Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
What gain is it if we slay our brother, and cover up his blood? That this signifies that there would be nothing of profit or of eminence if this should be wholly extinguished, is evident from the signification of, "What gain is it?" as being that there would be nothing of profit, and also nothing of eminence (of which hereafter); and from the signification of "slaying," as being to extinguish, here Divine truth, specifically that concerning the Lord's Divine Human, which is meant by the "brother," that is, Joseph; and from the signification of "covering up blood," as being to entirely hide holy truth (that "blood" denotes holy truth may be seen above, n. 4735). How the case is in regard to these things, is evident from what follows.  That "gain" here signifies not only what is profitable but also eminence, or that, "What gain is it?" signifies that there would be nothing of profit or of eminence, is because this was said from cupidity and avarice; for the cupidity of gain and avarice has within it the desire not only to possess the whole world, but also to plunder and even to kill everyone for the sake of gain; indeed one impelled by such cupidity would commit murder for but little were not the laws a hindrance. Moreover, such a man in his possession of gold and silver regards himself as the greatest in power, however in external appearance he may seem otherwise, which shows that there is in avarice not only the love of the world, but also the love of self, and indeed the filthiest love of self. For elevation of mind, or pride, in those who are sordidly avaricious, is not so conspicuous outwardly, because it is sometimes unconcerned about wealth for the sake of display; nor is it that kind of the love of self which is usually conjoined with pleasures; for such have little concern about the body, and its food and clothing. But it is a love entirely earthly, having no other end than money, in the possession of which it believes itself, not actually but potentially, above all others. It is evident from this that in avarice there is the lowest and vilest love of self, for which reason in the other life the avaricious appear to themselves to be among swine (n. 939); and they above all others are against all good whatever. Consequently they are in such thick darkness that they are utterly unable to see what is good and what is true; they do not at all apprehend that there is any internal belonging to man which lives after death, and at heart they laugh at those who say so.  The Jewish nation had been of such a nature from the beginning, and therefore it was impossible for anything internal to be opened plainly to them, as is evident from the Word of the Old Testament; and being rooted in this worst kind of the love of self, they would defile interior truths and goods, and would thus profane them more than all others, unless they were removed by avarice so far from internal things, and were thereby kept in thick darkness, for they cannot profane so long as they do not acknowledge (n. 1008, 1010, 1059, 2051, 3398, 3402, 3489, 3898, 4289, 4601). It is for this reason that the Lord says of them in John, "Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will to do. He was a murderer from the beginning" (John 8:44); and of Judas Iscariot, who represented the Jewish Church, "Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil?" (John 6:70). By Judas also in that he sold the Lord, the like is represented as here by Judah, who said, "Come and let us sell Joseph."4752.
Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites. That this signifies that those acknowledge it who are in simple good, is evident from the signification of "selling" as being to alienate from themselves - thus to be received by others (n. 4098), which when predicated of truth, as here, denotes to be acknowledged by them; and from the representation of the Ishmaelites, as being those who are in simple good, of which above (n. 4747). That they who are in simple good acknowledge Divine truth, especially that concerning the Lord's Divine Human, has been shown above.4753.
And let not our hand be upon him. That this signifies that they may be without blame, is evident from the signification of "not letting the hand be upon anyone," as being not to offer violence, as above (n. 4737); and because not to offer violence denotes that they may be without blame, this also is signified by these words.4754.
For he is our brother, our flesh. That this signifies because what is from them is accepted, is evident from the signification of a "brother," as being consanguinity from good (n. 3815); and from the signification of "flesh," as being one's own in both senses (n. 3813), thus that it was accepted, because from those who are of the church, and that it was accepted by these, because by those who are in simple good. For the Ishmaelites represent those who are in simple good, and Joseph's brethren represent the church which is in faith separate from charity. Those who are in simple good acknowledge that the Lord's Human is Divine, and also that in order for man to be saved the works of charity ought to be done. Those who are in faith separate know this, and therefore they do not strongly insist on this faith before everyone, and scarcely at all before those who are in simple good; chiefly because they dare not speak contrary to common sense, and because they would thus detract from their own dignity and gain. For if they should deny these truths, those who are in simple good would say of them that they are foolish; for those who are in simple good know what love is, and what the works of love are; but what faith separate from them is they do not know. Arguments in favor of faith as opposed to works, and concerning the distinction between the Human and the Divine of the Lord, they would call sophisms which they do not comprehend. Wherefore in order that they may be accepted, and because what is from them is accepted, those who are in faith separate willingly make concessions; for if these truths were extinguished they would be without profit and eminence (n. 4751).4755.
And his brethren hearkened unto him. That this signifies compliance, is evident without explication.4756.
And there passed by, men, Midianites, merchantmen. That this signifies those who are in the truth of this good, is evident from the representation of the Midianites, as being those who are in the truth of simple good (see n. 3242); and from the signification of "merchantmen," as being those who have the knowledges of good and truth; for these in the spiritual sense are "riches," "wealth," and "merchandise." Hence "to trade" is to procure and to communicate these knowledges (n. 2967, 4453). Here it is not the knowledges of good that are signified, but the knowledges of truth; for the "Midianites" are those who are in the truth of simple good, as before said; and from this also they are called "men" [viri], for those are so called who are in truth (n. 3134, 3309). From the historical series it is evident that Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites, but that he was drawn out of the pit by the Midianites, and was also sold by the Midianites in Egypt to Potiphar, for in the last verse of this chapter it is said, "and the Midianites sold him to Egypt unto Potiphar, Pharaoh's chamberlain." It may be supposed that as Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites, he was sold in Egypt by them, and not by the Midianites; but still this was brought to pass for the sake of the representation of the things in the internal sense; for Joseph (that is, Divine truth) cannot be sold by those who are in good, but by those who are in the truth of this good. The reason will be seen in the explication of the last verse of this chapter.4757.
And they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit. That this signifies aid from them that it might not be among falsities, is evident from the signification of "drawing and lifting up," as being to set free and thus to lend aid (of which hereafter); and from the signification of a "pit," as being falsities (n. 4728), thus that it might not be among falsities. That drawing and lifting up here denotes lending aid, is because truth is what aids good; for power is ascribed to truth, because good exercises power by means of truth (n. 3091, 3563); and moreover it is truth by which falsity is known, thus by which anyone is aided so that he be not among falsities. Hence it is that the Midianites were those who drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and the Ishmaelites were those who bought him.4758.
And sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites. That this signifies reception by those who are in simple good, and alienation from those who are in faith separate, is evident from the signification of "selling," as being to alienate in respect to those who are in faith separate, who here are Joseph's brethren, for they sold him; and as being to be received in respect to those who are in simple good, who are here the Ishmaelites, for they bought him. (That the "Ishmaelites" are those who are in simple good was shown above, n. 3263, 4747. On this subject see what was said before, n. 4756.)4759.
For twenty pieces of silver. That this signifies estimation, is evident from the signification of "twenty," as being the good and truth stored up by the Lord in the interior man, which are called remains (n. 2280), thus holy good or truth, here holy truth, because it is said "twenty pieces of silver;" for "silver" is truth (n. 1551, 2954). The same number signifies also what is not holy, because most of the expressions used in the Word have also an opposite sense; and here what is not holy in respect to those who alienated Divine truth, or sold Joseph (n. 4758), but what is holy in respect to those who received it, or bought him. Thus it denotes what is not holy in respect to Joseph's brethren, that is, to those in the church who are in faith separate, but what is holy in respect to the Ishmaelites, that is, to those who are in simple good. These are the things which are meant by estimation.  That "twenty" signifies also what is not holy, is because "twenty" denotes remains, as before said. The holy in those who have no remains of good and truth in their interior man, but instead of them evil and falsity, is not holy, but is either filthy or profane, according to the kind of evil and falsity. That "twenty" denotes also what is not holy, is evident in Zechariah: I saw and behold a flying roll. And he said unto me, What seest thou? And I answered, I see a flying roll; the length thereof is twenty ells, and the breadth thereof ten ells. Then said he unto me, This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole earth (Zech. 5:1-3). In Haggai: When one came to the wine-press to draw out fifty out of the wine-press, there were twenty. I smote you with blasting, and with mildew, all the work of your hands (Hag. 2:16-17).  In Ezekiel: Thy food which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day; from time even in time shalt thou eat it. And thou shalt eat it as a barley cake, and thou shalt make it in their eyes with dung that cometh out of man. For thus, Jehovah said, shall the sons of Israel eat their bread unclean among the nations (Ezek. 4:10, 12-13). In these passages "twenty" denotes that which is unholy, unclean, and profane. That all who were more than twenty years old should die in the wilderness (Num. 14:29; 32:11), represented also what is holy in respect to those who were under that number of years, and what is unholy in respect to those who were over it. (That all numbers in the Word signify things, see n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 4264, 4495, 4670; and that remains are good and truth stored up by the Lord in the interior man, n. 468, 530, 560, 561, 576, 660, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284.)4760.
And they brought Joseph into Egypt. That this signifies consultation from memory-knowledges is evident from the signification of "Egypt" as being memory-knowledges (see n. 1164-1165, 1186, 1462); and when Divine truth is brought to these it is to consult them; for by Joseph as before shown is represented Divine truth. What is meant by consultation about Divine truth from memory-knowledges shall be briefly described. To consult memory-knowledges about Divine truth is to see from them whether it is so. But this is done in one way by those who are in the affirmative that truth is truth, and who when they consult memory-knowledges, confirm the truth by them, and thus strengthen their faith; and in another way by those who are in the negative, who when they consult memory-knowledges cast themselves still more into falsities; for with these the negative rules, but with the former the affirmative. Moreover, this is according to the intellectual faculty of every man. If those who have not a higher, that is, an interior insight, consult memory-knowledges, they do not see the confirmation of truth in them, and they are therefore carried by the memory-knowledges into the negative; but those who have a higher, that is, an interior insight, see confirmations, and if in no other way, still by correspondences.  Take for example the truth that man lives after death. When those who are in the negative as to this being true consult memory-knowledges, they confirm themselves against it by innumerable considerations, such as that brute animals equally live, have sensation, and act, and in many things more acutely than man; and that thought, which man has above the brutes, is a thing which he obtains by coming to maturity later; and that man is this kind of animal; and by a thousand other considerations. Thus it is evident that if those who are in the negative consult memory-knowledges, they cast themselves still more into falsities, so that at last they believe nothing whatever relating to eternal life.  But when those who are in the affirmative as to the truth that man lives after death consult memory-knowledges, they confirm themselves by them, and this also by things innumerable; for they see that everything in nature is below man, and that the brute animal acts from instinct, while man acts from reason, and that brutes cannot but look downward, while man can look upward, and by thought comprehend the things of the spiritual world, and also be affected by them, and even by love be conjoined with God Himself, and thus appropriate to himself life from the Divine; and that it is in order that he may be led and elevated thither that he comes to maturity so late. Moreover, man sees confirmations in everything else that belongs to nature, and at last sees in universal nature a representative of the heavenly kingdom.  It is as is well known a common thing for the learned to have less belief in a life after death than the simple, and in general to see Divine truths less clearly than the simple. The reason of this is that they consult memory-knowledges (of which they possess a greater abundance than others) from a negative standpoint, and thereby destroy in themselves insight from what is higher or interior; and when this is destroyed, they no longer see anything from the light of heaven, but only from the light of the world; for memory-knowledges are in the light of the world, and if these are not illuminated by the light of heaven they induce darkness, however different it may appear to themselves. For this reason it was that the simple believed in the Lord, but not the scribes and Pharisees who were the learned in the Jewish nation, as is evident from these words in John: Many of the multitude when they heard these words said, This is truly the Prophet. Others said, This is the Christ [Messias]. The Pharisees answered them, Hath any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed in Him? (John 7:40-41, 47-48). And in Luke: Jesus said, I confess to Thee O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that Thou hast hid these things from the wise and intelligent, but hast revealed them unto babes (Luke 10:21); "babes" denote the simple. Also in Matthew: Therefore speak I to them by parables; because seeing they see not, and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand (Matt. 13:13).4761.
And Reuben returned unto the pit. That this signifies the faith of the church in general, is evident from the representation of Reuben, as being the confession of the faith of the church in general (n. 4731, 4734); and from the signification of a "pit," as being falsities (n. 4728). Hence by Reuben's returning to the pit is signified that the faith of the church in general came to view the falsities which belonged to faith separate.4762.
And behold Joseph was not in the pit. That this signified that there was no longer any faith, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being Divine truth; and when this appears among falsities, which are signified by the "pit" (n. 4728), there is no longer any faith.4763.
And he rent his garments. That this signifies mourning, is evident from the signification of "rending the garments," as being mourning, namely, on account of truth having been destroyed, or because there was no faith. We often read in the Word, especially the historic, of persons rending their garments; but the origin of this is not known at the present day, and it is also unknown that it was representative of grief on account of truth being lost. This act became representative from the fact that "garments" signified truths, as before shown (n. 4545). Further on in this chapter it is also said that when Jacob recognized his son's tunic he rent his garments (verse 34), and by this is signified mourning for truth destroyed. So in other places in the Word, as when Rabshakeh, who was sent by Sennacherib the king of Assyria, spoke insults against Jerusalem; whereupon Eliakim who was over the King's household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah the recorder, rent their garments and told these things to King Hezekiah; and when the king heard it he also rent his garments, and covered himself with sackcloth (Isa. 36:22; 37:1; 2 Kings 18:37; 19:1). The insults which Rabshakeh spoke were against God, the King, and Jerusalem, thus against Divine truth, as is still plainer from the internal sense of the passage; hence the garments were rent because of mourning.  When Jehudi had read before the king the roll of the book which Jeremiah wrote, it is said that the king cast it into the fire, and that the king and his servants, who heard all those words, did not rend their garments (Jer. 36:23, 24); their not rending their garments denoted that they did not mourn when Divine truth was not received. The rending of their garments by Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, when the spies brought an evil report of the land of Canaan, and their speaking against them (Num. 14:6), involves a similar meaning; for the land of Canaan signifies the Lord's kingdom, to speak against which is to speak falsity against Divine truth. When the ark of God was taken by the Philistines, and the two sons of Eli were slain, that there ran a man out of the army to Shiloh with his garments rent and dust upon his head (1 Sam. 4:11, 12), signified mourning over lost Divine truth and Divine good; for, as the ark represented the Lord's kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, and hence the holy of the church, the rent garments signified mourning over lost Divine truth; and dust upon the head, over lost Divine good.  We read of Samuel and Saul: As Samuel turned about to go away, Saul laid hold upon the skirt of his tunic, and it was torn off. And Samuel said unto him, Jehovah hath rent the kingdom of Israel from upon thee this day, and hath given it to thy companion. I will not return with thee, for thou hast rejected the word of Jehovah, and Jehovah hath rejected thee from being king over Israel (1 Sam. 15:26-28); Saul's tearing off the skirt of Samuel's tunic represented what Samuel said - that the kingdom should be rent from him, and that he should no longer be king of Israel; for "kingdom" in the internal sense signifies Divine truth (n. 1672, 2547, 4691), as also do a "king" and "royalty" (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581), and specifically the Kingdom and king of Israel, because by Israel was represented the Lord's royalty. So what is related of Jeroboam and the prophet Ahijah: When Jeroboam went out of Jerusalem, and the prophet Ahijah found him in the way, when he had clad himself with a new garment, and they two were alone in the field, Ahijah laid hold of the new garment that was upon him, and rent it in twelve pieces; and he said to Jeroboam, Take thee ten pieces; for thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel, Behold I rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee (1 Kings 11:29-31).  The same is true of their rending their garments when Saul was slain in battle, as related in the second book of Samuel: After Saul had been slain in battle, on the third day a man came from the camp whose garments were rent; and when David heard of the death of Saul, David took hold of his garments and rent them; as did all his servants that were with him (2 Sam. 1:1-2, 11); by this also was represented mourning on account of Divine truth lost and thrown away by those who were in faith separate; for as before said Divine truth was signified by royalty, and they who were in faith separate were represented by the Philistines, by whom Saul was slain (n. 1197, 1198, 3412, 3413); as also is evident from David's lament over him in the same chapter (2 Sam. 1:17-27).  When Absalom had smitten his brother Amnon, and the tidings came to David that Absalom had smitten all the king's sons, David "rent his garments and lay on the earth, and all his servants stood by with their garments rent" (2 Sam. 13:28, 30-31); this also was done for the sake of representing that truths from the Divine were destroyed, these being signified in the internal sense by the king's sons. So when David fled before Absalom he was met by Hushai the Archite with his tunic rent (2 Sam. 15:32); for in the Word by a king, especially by David, is represented Divine truth. In like manner also when Elijah spoke to Ahab king of Israel the words of Jehovah, that he should be extirpated on account of the evil which he had done, Ahab rent his garments and put sackcloth upon his flesh (1 Kings 21:27).  That the rending or tearing of garments represented mourning on account of lost truth, is further evident from the following passages: Hilkiah the priest found the book of the law in the house of Jehovah; and Shaphan read it before king Josiah. And when the king heard the words of the book of the law, he rent his garments (2 Kings 22:11); manifestly on account of the Word (that is, Divine truth) having been so long lost, and obliterated in hearts and life. When the Lord confessed that He was the Christ the Son of God, that the high priest rent his garments, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy (Matt. 26:63-65; Mark 14:63, 64), signified that he had no other belief than that the Lord spoke against the Word, and thus against Divine truth.  When Elijah went up in a whirlwind, and Elisha saw it, he took hold of his own garments, and rent them in two pieces; and he took up the tunic of Elijah that fell from upon him, and smote the waters, and they were parted hither and thither, and Elisha went over (2 Kings 2:11-14); that Elisha then rent his garments in two pieces was on account of mourning that the Word (that is, Divine truth) was lost; for by Elijah is represented the Lord as to the Word, that is, Divine truth (n. 2762). The tunic falling from Elijah, and being taken up by Elisha, represented that Elisha continued the representation. That a tunic is Divine truth may be seen above (n. 4677), wherefore also the garment which was rent in such mourning was the tunic, as is evident from some of the passages above cited. As a "garment" signified the truth of the church, and in the supreme sense Divine truth, it was therefore a disgrace to go with rent garments, except in such mourning - as is evident from what was done to the servants of David by Hanun the king of the sons of Ammon, in that he shaved off half of their beards, and cut off their garments in the middle, even to their buttocks; for which reason they were not admitted to David (2 Sam. 10:4, 5).4764.
And he returned unto his brethren. That this signifies those who teach, is evident from the representation of Joseph's brethren, as being those who are of faith separate; and because they were shepherds, as being also those who teach from faith, as above (n. 4705).4765.
And said, The child is not. That this signifies that there was no faith in it is evident from the signification of a "child" as being the truth of faith, for truth is signified by a "son" (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704), thus by the "child," who here is Joseph, and who as already shown represents Divine truth. And as all truth is of faith-for what in the ancient churches was called true or truth, in the new church is called faith (see n. 4690)-therefore, by that "the child is not" is signified that there was no faith in it.4766.
And I, whither do I come? That this signifies Where now is the church is evident from the representation of Reuben as being the faith of the church in general (n. 4731, 4734, 4761); and as Reuben says of himself, "and I, whither do I come?" it signifies "Where now is the faith of the church," or what is the same, "Where now is the church?" That there is no church where the heavenly Joseph is not (that is, the Lord as to Divine truth, specifically as to the Divine truth that the Lord's Human is Divine, and that charity is the essential of the church and consequently the works of charity) may be seen from what has been shown in this chapter concerning both these truths.  If this Divine truth that the Lord's Human is Divine is not received, it necessarily follows that a trine should be adored, and not one; and also that half of the Lord, namely, His Divine, should be adored, but not His Human; for who adores what is not Divine? And is the church anything where a trine is adored, one separately from another, or what is the same, where three are equally worshiped? For although the three are called one, still the thought distinguishes and makes three, and only the speech of the mouth says one. Let everyone consider in himself when he says that he acknowledges and believes in one God, whether he does not think of three; and when he says that the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and these also distinct in persons, and distinct as to functions, whether he can think that there is one God, except in the way that three distinct from one another make one by harmony, and also by condescension insofar as one proceeds from another. When therefore three gods are adored, where is the church?  But when the Lord only is adored, in whom there is a perfect trine, and who is in the Father and the Father in Him, as He Himself says: "Though ye believe not Me, believe the works; that ye may know and believe, that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father" (John 10:38); "He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; believest thou not Philip that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me" (John 14:9-11), "He that seeth Me seeth Him that sent Me" (John 7:45); "All Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine" (John 17:10), then there is the Christian Church, as there is when the church abides in this that the Lord said: "The first of all the commandments is, Hear O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord; and thou shalt love the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy mind, and from all thy strength, this is the first commandment; and the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself; there is none other commandment greater than these" (Mark 12:29-31). That the "Lord our God" is the Lord may be seen in other places (Matt. 4:7, 10; 22:41-45; Luke 1:16, 17; John 20:28), as also that "Jehovah" in the Old Testament is called "Lord" in the New (see n. 2921).  If also this Divine truth is not received both in doctrine and in life-that love toward the neighbor, or charity, and hence the works of charity, are an essential of the church, it necessarily follows that it is of the church to think what is true, but not to think what is good; and thus that the thought of the man of the church may be in contradiction and opposition to itself; that is, may think what is evil and at the same time may think what is true; thus may by thinking evil be with the devil, and by thinking truth be with the Lord; when yet truth and evil do not at all agree, for "No servant can serve two lords, for either he will hate the one and love the other" (Luke 16:13). When faith separate establishes this, and also confirms it in life, no matter how it may speak of the fruits of faith, where then is the church?4767.
Verses 31-35. And they took Joseph's tunic, and killed a he-goat of the goats, and dipped the tunic in the blood; and they sent the tunic of various colors, and they brought it to their father, and said, This have we found; know now whether it be thy son's tunic or not. And he knew it, and said, It is my son's tunic; an evil wild beast hath devoured him; Joseph is surely torn in pieces. And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned over his son many days. And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to comfort himself and he said, For I shall go down to the grave to my son mourning. And his father wept for him. "And they took Joseph's tunic," signifies appearances; "and killed a he-goat of the goats" signifies external truths from delights; "and dipped the tunic in the blood," signifies that they defiled it with falsities from evils; "and they sent the tunic of various colors" signifies appearances thus defiled; "and they brought it to their father," signifies comparison with the goods and truths of the Ancient and the Primitive Church; "and said, "This have we found," signifies that it so appears to them; "know I pray whether it be thy son's tunic or not," signifies whether there was a likeness; "and he knew it," signifies that indeed it was; "and said, It is my son's tunic," signifies that it was the truth of the church; "an evil wild beast hath devoured him," signifies that the cupidities of evil had extinguished it; "Joseph is surely torn in pieces," signifies that it is such from falsities as to be not at all; "and Jacob rent his garments," signifies mourning for truth destroyed; "and put sackcloth upon his loins," signifies mourning for goods destroyed; "and mourned over his son many days," signifies the state; "and all his sons," signifies those who are in falsities; "and all his daughters, rose up," signifies those who are in evils; "to comfort him," signifies to interpret from the sense of the letter of the Word; "and he refused to comfort himself," signifies that this could not be; "and he said, For I shall go down to the grave to my son mourning," signifies that the Ancient Church would perish; "and his father wept for him," signifies interior mourning.4768.
And they took Joseph's tunic. That this signifies appearances, is evident from the signification of a "tunic," here a tunic of various colors, as being appearances of truth (see n. 4677, 4741, 4742). In what now follows, the subject treated of is exculpation from the wicked deed they had committed; and in the internal sense the confirmation of falsity against Divine truths (of which just above, n. 4766), and this by appearances, which are presented by reasoning from the sense of the letter of the Word. All confirmations of falsity by interpretations from the sense of the letter of the Word are appearances, by which the simple are wont to be misled, and falsity to be presented as truth, and truth as falsity. These appearances are treated of in the internal sense of the following verses.4769.
And killed a he-goat of the goats. That this signifies external truths from delights, is evident from the signification in the Word of a "he-goat of the goats" as being natural truths, that is, truths of the external man from which are the delights of life; and as also being external truths derived from delights, of which hereafter. The truths of the external man, from which are the delights of life, are Divine truths such as those of the literal sense of the Word, from which truths the doctrinals of a genuine church are derived; these truths are properly signified by a "he-goat" and the delights from them are signified by "goats;" thus by a "he-goat of the goats" in the genuine sense, are signified those who are in such truths and in delights therefrom. In the opposite sense however, by a "he-goat of the goats" are signified those who are in external truths (that is, in appearances of truth derived from the sense of the letter) which are in agreement with the delights of their life, such as the delights of the body, which in general are called pleasures, and the delights of the lower mind, which in general are honors and gains. Such persons are signified by a "he-goat of the goats" in the opposite sense. In a word, by a "he-goat of the goats" in this sense are signified those who are in faith separate from charity, for these select from the Word those truths only which are in agreement with the delights of their life, that is, which favor the loves of self and the world. The other truths they bring into conformity by interpretations, and thereby present falsities as appearances of truth.  That a "he-goat of the goats" signifies those who are in faith separate, is evident from Daniel: Behold a he-goat of the goats came from the west over the faces of the whole earth, and touched not the earth; and the he-goat had a horn of aspect between his eyes. Out of one of the four horns came forth a little horn, and it grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward comeliness. Yea it grew even to the army of the heavens; and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them; and it cast down truth unto the earth (Dan. 8:5, 9-10, 12); the subject here treated of is the state of the church in general, not only the state of the Jewish Church, but also that of the following, which is the Christian Church; for the Word of the Lord is universal. The "he-goat of the goats" in respect to the Jewish Church, signifies those who made nothing of internal truths, but accepted external truths so far as they favored their loves, which were that they might be the greatest and the wealthiest. For this reason they recognized the Christ or Messiah whom they were expecting, simply as a king, who would exalt them above all the nations and peoples in the whole world, and would make these subject to them as vilest slaves; this was the source of their love for Him. They did not at all know what love toward the neighbor was, except that it was conjunction by participation in such honor, and through gain.  But the "he-goat of the goats" in respect to the Christian Church signifies those who are in external truths from delights, that is, who are in faith separate; for these also care nothing for internal truths, and if they teach them it is only that they may thereby win reputation, be exalted to honors, and acquire gain. These are the delights which are in their hearts while truths are in their mouth. Moreover, by wrong interpretations they force the truths which are of genuine faith to favor their loves. Hence it is evident what is signified in the internal sense by the above words in Daniel-namely, that by a "he-goat of the goats" are signified those who are in faith separate. The he-goat's coming from the west denotes from evil (that the "west" denotes evil may be seen above, n. 3708). His coming over the face of the whole earth, not touching the earth, denotes that he came over the whole church; for by the "earth" in the Word nothing else is meant than the land where the church is, thus the church (n. 566, 662, 1068, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4453). The "horns" which he had are powers from falsity (n. 2832). The "horn of aspect between the eyes" is power from reasoning about the truths of faith, as may be seen from what was shown concerning the eye (n. 4403-4421, 4523-4534). The "one horn which grew toward the south, the east, and comeliness" is power from faith separate growing even toward those things which are states of the light of heaven, and states of good and truth. That the "south" is a state of light may be seen above (n. 3708), and that the "east" is a state of good (n. 1250, 3249, 3708); that "comeliness" is a state of truth is evident from the Word here and there. Its "growing even to the army of the heavens, and casting down to the earth some of the army and of the stars, and trampling upon them" denotes that it did so with the knowledges of good and truth. (That the "army of the heavens" and the "stars" are the knowledges of good and truth may be seen above, n. 4697.) From this is known what is meant by "casting down truth unto the earth" namely, the casting down of real faith, which in itself is charity; for faith has regard to charity, because it proceeds from charity. That which in the Ancient Church was called truth, in the new church is called faith (n. 4690).  The "he-goat" has a similar signification in Ezekiel: Behold I judge between small cattle and small cattle, between the rams and the he-goats. Is it a small thing to you that ye eat up the good pasture, and trample with your feet the residue of your pastures? Ye drink the settling of the waters, the remains ye disturb with your feet; ye strike with your horns all the infirm till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:17-18, 21); in this passage also by "he-goats" are signified those who are in faith separate, that is, who set doctrine before life, and at last have no care about life; when yet life, and not doctrine separate, makes the man; and the life remains after death, but not doctrine except insofar as it partakes of the life. Of these it is said that they "eat up the good pasture, and trample with their feet the residue of the pastures;" and that they "drink the settling of the waters, and disturb the remains with their feet;" also that they "strike the infirm with their horns till they have scattered them."  From all this it is now evident who are meant by the "he-goats" and who by the "sheep" of whom the Lord speaks in Matthew: Before Him shall be gathered all nations, and He shall separate them one from another as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the he-goats; and He shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the he-goats on the left, etc. (Matt. 25:32-33); that the "sheep" are they who are in charity and thence in the truths of faith, and that the "he-goats" are they who are in no charity, although in the truths of faith, that is, who are in faith separate, is clear from the particulars, in which such persons are described.  Who and of what quality are those who are in faith separate and are meant by "he-goats" may be seen from the two following passages: "Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them. Not everyone that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of the heavens; but he that doeth the will of My Father who is in the heavens. Many will say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied by Thy name, and by Thy name cast out demons, and in Thy name done many mighty works? And then will I confess unto them, I know you not; depart from Me ye workers of iniquity" (Matt. 7:19-23). And in Luke: "Then will ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us; but He shall answer and say to you, I know you not whence ye are. Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk before Thee, and Thou hast taught in our streets. But He shall say, I tell you I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me all ye workers of iniquity" (Luke 13:25-27). These are they who are in faith separate, and are called "he-goats." But what "he-goats" signify in a good sense-as those used in sacrifices and occasionally mentioned in the prophets-will of the Lord's Divine mercy be told elsewhere.4770.
And dipped the tunic in the blood. That this signifies that they defiled it with falsities from evils, is evident from the signification of "dipping in blood," as being to defile with falsities; for "blood" in the opposite sense is truth falsified (n. 4735). As it was the blood of the he-goat, by which are signified external truths from delights, such as those have who are in faith separate, it is clear that falsities from evils are meant - as is evident also from what follows, where Jacob says, "An evil beast hath devoured him; Joseph is surely torn in pieces;" for by these words is signified that the cupidities of evil had extinguished it, and thus that from falsities it became such as to be not at all. That there are three origins of falsity - the doctrine of the church, the fallacies of the senses, and a life of cupidities - and that the falsity from this last is the worst, may be seen above (n. 4729).4771.
And they sent the tunic of many colors. That this signifies appearances thus defiled, is evident from the signification of a "tunic of various colors," as being appearances (see n. 4677, 4741, 4742, 4768). That they were defiled is meant by the tunic being dipped in blood (n. 4770).4772.
And they brought it to their father. That this signifies comparison with the goods and truths of the Ancient and the Primitive Church, is evident from the representation of Jacob, who here is the "father," as being the Ancient Church (n. 4680, 4700), and also the Primitive Church, that is, the Christian Church in its beginning, of which hereafter. To bring such a tunic to this church, is in the internal sense to institute a comparison of falsified goods and truths with the goods and truths of the genuine church. That by Jacob is here represented not only the Ancient, but also the Primitive Church, that is, the Christian Church in its beginning, is because these are altogether the same as to internals, and differ only in externals. The externals of the Ancient Church were all representative of the Lord and of the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom, that is, of love and charity and the faith thence derived, consequently of such things as are of the Christian Church. Thus when the externals of the Ancient, and also of the Jewish Church, are unfolded and as it were unwrapped, the Christian Church is disclosed. This was signified also by the veil of the temple being rent asunder (Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45). It is for this reason that by Jacob the father is represented not only the Ancient, but also the Primitive Christian Church.4773.
And said, This have we found. That this signifies that it so appears to them, is evident from the series of things in the internal sense; for they did not say that it was Joseph's tunic, but that they found it; leaving it to their father to know whether it were his son's tunic or not. Hence it follows that by these words is signified that it so appears to them.4774.
Know I pray whether it be thy son's tunic or not. That this signifies whether there was a likeness, is evident from the signification of "knowing whether it be," as being whether it is like. This refers to what precedes, and follows from it, namely, that a comparison was instituted of falsified goods and truths with the genuine goods and truths of the church, as is signified by their bringing the tunic dipped in blood to their father (n. 4772). Hence in this passage, by "know I pray whether it be thy son's tunic," is signified that he should compare whether it was like, or whether there was a likeness.4775.
And he knew it. That this signifies that indeed it was, and that and said, It is my son's tunic signifies that it was the truth of the church, is evident from the signification of a "tunic," as being the truth of the church (n. 4677). But as it was defiled, it was indeed known that it was [the truth of the church] but not truth like that of the Ancient and the Primitive Church; hence it is said that "indeed it was."4776.
An evil wild beast hath devoured him. That this signifies that the cupidities of evil had extinguished it, is evident from the signification of an "evil wild beast," as being a lie from a life of cupidities (n. 4729), consequently cupidities; and from the signification of "devouring," as being to extinguish, because predicated of the truth of the church. The veriest truth of the church is that love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor are the primary things (Mark 12:29-31). Cupidities extinguish this truth; for those who are in a life of cupidities cannot be in a life of love and charity, for the two are exact opposites. A life of cupidities consists in loving self only, and not the neighbor except from self, or for the sake of self. Hence those who are in this life extinguish charity in themselves; and those who extinguish charity, extinguish also love to the Lord; for there is no other means of loving the Lord than charity, because the Lord is in charity. The affection of charity is heavenly affection itself, which is from the Lord alone. From this it may be seen that the cupdities of evil extinguish the veriest truth of the church, on the extinction of which a means is devised which is called saving, namely, faith; and when this is separated from charity, truths themselves are defiled, for then it is no longer known what charity is, nor even what the neighbor is, and consequently neither what the internal of man is, nor even what heaven is. For the internal of man, and heaven in man, is charity-that is, willing well to another, to society, to one's country, to the church, to the Lord's kingdom, and thus to the Lord Himself. From this we may conclude what is the quality of the truths of the church when those things which are essential are not known, and when the things contrary to them, or cupdities, reign. When a life of cupidities speaks concerning these truths, are not they defiled to such a degree that they can no longer be recognized?  That no one can be saved unless he has lived in the good of charity, and so has become imbued with its affections, which are to will well to others, and from willing well to do well to them; and that no one can receive the truths of faith - that is, become imbued with them and appropriate them to himself - but he who is in a life of charity has been made manifest to me from those who are in heaven, with whom I have been permitted to converse. There all are forms of charity, with beauty and goodness according to the quality of their charity; their delight, satisfaction, and happiness are from their being able to do good to others from good will. The man who has not lived in charity cannot possibly know that heaven and its joy consist in willing well and in doing well from willing well, because his heaven is willing well to himself, and from this willing well doing well to others, when yet this is hell. For heaven is distinguished from hell in this, that heaven, as above said, is doing good from good will, and hell is doing evil from ill will. They who are in love toward the neighbor do good from good will; but they who are in the love of self do evil from ill will. The reason of this is that they love no one but themselves, and others only so far as they see themselves in them, and them in themselves; they also regard these with hatred, which manifests itself as soon as they recede and are no longer theirs. This is like robbers, who so long as they are banded together love one another, but still at heart desire to kill one another, if plunder may thus be obtained.  From these things it may be seen what heaven is, that it is love toward the neighbor; and what hell is, that it is the love of self. They who are in love toward the neighbor are capable of receiving all the truths of faith, and of being imbued with them and making them their own; for in love toward the neighbor there is the all of faith, because heaven and the Lord are in it. They on the other hand who are in the love of self can in no wise receive the truths of faith, because hell is in this love; nor can they receive the truths of faith in any other way than for the sake of self-honor and gain; thus they cannot possibly become imbued with them and make them their own. But the things which they become imbued with and make their own are denials of truth, for at heart they do not believe even that there is a hell and a heaven, nor that there is a life after death, and therefore they believe nothing that is said about hell and heaven, or about a life after death, thus nothing at all that is said from the Word and from doctrine about faith and charity. When they are in worship they appear to themselves to believe, but this because it has been implanted in them from early childhood to put on this state at such a time; but as soon as they are out of worship they are also out of this state; and then thinking in themselves, they believe nothing at all, and also according to the life of their loves devise things to favor them, which they call truths, and which they confirm from the literal sense of the Word, when yet they are falsities. Such are all who in life and doctrine are in faith separate.  Be it known, moreover, that all things are in the loves, for the loves are what make the life; consequently, the Lord's life flows solely into the loves. Such therefore as are the loves, such are the lives, because such are the receptions of life. Love toward the neighbor receives the life of heaven, and the love of self receives the life of hell; thus in love toward the neighbor there is the all of heaven, and in the love of self the all of hell. That all things are in the loves may be illustrated from many things in nature. Animals, both those that walk on the earth and those that fly in the air or swim in the water, are all impelled according to their loves, and into their loves flows whatever is conducive to their life, that is, to their sustenance, habitation, and procreation. Hence animals of every kind know their food, their abodes, and what concerns their conjugial, such as mating, building nests, laying eggs, and bringing up their young.  The bees also know how to build cells, to suck honey from flowers, to fill with it the honeycombs, and to make provision for themselves against winter, and even to conduct a certain form of government under a queen; besides other marvels. All these things are effected by influx into their loves; the effects of life being varied only by the forms of their affections. All these things are in their loves; what then would there not be in heavenly love, if man were in this? Would there not be the all of wisdom and intelligence, which is in heaven? From this also it is that they who have lived in charity, and no others, are received into heaven; and that from charity they have the capacity of receiving and being imbued with all truths, that is, with all things of faith. But the contrary happens to those who are in faith separate, that is, in some truths and not in charity. Their loves receive such things as are in agreement with them, that is to say, the loves of self and of the world receive those things which are contrary to truths, such as are in the hells.4777.
Joseph is surely torn in pieces. That this signifies that it is such from falsities as to be not at all, is evident from the signification of "being torn in pieces," as being to be dissipated by falsities, or what is the same, to be such from falsities as to be not at all. Falsities from evils or from cupidities are what are here meant (n. 4770); in regard to which see what was said just above (n. 4776).4778.
And [Jacob] rent his garments. That this signifies mourning for destroyed truths, is evident from the signification of the "rending of garments," as being a representative of mourning for destroyed truth, of which above (n. 4763).4779.
And put sackcloth upon his loins. That this signifies mourning for destroyed good, is evident from the signification of "putting sackcloth upon the loins," as being a representative of mourning for destroyed good. For the "loins" signify conjugial love, and hence all celestial and spiritual love (n. 3021, 3294, 4277, 4280, 4575), and this from correspondence; for as all the organs, members, and viscera of the human body correspond to the Grand Man - as has been shown at the end of the chapters - so also the loins correspond to those in the Grand Man, or heaven, who have been in genuine conjugial love; and as conjugial love is the fundamental of all loves, therefore by the "loins" is signified in general all celestial and spiritual love. From this came the rite of putting sackcloth on the loins when they mourned over good destroyed, for all good is of love.  That they put sackcloth on the loins to testify to this mourning may be seen from the historic and prophetic parts of the Word, as in Amos: I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; thus I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only-begotten, and the end thereof as a bitter day (Amos 8:10); where "bringing up sackcloth upon all loins" denotes mourning over destroyed goods; "all loins" denotes all the goods of love. In Jonah: The men of Nineveh believed in God, and therefore they proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least. And when the word came unto the king of Nineveh, he arose from his throne, and laid his robe from upon him, and covered him with sackcloths, and sat on ashes. And he made proclamation, Let man and beast be covered with sackcloth (Jonah 3:5-8); manifestly for a sign representative of mourning over the evil on account of which Nineveh was to perish; thus over destroyed good.  In Ezekiel: They shall utter a cry over thee with their voice, and shall cry bitterly, and shall cause dust to come up upon their heads, they shall roll themselves in ashes; and they shall make themselves bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloths (Ezek. 27:30-31); said of Tyre, the particulars being representative of mourning for falsities and evils, thus for destroyed truths and goods. "To utter a cry and to cry bitterly" denotes a lamentation over falsity or destroyed truth (n. 2240); "causing dust to come up upon the head" denotes being damned on account of evil (n. 278); "rolling themselves in ashes" denotes being damned on account of falsity; "making themselves bald" denotes mourning because the natural man had no truth (n. 3301); "girding them with sackcloths" denotes mourning because it had no good. Likewise in Jeremiah: O daughter of My people gird thyself with sackcloth, and roll thyself in ashes; make thee the mourning of an only-begotten, the wailing of bitternesses; for the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us (Jer. 6:26). Again: The elders of the daughter of Zion shall sit in the earth, they shall keep silence, they shall cause dust to go up upon their head, they shall gird themselves with sackcloths, the virgins of Jerusalem shall cause their head to go down into the earth (Lam. 2:10); here there are similar representatives according to the kinds of good and truth which were destroyed, as above.  In Isaiah: The prophecy concerning Moab; he shall go up to Bayith and Dibon, into the lofty places to weep; Moab shall howl over Nebo, and over Medeba; on all his heads is baldness, every beard is shaven. In his streets they have girded on sackcloth, on his housetops and in his streets he shall wholly howl, going down into weeping (Isa. 15:2-3); "Moab" denotes those who adulterate goods (n. 2468). The mourning over this adulteration which is signified by "Moab," is described by such things as correspond to evil of this kind; and therefore almost the same occurs in Jeremiah: Every head is baldness, and every beard shaven; upon all hands are cuttings, and upon the loins sackcloth. On all the housetops of Moab and in the streets thereof is wholly mourning (Jer. 48:37-38).  When king Hezekiah heard the blasphemies which Rabshakeh spoke against Jerusalem, he rent his garments and covered himself with sackcloths (Isa. 37:1; 2 Kings 19:1); because he spoke against Jehovah, the king, and Jerusalem, wherefore there was mourning; that it was against truth is signified by his rending his garments (n. 4763); and that it was against good, by his covering himself with sackcloth. For where truth is treated of in the Word, good also is treated of, on account of the heavenly marriage which is that of good and truth and of truth and good in every particular; as also in David: Thou hast turned my mourning into dancing; Thou hast opened my sackcloth and girded me with joy (Ps. 30:11); here "dancing" is predicated of truths, and "joy" of goods, as also in other passages in the Word; thus "to open sackcloth" denotes to take away mourning over destroyed good.  In the second book of Samuel: David said to Joab and to all the people that were with him, Rend your garments, and gird yourselves with sackcloth, and mourn before Abner (2 Sam. 3:31); because a wicked deed had been committed against what is true and good, it was therefore commanded by David that they should rend their garments and gird themselves with sackcloth. So likewise because Ahab had acted contrary to what was equitable and just (in the spiritual sense contrary to truth and good), when he heard the words of Elijah that he should be cut off, he rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went slowly (1 Kings 21:27).  That sackcloth is predicated of destroyed good, is also evident in Revelation: When he opened the sixth seal, lo there was a great earthquake, and the sun became black as sackcloth, and the whole moon became as blood (Rev. 6:12); an "earthquake" denotes a change of the state of the church as to good and truth (n. 3355); the "sun" denotes the good of love (n. 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 4060, 4300, 4696), and therefore sackcloth is predicated of it when it is destroyed; the "moon" denotes the truth of faith (1529, 1530, 2120, 2495, 4060), of which blood is predicated, because "blood" is truth falsified and profaned (n. 4735).  As being clothed in sackcloth and rolling in ashes represented mourning over evils and falsities, it also represented humiliation, and likewise repentance; for the primary thing in humiliation is to acknowledge that of himself one is nothing but evil and falsity. The same is true of repentance, which is effected solely through humiliation, and this through the confession of the heart that of himself one is of such a nature. That putting on sackcloth was a token of humiliation can be seen in 1 Kings 21:27-29; and that it was of repentance, in Matthew 11:21; Luke 10:13; but that it was nothing but a representative, thus only an external thing of the body, and not an internal thing of the heart, is plain from Isaiah: Is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to lie in sackcloth and ashes? Wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to Jehovah? Is not this the fast that I choose, to open the bonds of wickedness, to break bread to the hungry? etc. (Isa. 58:5-7).4780.
And mourned over his son many days. That this signifies the state, namely, the state of mourning for destroyed good and truth, is evident from the representation of Joseph, who here is the "son," as being Divine truth, specifically those truths spoken of above (n. 4776); and from the signification of "days," as being states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3785), here a state of great mourning, because it is said "many days."4781.
And all his sons. That this signifies those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of "sons," as being truths, and in the opposite sense falsities, or those who are in truths or falsities (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704), here those who are in falsities, because by the sons of Jacob, or Joseph's brethren, are represented those who are in faith separate, thus those who have extinguished Divine truth, and hence are in falsities--as was shown above.4782.
And all his daughters rose up. That this signifies those who are in evils, is evident from the signification of "daughters," as being goods, and in the opposite sense evils, or those who are in goods or evils (n. 489-491, 568, 2362, 3024, 3963).4783.
To comfort him. That this signifies to interpret from the sense of the letter of the Word, is evident from the signification of "comforting," as being to allay unrest of mind by the hope of something (n. 3610), here unrest or mourning over destroyed good and truth; and as this mourning cannot be allayed except by interpretations from the Word, and as the sons and daughters of Jacob are here treated of, by whom are signified those who are in falsities and evils (n. 4781, 4782), therefore by "comforting" are signified the interpretations which are made from the sense of the letter. For the sense of the letter has general things, which are as vessels, and can be filled with truths and also with falsities, and thus be so explained as to favor anything; and because they are general things, they are also comparatively obscure, having light from no other source than the internal sense; for the internal sense is in the light of heaven, because it is the Word for the angels; but the sense of the letter is in the light of the world, because it is the Word for men before they come into the light of heaven from the Lord, from which they then have enlightenment. From this it is evident that the sense of the letter is of service to the simple for initiation into the internal sense.  That by interpretations from the sense of the letter the Word can be so explained as to favor anything, is very manifest from the fact that all kinds of doctrines, and even of heresies, are thus confirmed, as for instance the dogma concerning faith separate is confirmed by these words of the Lord: God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but should have eternal life (John 3:16); from which words, and also from other passages, it is concluded that faith alone without works is what gives eternal life; and when those who are in this faith have persuaded themselves of this, they no longer attend to what the Lord so often said concerning love to Him, and concerning charity and works (n. 1017, 2371, 3934), thus not to what is said in John: "As many as received, to them gave He power to be sons of God, even to them that believe in His name; who were born not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God" (John 1:12, 13). If they are told that no one can believe in the Lord unless he is in charity, they straightway take refuge in interpretations such as these - that the law has been abrogated, that they were born in sins and so cannot do good of themselves, and that they who practice cannot but claim merit for themselves; and they also confirm these things from the sense of the letter of the Word, as from what is said in the parable of the Pharisee and the publican (Luke 18:10-14) and from other passages; although these do not at all apply to the case.  They who are in faith separate cannot believe otherwise than that anyone can be admitted into heaven out of grace, no matter how he has lived, thus that not the life but the faith remains with man after death. This they confirm also from the sense of the letter of the Word, when yet it is evident from the very spiritual sense of the Word that the Lord has mercy toward everyone, thus that if heaven were of mercy or grace, regardless of what the life has been, everyone would be saved. The reason why they who are in faith separate so believe is that they do not at all know what heaven is, and this because they do not know what charity is. If they knew how much peace and joy and happiness there is in charity, they would know what heaven is; but this is altogether hidden from them.  Again, they who are in faith separate cannot believe otherwise than that they will rise again with the body, and this only at the day of judgment; which they also confirm from many passages of the Word explained according to the sense of the letter, and at the same time taking no thought of what the Lord said concerning the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:22-31); and of what He said to the thief: "Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with Me in paradise" (Luke 23:43); and of what He said at other times. The reason why they who are in faith separate so believe is that if they were told that the body will not rise again, they would wholly deny any resurrection, for they do not know nor apprehend what the internal man is, since no one can know what the internal man is, and his life after death, save he who is in charity, for charity is of the internal man.  They who are in faith separate cannot believe otherwise than that the works of charity consist solely in giving to the poor and in assisting the miserable, and this they also confirm from the sense of the letter of the Word; when yet the works of charity consist in doing what is just and equitable, each in his own employment, from the love of what is just and equitable, and of what is good and true.  They who are in faith separate see nothing else in the Word than what confirms their dogmas, for they have no interior insight; they who are not in the affection of charity having only an external sight, or lower insight, from which no one can possibly see higher things, since they appear to him like darkness. Hence they see falsities as truths, and truth as falsities, and thus by interpretations from the sense of the letter they destroy the good pasture, and defile the clear waters of the sacred fountain or the Word, according to these words in Ezekiel: Is it a small thing to you that ye eat up the good pasture, and trample with your feet the remainder of your pastures? Ye drink the settling of the waters, the remains ye disturb with your feet; ye strike with your horns all the infirm till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:18, 21).4784.
And he refused to comfort himself. That this signifies that this could not be, is evident from what has now been said.4785.
And he said, For I shall go down to the grave to my son mourning. That this signifies that the Ancient Church would perish, is evident from the representation of Jacob, who says this of himself, as being the Ancient Church (of which above, n. 4680, 4700, 4772); and from the representation of Joseph who here is "my son," as being the Divine spiritual, or the Divine truth, of which above; and from the signification of "going down to the grave mourning," as being to die, and when predicated of the church and also of Divine truth, to perish.4786.
And his father wept for him. That this signifies interior mourning, is evident from the signification of "weeping," as being grief and sadness to the last degree, thus interior mourning. Among the externals by which internals were represented in the ancient churches was wailing and weeping over the dead, by which was signified interior mourning (although the mourning itself was not interior), as we read concerning the Egyptians who went with Joseph to bury Jacob: When they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is in the passage of Jordan, they wailed there with a very great and sore wailing; and he made a mourning for his father seven days. And the inhabitant of the land, the Canaanite, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, and they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians (Gen. 1:10-11); and concerning David's weeping over Abner: They buried Abner in Hebron; and the king lifted up his voice and wept at the grave of Abner, and all the people wept (2 Sam. 3:32).4787.
Verse 36. And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, Pharaoh's chamberlain, prince of the guards. "And the Midianites sold him into Egypt," signifies that those who are in some truth of simple good consulted memory-knowledges; "unto Potiphar, Pharaoh's chamberlain," signifies interior memory-knowledges; "prince of the guards," signifies things which are primary for interpretation.4788.
And the Midianites sold him into Egypt. That this signifies that those who are in some truth of simple good consulted memory-knowledges is evident from the representation of the Midianites, as being those who are in the truth of simple good (n. 3242, 4756); and from the signification of "Egypt," as being memory-knowledges (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 2588, 4749); and from the signification of "selling," as being to alienate (n. 4752, 4758); and from the representation of Joseph, as being Divine truth. When this is said to be sold or alienated by those who are in the truth of simple good to memory-knowledges, which are "Egypt," it denotes that they consulted them; for those who are in the truth of simple good suffer themselves to be very much led away by the fallacies of the senses, and thus by memory-knowledges, which are therefrom.  It was said above (verse 28) that Joseph was drawn out of the pit by the Midianites, but that he was sold to the Ishmaelites; whence it might seem that he could have been sold in Egypt only by the Ishmaelites. But the reason why he was not sold by the Ishmaelites but by the Midianites, is that the Ishmaelites represent those who are in simple good (n. 4747), and the Midianites those who are in the truth of this good. Joseph, or the Divine truth, could not be sold by those who are in good, but only by those who are in truth; for those who are in good know from good what Divine truth is, but not so those who are in truth.  The men of the church are distinguished into two kinds - those who are in good, and those who are in truth. Those who are in good are called celestial, but those who are in truth are called spiritual. Between these two kinds there is a great difference. Those who are in good are in the affection of doing good for the sake of good, and without recompense from others; for it is recompense to them to be permitted to do good, since in so doing they perceive joy; but those who are in truth are in the affection of doing good, not for its own sake, but because it is so commanded, and for the most part they think of recompense; their joy is from this, and also from glorying.  From this it is evident that those who do good from good, do it from internal affection; while those who do good from truth, do it from some external affection. Hence the difference is evident, namely, that the former are internal men, and the latter external. Those therefore who are internal men cannot sell, that is, alienate, the Divine truth which is represented by Joseph, because they perceive truth from good; and hence neither the fallacies of the senses, nor consequently memory-knowledges, lead them away. But those who are external men can sell or alienate it, because they do not perceive truth from good, but only know it from doctrine and teachers; and if they consult memory-knowledges, they suffer themselves to be easily led away by fallacies, for they have no inward dictate. It is for this reason that Joseph was not sold by the Ishmaelites, but by the Midianites.4789.
Unto Potiphar, Pharaoh's chamberlain. That this signifies interior memory-knowledges is evident from the signification of a "chamberlain," as being what is interior, of which presently; and from the representation of Pharaoh as being memory-knowledges; for by "Egypt" are signified memory-knowledges in general, as shown above (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462), and in like manner by "Pharaoh;" for that which in the Word is signified by a land or a nation, is signified also by its king, he being the head of the nation. That interior memory-knowledges are what are signified by "Pharaoh's chamberlain," is because chamberlains were connected with the internal affairs of a king; for they were his more intimate courtiers and his more eminent officers, as is manifest also from the signification of this word in the original tongue.4790.
Prince of the guards. That this signifies things which are primary for interpretation, is evident from the signification of "prince," as being what is primary (n. 1482, 2089). That the "prince of the guards" here denotes things primary for interpretation, is because the subject treated of is Divine truth, which was sold by those who were in the truth of simple good by their consulting memory-knowledges; whence came a wandering and estrangement from Divine truth, and hence interpretations from the sense of the letter of the Word (see n. 4783); and by "guards" are signified those things which minister.4791.
CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND MAN, HERE CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE THEREWITH OF THE TASTE AND THE TONGUE, AND ALSO OF THE FACE. The tongue affords entrance to the lungs, and also to the stomach, thus it represents as it were the court to spiritual and celestial things - to spiritual because it ministers to the lungs and thence to the speech, to celestial because it ministers to the stomach, which supplies food to the blood and heart. That the lungs correspond to spiritual, and the heart to celestial things, may be seen above (n. 3635, 3883-3896). Wherefore the tongue corresponds in general to the affection of truth, or to those in the Grand Man who are in the affection of truth, and afterwards in the affection of good from truth; and therefore they who love the Word of the Lord, and desire there from the knowledges of truth and of good, belong to this province; but with the difference that there are some who belong to the tongue itself, some to the larynx and the trachea, some to the throat, some to the gums, and some to the lips; for there does not exist even the least thing in man with which there is not correspondence. That they who are in the affection of truth belong to this province as understood in a wide sense, has often been granted me to experience, and this by manifest influx from them, now into the tongue, and now into the lips; and it has also been given me to converse with them, and to observe that there are some who correspond to the interiors of the tongue and of the lips, and others to the exteriors. The operation of those who receive with affection exterior truths only, and not interior, but without rejecting the latter, I felt not into the interiors of the tongue, but into the exteriors.4792.
As food and nourishment correspond to spiritual food and nourishment, therefore taste corresponds to the perception and affection of this food. Spiritual food is knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom, for from these, spirits and angels live and are nourished, and they desire and have appetite for them just as men who are hungry desire and have appetite for food. Hence appetite corresponds to this desire. And wonderful to say, from this food they grow to maturity; for little children who die appear in the other life no otherwise than as little children, and also are such as to understanding; but as they increase in intelligence and wisdom, they appear not as little children, but as advancing in age, and at last as adults. I have conversed with some who had died in infancy, and were seen by me as young men, because they were then intelligent. From this it is evident what spiritual food and nourishment are.4793.
As the taste corresponds to the perception and affection of knowing, understanding, and growing wise, and as the life of man is in this affection, therefore no spirit or angel is permitted to flow into man's taste, for this would be to flow into the life which is proper to him. Yet there are roaming spirits of the infernal crew, more pernicious than others, who because they had accustomed themselves in the life of the body to enter into man's affections for the purpose of doing harm, in the other life also retain this desire, and strive in every way to enter into man's taste, and when they have entered into it they possess his interiors, that is, the life of his thoughts and affections, for as before said they correspond, and things which correspond act as a one. Very many at this day are possessed by these spirits; for there are at this day interior obsessions, but not as formerly exterior ones.  Interior obsessions are effected by such spirits, and their quality may be seen if attention is paid to the thoughts and affections, especially to the interior intentions, which men fear to manifest, and which are so insane in some that unless they were restrained by external bonds, such as honor, gain, reputation, the fear of death and of the law, they would more than the obsessed rush into murder and robbery. Who and of what quality those spirits are who obsess the interiors of such men may be seen above (n. 1983).  In order that I might know how this is, they were permitted to attempt to enter into my taste, which they endeavored to the utmost of their power to do; and I was then told that if they penetrated quite into the taste they would possess the interiors also, for the reason that the taste depends on these interiors by correspondence. But this was permitted only to the end that I might know how the case is with the correspondence of the taste; for they were instantly driven away from there.  These pernicious spirits try especially to loose all internal bonds, which are the affections of what is good and true, and of what is just and fair, fear of the Divine law, and a sense of shame in doing harm to society and to one's country; and when these internal bonds are loosed the man is obsessed by such spirits. When they are not able to get into the interiors by persistent endeavor, they try to do so by magical arts, of which there are many in the other life wholly unknown in the world; and by means of them they pervert the memory-knowledges in the man, and apply those only which favor their foul desires. Such obsessions cannot be avoided unless the man is in the affection of good, and hence in faith in the Lord.  It was also shown how they were driven away. When they thought that they were penetrating toward the interiors of the head and brain, they were conveyed along by excrementitious passages, and thence toward the externals of the skin; and they were then seen to be cast into a ditch full of liquid filth. I was informed that such spirits correspond to the dirty little pits in the outermost skin, where scall arises, thus that they correspond to scall.4794.
A spirit, or man after death, has all the senses that he had while he lived in the world, namely, sight, hearing, smell, and touch; but not taste, but instead of it something analogous which is adjoined to the sense of smell. The reason why he has not taste is that he may not be able to enter into the taste of man and thus possess his interiors; also that this sense may not turn him away from the desire of knowing and of being wise, thus from spiritual appetite.4795.
From all this it is evident why the tongue is assigned a double office, namely, the office of aiding in speech, and that of aiding in nourishment. For insofar as it aids in nourishment it corresponds to the affection of knowing, understanding, and being wise as to truths; for which reason also wisdom [sapientia] and being wise [sapere] are so called from relish [sapor]; and insofar as it aids in speech, it corresponds to the affection of thinking and producing truths.4796.
When angels present themselves to the sight, all their interior affections appear clearly and shine forth from the face, so that the face is an external form and representative image of them. It is not permitted in heaven to have any other face than that of one's affections. Those who simulate another face are cast out from the society. From this it is evident that the face corresponds to all the interiors in general, both to man's affections and to his thoughts, or to what is of his will and to what is of his understanding. Hence also in the Word by "face" and "faces" are signified affections; and by the Lord's "lifting up His faces" upon anyone, is signified that He pities him from Divine affection, which is of love.4797.
The changes of state of the affections appear to the life in the face of angels. When they are in their own society they are in their own face, but when they come into another society their faces are changed according to the affections of good and truth of that society; and yet the genuine face is as a plane, which is recognized in these changes. I have seen the successive variations according to the affections of the societies with which they were communicating, for every angel is in some province of the Grand Man, and thus communicates generally and widely with all who are in the same province, though he himself is in the part of that province to which he properly corresponds. I have seen that they varied their faces by changes from one limit of affection to another; but it was observed that the same face in general was retained, so that the ruling affection always shone forth with its variations, and thus the faces of the whole affection in its extension were shown.  And what is more wonderful, the changes of affections from infancy even to adult age were also shown by means of variations of the face, and it was given me to know how much of infancy it had retained in adult age, and that this was the human itself of it. For in an infant there is innocence in external form, and innocence is the human itself, for into it as into a plane flow love and charity from the Lord. When man is being regenerated and becoming wise, the innocence of infancy, which was external, becomes internal. It is for this reason that genuine wisdom dwells in no other abode than innocence (see n. 2305, 2306, 3183, 3994); also that no one can enter heaven unless he has something of innocence, according to the Lord's words, "Except ye become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens" (Matt. 18:3; Mark 10:15).4798.
Evil spirits may also be known from their faces, for all their cupidities or evil affections are inscribed on their faces, and it may also be known from their faces with what hells they communicate; for there are very many hells, all distinct according to the genera and species of the cupidities of evil. Their faces in general when seen in the light of heaven are almost without life, some being ghastly like those of corpses, some black, and others monstrous; for they are the forms of hatred, cruelty, deceit, and hypocrisy. But in their own light and among themselves they appear otherwise, from phantasy.4799.
There were spirits with me from another earth (of which elsewhere) whose faces were different from the faces of the men of our earth, being prominent, especially about the lips, and moreover free. I conversed with them about their manner of living, and the state of conversation among them. They said that they converse with one another chiefly by variations of the face, especially by variations about the lips; and that they express their affections by the parts of the face which are about the eyes, so that their companions can fully comprehend thence both what they are thinking and what they are willing. They endeavored also to show me this by means of an influx into my lips, by means of various foldings and bendings round about them. But I could not receive the variations, because my lips had not been initiated from infancy into such things; and yet by the communication of their thought I could perceive what they said. But that speech in general can be expressed by the lips was evident to me from the manifold series of muscular fibers folded into one another in the lips, which if they should be unfolded, and thus should act openly and freely, would be able to present there many variations which are unknown to those in whom these muscular fibers lie compressed.  That the speech of these people was of such a nature is because they are incapable of simulation, or of thinking one thing and looking another. For they live together in such sincerity that they conceal nothing at all from their companions, it being instantly known what they are thinking and willing, what is their quality, and also what they have been doing; for the acts performed by those who are in sincerity are in the conscience; and thus their interior expressions of countenance, that is, their minds, can be discriminated by others at first sight.  They showed me that they do not force the face, but let it forth freely, otherwise than is the case with those who from youth have been accustomed to simulate, that is, to speak and act differently from what they think and will. The face of the latter is contracted, so as to be ready to vary itself as cunning suggests. Whatever a man wishes to conceal contracts his face, which from being contracted is expanded when anything seemingly sincere is feignedly put forth.  While I was reading in the Word of the New Testament concerning the Lord, the spirits now described were present, and also some Christians, and it was perceived that the latter cherished inwardly stumbling blocks against the Lord, and also that they desired to tacitly communicate them. Those who were from another earth wondered at their being of such a quality, but it was given to tell them that in the world they had not been such in mouth but in heart; and that there were also some who, though of this quality, had preached the Lord, and were then able by the zeal of feigned piety to move the common people to sighs and sometimes to tears, not in the least communicating what was in their hearts. At this they were amazed in that there could be such a disagreement of interiors and exteriors, or of thought and speech, and then said that they were entirely ignorant of such a disagreement, and that it was impossible for them to speak with their mouth and show in their face anything not in accordance with the affections of the heart; and that were it otherwise they would be torn asunder and would perish.4800.
Very few can believe that there are societies of spirits and of angels to which all the things in man correspond; also that the more societies there are, and the more in a society, the better and stronger is the correspondence; for in unanimous numbers there is strength. In order that I might know that this is so, it was shown how they act and flow into the face, how into the muscles of the forehead, into those of the cheeks, and into those of the chin and throat. Those who belonged to this province were permitted to flow in, and then every particular was varied according to their influx. Some of them also conversed with me, but they did not know that they were assigned to the province of the face; for to what province they are assigned is unknown to spirits, but not to angels.