third part of the creatures that were in the sea, and had souls, died; and the third part of the ships was destroyed (Rev. 8:8, 9); the "great mountain burning with fire" denotes the love of self (n. 1691); the "sea," the natural where memory-knowledges are (n. 28); "blood," violence done to charity (n. 374, 1005); "creatures in the sea having souls," truths of memory-knowledge with goods; a "third part," something not yet complete (n. 2788); their "dying," that they had no spiritual life (n. 6119); hence "the third part of the ships being destroyed" denotes that the truths and goods of doctrinal things from the Word were falsified. From all this may be known what is signified by this prophecy.  But in the opposite sense "ships" signify the knowledges and doctrinal things of what is false and evil, as in Daniel: At the time of the end shall the king of the south strive with him; therefore the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariot and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall come into the lands, and shall overflow and penetrate (Dan. 11:40); the "king of the south" denotes truth from good; the "king of the north," falsities from evil; "chariots with horsemen and with ships," doctrinal things of falsity; the "lands," churches, of which it is predicted that falsities from evils in the time of the end should overflow and penetrate them.  In Revelation: Every pilot, and everyone employed upon ships, and sailors, and all they who trade upon the sea, stood afar off, and cried when they saw the smoke of the burning of Babylon, saying, What city is like the great city? Woe, woe, the great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! (Rev. 18:17-19); it is evident that "ships" here denote the knowledges and doctrinal things of falsity and evil, because "Babylon" denotes worship which outwardly appears holy, and inwardly is profane. Moreover no one can fail to see that by "ships" something else than ships is here meant. In Isaiah: Thus saith Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy one of Israel, For your sake I have sent to Babylon, that I may throw down all her bars, and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships (Isa. 43:14); where the meaning is similar. Moreover falsities from evil are signified by "ships" in Isa. 2:11, 16; 23:1, 14; and in Ps. 48:7.6386.
And his side shall be toward Zidon. That this signifies extension on one side to the knowledges of good and truth, is evident from the signification of "side," as being extension on one side; and from the signification of "Zidon," as being exterior knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201). Here, where Zebulun is treated of, mention is made of knowledges, of doctrinal things, and of memory-knowledges, and it is said that there is extension on one side to the knowledges of good and truth, and also that there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges where there are doctrinal things from the Word; therefore it is necessary to say what is the distinction between these terms. Doctrinal things are those which are from the Word; knowledges are those which are from doctrinal things on the one side and from memory-knowledges on the other; and memory-knowledges are those which belong to experience, either one's own or that of others.6387.
Verses 14, 15. Issachar is a bony ass, lying down between the burdens. And he shall see rest that it is good, and the land that it is pleasant; and he shall bow his shoulder to bear, and shall be a servant to tribute. "Issachar," signifies reward from works; "is a bony ass," signifies the lowest service; "lying down between the burdens," signifies life among works; "and he shall see rest that it is good," signifies works of good without reward, that they are full of happiness; "and the land that it is pleasant," signifies that in this happiness are they who are in the Lord's kingdom; "and he shall bow his shoulder to bear," signifies that nevertheless he labors with all exertion; "and he shall be a servant to tribute," signifies that he may have merit.6388.
Issachar. That this signifies reward from works, is evident from the representation of Issachar, as being the mutual love which is "hire," or reward (n. 3956, 3957), here reward from works, as is plain from the details in the internal sense in this prophecy about Issachar. Moreover in the original tongue "Issachar" means "hire." That "Issachar" here signifies reward from works, and previously mutual love, is because by "Issachar" are here meant those who are in a certain kind and appearance of mutual love, that is, of charity toward the neighbor, and who desire to be rewarded for the goods which they do. Thus they not only defile, but also pervert genuine mutual love, or charity; for they who are in genuine mutual love are in their delight and bliss when they are benefiting the neighbor, for they desire nothing more. This delight and bliss are what is meant by "hire" in the Word; for the delight and bliss is itself the reward; and in the other life this becomes the joy and happiness which are in heaven, thus it becomes heaven to them. For when they who are in this love perform uses, and do good to others, they are in such joy and happiness that then for the first time they seem to themselves to be in heaven; this is given them by the Lord, to everyone according to the uses he performs. But the happiness vanishes as soon as they think of reward, for being in the reward itself, thought about reward renders that love impure, and perverts it; the reason of which is that they are then thinking about themselves, and not about the neighbor, that is, about making themselves happy, and not others, except Insofar as it affects themselves. Thus they convert love toward the neighbor into love toward themselves, and so far as they do this, so far the joy and happiness from heaven cannot be communicated to them, for they concentrate upon themselves the influx of happiness from heaven, and do not transmit it to others; and they are like objects which do not transmit the rays of light, but absorb them. Objects which transmit the rays of light appear in light, and sparkle, but those which absorb them appear opaque, and sparkle not at all; and therefore they who are of this nature are separated from angelic society, like those who have nothing in common with heaven. These are they who are here described under the name of "Issachar."6389.
A bony ass. That this signifies the lowest service, is evident from the signification of an "ass," as being service (see n. 5958, 5959); and from the signification of "bone," as being that which has little spiritual life (n. 5560, 5561). Thus a "bony ass" is the lowest service; for they who do what is good for the sake of reward, do indeed perform uses, and are of service; but yet are among those in the Lord's kingdom who are in the lowest place, for they do not dispense the good which is communicated to them, except to those who can recompense them; and they pass by the rest who need aid the most, or if they do good to these, it is from the end of being rewarded by the Lord. Hence what they do they regard as merit, and thus consider the Lord's mercy as due them. In this way they recede from humiliation, and in the same proportion from a state of receiving what is blessed and happy through heaven from the Lord. From all this it is evident that in the other life such are indeed employed in uses, but as lowest services.6390.
Lying down between the burdens. That this signifies a life among works, is evident from the signification of "lying down," as being life, but obscure life; and from the signification of "burdens," as being works. That "burdens" denote such works is because those here treated of do not do goods from the affection of love toward the neighbor, but from the affection of love toward self. The works which flow from the affection of this love are like the burdens carried by the meaner asses, for they belong to the lowest services. For all servitude is from the affection of the love of self and of the world, and all freedom is from the affection of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor. The reason is that the affection of the former love flows in from hell, which commands with violence; whereas the affection of the latter love flows in from the Lord, who does not command, but leads. Hence again it is plain that they who do what is good for the sake of reward are lowest services, and their works are "burdens." The like is signified by "burdens" in the book of Judges: The princes in Issachar were with Deborah; and Issachar so with Barak; in the valley he shall be put under his feet, in the classes of Reuben great as to the resolves of heart. Why satest thou between the burdens, to hear the hissings of the flocks? (Judg. 5:15, 16); here also "Issachar" denotes those who desire to be rewarded for works; "to be put in the valley under the feet" is to serve in lowest things; the "classes of Reuben" denote those who are in the knowledges of the truth of faith, among whom are those here signified by "Issachar," but in a place beneath them; "to hear the hissings of the flocks" denotes contempt from those who are in the good of charity, who are the "flocks;" to "sit between burdens" denotes among self-meritorious works.6391.
And he shall see rest that it is good. That this signifies the works of good without reward, that they are full of happiness, is evident from the signification of "rest," as being the things that belong to heaven, and thus that are in the good of charity, or in works of good, without reward (of which below); from the signification of "that it is good," as being that they are full of happiness. The reason why "rest" denotes works of good without reward, is that in the highest sense "rest" or "peace" signifies the Lord; in the relative sense, heaven; thus the good which is from the Lord (see n. 3780, 4681, 5662); and as no others are in the things signified by "rest" or "peace" than those who are in good of charity, thus in works of good without reward, these are signified by "rest;" for this follows from the connection of things in the internal sense.  With regard to the subject itself, they who do goods with the sole end of reward cannot possibly know that in doing goods without any reward there is happiness so great as to be heavenly happiness itself. The reason of their ignorance is that they perceive happiness in the delight of the love of self, and insofar as a man perceives delight in this love, so far he does not perceive delight in heavenly love, for they are opposites. The delight which flows from the love of self completely extinguishes the delight which is from heavenly love, insomuch that it is absolutely unknown what heavenly delight is; and if its nature is told it is not believed, nay, it is denied.  This it has been given me to know from evil spirits in the other life who, while they lived, did nothing of what is good to others or to their country except for the sake of themselves; such do not believe that any delight is possible in doing goods without the end of reward; for they suppose that if there is no end of reward all delight ceases. And if they are told further that when that delight ceases heavenly delight begins, they are amazed at the hearing; and they are still more amazed when they hear that this heavenly delight flows in through the inmost of man, and affects his interiors with inexpressible happiness; and they say that they cannot comprehend it, nay, that they do not desire to do so; for they believe that if they were to lose the delight of the love of self, they would be very miserable, because they would then be deprived of all the joy of life; and they also call those simple who are in a different state. Not unlike these persons are those who do works with an end of reward; for they do good works for themselves, and not for others, because they regard themselves therein, and not the neighbor, nor their country, nor heaven, nor the Lord, except as those who are thus placed under an obligation to do them a service. Such are the things described in the internal sense of this verse about Issachar.6392.
And the land that it is pleasant. That this signifies that in this happiness are they who are in the Lord's kingdom, is evident from the signification of "land," as being the church, thus also the Lord's kingdom (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 4447); that the "land" has this signification is because the land of Canaan, which is meant by the "land" in the Word, represented the Lord's kingdom, and this because the church had been there from the most ancient time (n. 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136); and from the signification of "that it was pleasant," which signifies the happiness that is in works of good without reward. It is said that "he shall see rest that it is good, and the land that it is pleasant," and by both expressions is signified the happiness which is in the Lord's kingdom, because "to see rest that it is good," refers to what is celestial or to good, and "to see the land that it is pleasant," refers to what is spiritual or to truth, and this on account of the marriage of good and truth (n. 6343). As to what further concerns happiness in works of good without reward, be it known that very few at this day know that in doing goods without the end of reward is heavenly happiness; for they do not know that there is any other happiness than in being advanced to honors, in being served by others, in abounding in riches, and in living in pleasures. That above these things there is a happiness which affects the interiors of man, thus that there is a heavenly happiness, and that this happiness is the happiness of genuine charity, they are deeply ignorant. Inquire of the wise of this day whether they know that this is heavenly happiness. From this also it is that many reject good works, believing that no one can do them without regard to self-merit; for they do not know that they who are led by the Lord desire nothing more than to do good works, and that they think of nothing less than of meriting by them. This is in the new will, which is given by the Lord to those who are being regenerated, for this will is the will of the Lord in the man.6393.
And he shall bow his shoulder to bear. That this signifies that nevertheless he labors with all exertion, is evident from the signification of "shoulder," as being all power, or all exertion (see n. 1085, 4931-4937); and from the signification of "bearing a burden," as being to do works for the sake of merit; hence by "bowing the shoulder to bear" is signified to labor with all exertion to do works for the sake of merit. The reason why this is called "bearing," is that they do not do what is good from the affection of good, thus not from freedom, but from the affection of self, which is servitude (n. 6390).  As further regards those who desire a reward for the works which they perform, be it known that they are never contented, but are indignant if they have not a greater reward than others; and if they see others more blessed than themselves, they are sad and find fault. Neither do they make bliss consist in inward bliss, but in outward, namely, in being eminent, in having dominion, and being served by angels, thus in being above the angels, consequently in being princes and great men in heaven; when yet heavenly bliss consists, not in wishing to rule, nor in being served by others, but in wishing to serve others, and in being the least; as the Lord teaches: James and John the sons of Zebedee came, saying, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on Thy right hand, and the other on Thy left hand, in Thy glory. But Jesus said to them, Ye know not what ye ask. To sit on My right hand and on My left hand is not Mine to give, except to whom it has been prepared. Ye know that they who are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones have authority upon them. But it shall not be so among you; but whosoever will be great among you shall be your minister, and whosoever of you will be first shall be servant of all; for the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister (Mark 10:35-45).  And that they have heaven who do what is good without the end of reward, the Lord teaches in Luke: Everyone that exalteth himself shall be humbled, but he that humbleth himself shall be exalted. When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, nor thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbors, lest haply they also call thee in turn, and a recompense be made thee. But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind; then thou shalt be blessed; because they have not wherewith to recompense thee; for thou shalt be recompensed in the resurrection of the just (Luke 14:11-14); the "recompense in the resurrection of the just" is internal happiness from doing well without reward, which they receive from the Lord when they perform uses; and they who love to serve without recompense, the more they love it, the more noble are the uses to which they are appointed, and they are in fact greater and more powerful than others.  They who do good works for the sake of recompense, say the same, because they know from the Word that they should desire to be the least in heaven; but at the time they are thinking that by so saying they will become great, thus there is the same end in view; but they who do what is good without recompense, really think nothing about being eminent, but only about being of service.  See what was said and shown above about merit from works, and about the quality of those who are in it in the other life, that they appear to cut wood and to mow grass (n. 1110, 1111, 4943) how they are represented (n. 1774, 2027); that they who have done what is good for the sake of self and the love of the world receive no recompense for this good in the other life (n. 1835); that they who place merit in works interpret the Word according to the letter in their favor, and that they deride its interior contents (n. 1774, 1877); that true charity is wholly void of self-merit (n. 2371, 2373, 2380, 3816); that they who separate faith from charity make the works which they have done self-meritorious (n. 2373); that they who enter into heaven put off from themselves what is their own and self-merit (n. 4007); that to believe that they do good from themselves, and that by this good they have merit, is the case with most persons in the beginning of reformation, but that they put this off as they are being regenerated (n. 4174).6394.
And he shall be a servant to tribute. That this signifies that he may have merit, is evident from the signification of "being a servant to tribute," as being to be subject and to serve; and as it is said of those who desire to have merit through works that they are "bony asses, lying down between burdens," and that "he bows the shoulder to bear," by "being a servant to tribute" are also signified those who desire to have merit through works; for that they are lowest services was shown above (n. 6389). That "serving to tribute" denotes to be subject and to serve, is evident in Moses: When thou drawest nigh unto a city to fight against it, thou shalt invite them unto peace; and it shall be, if it answer thee for peace, and open to thee, it shall be that all the people that is found therein shall become for tribute to thee, and shall serve thee (Deut. 20:10, 11). In Jeremiah: How hath the city dwelt solitary that was great in people! She is become as a widow. She that was great among the nations, who ruled in the provinces, she is become tributary (Lam. 1:1); where it is plain that by "becoming for tribute," and by "tributary," is signified serving. In Matthew: Jesus said, How seemeth it to thee, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth receive tribute or tax? of their own sons, or of strangers? Peter saith to Him, Of strangers. Jesus saith to him, Therefore the sons are free. But lest we should be a stumbling-block to them, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened its mouth thou shalt find a piece of money; that take, and give it for Me and thee (Matt. 17:25-27); here also by "giving tribute," or "tax," are meant those who serve, and therefore it is said that "strangers should give and sons should be free," for strangers were servants (see n. 1097). That Peter should take up a fish out of the sea and should find in its month a piece of money which he was to give, represented that the lowest natural, which serves, should do this; for "fishes" signify this natural.6395.
Verses 1-18. Dan shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an arrow-snake upon the path, biting the horse's heels, and his rider shall fall backward; I wait for thy salvation, O Jehovah. "Dan," signifies those who are in truth and not as yet in good; "shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel," signifies that he is one of the truths in general which the tribes of Israel represent; "Dan shall be a serpent upon the way," signifies their reasoning about truth, because good does not as yet lead; "an arrow-snake upon the path," signifies from truth about good; "biting the horse's heels," signifies fallacies from lowest nature; "and his rider shall fall backward," signifies that hence comes a receding; "I wait for Thy salvation O Jehovah," signifies unless the Lord brings aid.6396.
That Dan signifies those who are in truth and not as yet in good, is evident from the representation of Dan, as being the good of life (see n. 3921, 3923); but here those who are in some good of life from truth, but not as yet from good. For with the man who is being regenerated by the Lord the case is this. He is first in truth and not in any good of life from truth; next he is in the good of life from truth, but not yet from good; afterward, when he has been regenerated, he is in the good of life from good, and he then perceives truth from good, and multiplies it in himself; these are the degrees of regeneration. By "Dan" are meant those who are in the good of life from truth, but not yet from good; the good with them as yet lies deeply hidden in truth, and gives them the affection of truth, and impels them to live according to truth. They who are such are in the Lord's kingdom; but as they do not do good from good, but from truth, that is, not from a new will, but from the intellectual, and thus not from love, but from obedience because it is so commanded, they are therefore among those in the Lord's kingdom who are in the first or ultimate heaven.  These are they who are represented by Dan, for in this prophetic utterance of Israel, in the internal sense, by his twelve sons are described in general all who are in the Lord's kingdom in respect to their quality. That they who are signified by "Dan" are in the ultimate heaven, or in the ultimate part of the Lord's kingdom, because in truth and not yet in good, was represented by the lot of Dan falling last, when the land of Canaan was distributed for an inheritance among the tribes (Josh. 19:40-48); and by their inheritance lying in the extremity of that land (Judg. 18); for the lot was cast before Jehovah (Josh. 18:6), and therefore fell to each one according to his representation. That the land of Canaan represented the Lord's kingdom (see n. 1607, 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705, 4447, 4454), and hence all the borders were representative (n. 1607, 1866, 4116), thus the ultimates of that land represented the ultimates in the Lord's kingdom (n. 4240); and therefore Dan represented those who are in the ultimates there; for before truth has been conjoined with good, it is in the ultimate; but if truth is completely separated from good, it is not then in any border of the Lord's kingdom, but is outside of it.  That the inheritance of Dan was the ultimate of the land of Canaan is evident from the fact that when the whole extent of that land was described, it was said, "from Beersheba even to Dan" (2 Sam. 3:10; 17:11; 24:15; 1 Kings 4:25). By "Beersheba" in these passages is signified the inmost of the land, because Abraham and Isaac dwelt there before Jerusalem and Zion became the inmost of the land.  The quality of those who are in truth and not yet in good, was also represented by the Danites who sought out land where they might dwell (Judg. 18), in their leading away a Levite out of the house of Micah, and taking away his ephod, teraphim, and graven image; whereby is signified the worship of those who are in truth and not yet in good; for they adore external things and disregard internal. No one perceives what is internal but he who is in good. That this was represented by the Danites is evident from the fact that all the historicals of the Word, both those in the books of Moses, and those in the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, are representative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom; and so also is this story in the book of Judges about the Danites. As to what further concerns those who are in truth and not yet in good, their quality is described in the internal sense in what now follows about Dan.6397.
Shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel. That this signifies that he is one of the truths in general which the tribes of Israel represent, is evident from the signification of "judging," as being truth in its office (of which below); from the signification of "people," as being those who are in truth (n. 1259, 1260, 2928, 3295, 3581, 4619), here those who are in truth and not yet in good, for these are "Dan" or the "people" of Dan (n. 6396); and from the representation of the "tribes of Israel," as being all the truths and goods of faith in general (see n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060, 6335). Hence by "he shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel" is signified that this truth, represented by Dan, is also among the general truths which the tribes of Israel represent. That "judging his people" denotes truth in its office, is because by the tribes of Israel are represented all truths in general, as may be seen from the passages above cited, and truths are what judge; thus by "judging his people" is signified truth in its office.  We read in the Word that four and twenty elders are to sit upon thrones and judge nations and peoples; and that the twelve apostles are in like manner to sit upon thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel. He who does not know the internal sense of the Word may believe that so it will be. But how this is to be understood may be seen from the internal sense when it is known what is signified by the "four and twenty elders," and by the "twelve apostles," and by the "thrones," namely, all truths in their complex, according to what is judgment. The like is here meant by "judging the people as one of the tribes of Israel," not that they, or any elders of them, are to judge; but the truths themselves which are signified by them; consequently the Lord alone, for from Him all truth proceeds. Of the four and twenty elders, that they are to sit upon thrones and to judge, it is thus written in John: Around the throne were four and twenty thrones, and upon the thrones I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white garments, who had upon their heads crowns of gold (Rev. 4:4; 11:16). And again: I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them (Rev. 20:4). Of the twelve apostles it is thus written in Matthew: Jesus said, Ye who have followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28). And in Luke: I appoint unto you, as the Father has appointed unto Me a kingdom, that ye may eat and drink upon My table in My kingdom, and sit upon thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Luke 17:29, 30).  That in these passages neither four and twenty elders nor twelve apostles are meant, but all truths and goods in general, is evident from the fact that no man, nor even an angel, can judge anyone; for no one but the Lord alone can know the interiors, what they are and what they will be, and this to eternity. (That by the "twelve apostles" the same is signified as by the "twelve tribes," namely, all truths and goods in the complex, may be seen above, n. 2129, 2553, 3488, 3858.) From all this it is now plain that by "Dan shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel" is signified that the truth which is represented by Dan is one among the general truths through which is judgment.6398.
Dan shall be a serpent upon the way. That this signifies their reasoning about truth because good does not as yet lead, is evident from the representation of Dan, as being those who are in truth and not yet in good (see n. 6396); from the signification of a "serpent," as being reasoning from what is sensuous (of which in what follows); and from the signification of "way," as being truth (n. 627, 2333). Thus by "Dan being a serpent upon the way" is signified their reasoning about truth, because good does not yet lead. The quality of this reasoning and of the consequent truth, will be told in what follows.  That a "serpent" denotes reasoning from what is sensuous, is because the interiors of man are represented in heaven by animals of various kinds, and hence in the Word the like are signified by the same animals. The sensuous things of man were represented by serpents because sensuous things are the lowest things in man, and are relatively earthly, and as it were creeping; as may also be seen from the forms through which sensuous things flow, concerning which, of the Lord's Divine mercy elsewhere. Hence these sensuous things were represented by serpents, and even the Lord's Divine sensuous was represented by the brazen serpent in the wilderness (n. 4211); and prudence and circumspection, in externals, is signified by "serpents" in Matthew: Be ye wise as serpents, and harmless as doves (Matt. 10:16). But when a man is in what is sensuous, remote from what is internal, as are those who are in truth and not yet in good and speaks from what is sensuous, then by the "serpent" is signified reasoning; here therefore, where Dan is treated of, is signified reasoning about truth, because good does not yet lead. In other cases malice, cunning, and deceit, are signified by "serpents," but by poisonous serpents, as by "vipers" and the like, the reasoning of which is poison. (That the "serpent" denotes reasoning from what is sensuous may be seen above, n. 195-197; also that the "serpent" denotes all evil in general; and that evils are distinguished by different kinds of serpents n. 251, 254, 257.)6399.
An arrow-snake upon the path. That this signifies reasoning from truth about good, is evident from the signification of an "arrow-snake," as being reasoning about good (of which presently); and from the signification of "path," as being truth (n. 627, 2333, 3477). That an "arrow-snake upon the path" denotes reasoning from truth about good, is because by a "serpent" is signified reasoning, thus by an "arrow-snake" is signified the reasoning which projects itself, namely, from truth toward good; for with those who are represented by Dan truth is beneath, and good is above.6400.
Biting the horse's heels. That this signifies fallacies from lowest nature, is evident from the signification of "biting," as being to adhere, and thereby do harm to; and from the signification of a "horse's heel," as being fallacies from lowest nature; for the "heel" denotes the lowest natural and corporeal (see n. 259, 4938-4952), and a "horse," the intellectual (n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321, 6125); here a "horse" denotes fallacies, because it denotes the intellectual of the lowest natural or sensuous. That they who are in truth and not yet in good are in fallacies from lowest nature, may be seen from the fact that truth is not in any light unless good is with it, or in it; for good is like a flame which emits light from itself; and when good meets with any truth, it not only illuminates it, but also brings it to itself into its own light. They therefore who are in truth and not yet in good, are in shade and darkness; because truth has no light from itself, and the light which they have from good is faint, like a light which is going out; and therefore when these persons think and reason about truth, and from truth about good, they are like those who see phantasms in the dark, and believe them to be real bodies; or who see marks on a wall in a shady place, and in fancy make of them the image of some man or animal; and yet when the light comes, they are seen to be mere marks without any form; and it is the same with truths with those here treated of, for they see as truths those things which are not truths, and which are rather to be likened to phantasms, and to marks on a wall. Moreover all the heresies in the church have arisen from those who have been in some truth from the Word, but not in good; to them heresy has appeared exactly like truth; and in like manner the falsities in the church. That they who have promulgated these have not been in good, may be seen from the fact that they have rejected the good of charity far behind the truth of faith, and have in part devised such things as do not at all agree with the good of charity.  It is said that they who are in truth and not yet in good reason about good and truth from fallacies from lowest nature, and therefore it is necessary to say what fallacies are. Take for example the life after death. They who are in fallacies from lowest nature, as are those who are in truth and not yet in good, do not believe that there is anything alive in man except his body, nor that when man dies he can rise again unless he again receives his body. If they are told that there is an interior man who lives in the body, and who is raised up by the Lord when the body dies, and that the man when raised has a body such as spirits or angels have, and that he sees, hears, speaks, is in company with others, and appears to himself exactly like a man, just as does a man in this world, they cannot apprehend it. Fallacies from lowest nature make them believe such things to be impossible, chiefly because they do not see them with the eyes of their body.  Moreover when such persons think about the spirit or soul, they have no idea whatever about it except such as they have of the invisible things in nature, whence they make it either a mere breath, or aerial, or ethereal, or like a flame; some a mere thinking power which has scarcely any vitality until it is again joined to the body. The reason why they think in this way is that to them all interior things are in shade and darkness, and only outward things are in light, which shows how easily they may fall into error; for if they think only of how the body is to be put together again; of the destruction of the world, and that this has been vainly awaited for so many ages; of brute animals having a life not unlike the life of man; and that none of the dead appear and make known the state of their life-when they think these and other such things, they easily recede from belief in the resurrection; and so in many other cases. The reason is that they are not in good, and through good in light. Such being their state, it is also said, "and his rider shall fall backward; I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah." By this is signified that hence comes a receding unless the Lord brings aid.
6377-1 Hedad is supposed to have been a loud shout of rejoicing somewhat like our "Hurrah!" and therefore untranslatable. It is so treated by Swedenborg, who systematically leaves it just as it stands in the Hebrew. In explaining its meaning he says: "The ovation or rejoicing aloud of those who tread the winepress is meant by hedad" (Apocalypse Explained, n. 922:4). "By hedad is signified the end when the people were wont to rejoice aloud and utter a cry on the completion of the vintage and gathering in of the harvest" (AE 911:10).