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The Kojiki, translated by Basil Hall Chamberlain, [1919], at

p. 196


His Augustness Oho-yamato-ne-ko-hiko-futo-ni dwelt at the Palace of Ihodo at Kuruda, 1 and ruled the Empire. This Heavenly Sovereign wedded Her Augustness Princess Kuhashi, 2 daughter of Ohome, 3 ancestor of the Departmental Lords of Tohochi, 4 and begot an august child: His Augustness Oho-yamato-ne-ko-hiko-kuni-kuru 5 (one Deity). Again he wedded Princess Chiji-haya-ma-waka of Kasuga, 6 and begot an august child: Her Augustness Princess Chiji-haya 7 (one Deity). Again wedding Her Augustness Princess Oho-yamato-kuni-are, 8 he begot august children: Her Augustness Yamato-to-mo-so-bime, 9 next His Augustness Hiko-sashi-kata-wake; 10 next His [160] Augustness Hiko-isa-seri-biko, 11 another name for whom is His Augustness Oho-biki-tsu-hiko: next Yamato-to-bi-haya-waka-ya-hime 12 (four Deities). Again he wedded Haheirodo, 13 younger sister of Her Augustness Princess Are, and begot august children,—His Augustness Hiko-same-ma, 14 next His Augustness Waka-hiko-take-kibi-tsu-hiko 15 (two Deities). The august children of this Heavenly Sovereign [numbered] in all eleven Deities (five kings and three queens). So His Augustness Oho-yamato-ne-ko-hiko-kuni-kuru [was he who afterwards] ruled the Empire. The two Deities His Augustness Oho-kibi-tsu-hiko and His Augustness Waka-take-kibi-tsu-hiko together set sacred jars 16 at the front 17 of the River Hi 18 in Hari-ma; 19 and, making Harima the mouth of the road, 20 subdued and pacified the Land of Kibi. So His Augustness [161] Oho-kibi-tsu-hiko (was the ancestor of the Grandees of Kamu-tsu-michi in Kibi21 The next, His Augustness Waka-hiko-take-kiki-tsu-hiko (was the ancestor of the Grandees of Shimo-tsu-michi in

p. 197

[paragraph continues] Kibi 22 and of the Grandees of Kasa 23). The next His Augustness Hiko-same-ma (was the ancestor of the Grandees of Uzhika in Harima 24). The next, His Augustness Hiko-sashi-kata-wake (was the ancestor of the Grandees of Tonami in Koshi, 25 of the Grandees of Kunisaki in the Land of Toyo, 26 of the Dukes of Ihobara, 27 and of the Maritime Suzerains of Tsunuga). 28 The Heavenly Sovereign's august years were one hundred and six. His august mausoleum is at Umasaka at Kotawoka. 29

p. 198


196:1 p. 197 In Yamato. Iho-do signifies "hut door." Kuru-da (Kuroda would be the more natural reading) signifies "black rice-field."

196:2 Kuhashi-hime-no-mikoto. The name signifies "beautiful princess."

196:3 This seems to have been originally not a personal name, but the name of a place in Wohari.

196:4 To-hochi no agata-mushi. Tohochi is a district in Yamato. The name seems to signify "ten marts."

196:5 This name signifies "great Yamato's lord prince who rules the land."

196:6 Kasuga no-chiji-haya-ma-waka-hime. This name probably signifies "the thousand-fold brilliant truly young princess of Kasuga." For Kasuga see Sect, LVIII, Note 7.

196:7 Chiji-haya-hime-no-mikoto, i.e., probably "thousand-fold brilliant princess."

196:8 Oho-yamato-kuni-are-hime-no-mikoto. See Sect. LVI, Note 16.

196:9 Motowori assigns to this name the signification of "Yamato's hundred thousand-fold illustrious princess," and has a very long note on the subject in Vol. XXI, p. 42, et seq.

196:10 The signification of this name is not clear.

196:11 I.e., "prince valorously advancing prince." The alternative name signifies "Great Prince of Kibi," and both refer to his conquest of the province of Kibi as related a little further on in this Section. Motowori gives good reasons for supposing that Oho-kibi-no-moro-susumi, i.e. "He Who Completely Advances in Great Kibi," is but another form of the same name, erroneously inserted in the account of the preceding reign (see Sect, LIX, Note 3).

196:12 I.e., perhaps "Yamato's hundred-fold wondrous brilliant young ornamental Princess." The name resembles that of the elder sister.

196:13 For this and the next following names see Sect. LVI, Notes 17 and 16 respectively.

196:14 p. 198 This name is obscure, and differs from that given in the parallel passage of the "Chronicles," where we read Sashima. The latter sounds more authentic.

196:15 I.e., "the young prince the brave prince of Kibi." This name refers to his conquest of Kibi, as related a few lines further on.

196:16 I.e., earthenware jars of a moderate size, probably intended to hold the rice-liquor offered to the gods, Being easily broken, they were planted in the ground up to a certain height.

196:17 The probable meaning of this peculiar expression is "a bend in the river,"

196:18 Written with the character , "ice," which may however be only phonetic. No river of this name is anywhere else mentioned as flowing through the province of Harima, and one is tempted to suppose that there is some confusion with the celebrated river Hi, which figures so frequently in the Idzumo cycle of legends.

196:19 One of the central provinces of Japan, on the northern shores of the Inland Sea. Some derive the name from hagi-hara, "lespedeza moor," while others, connect it with hari, a "needle," Neither etymology has much to recommend it.

196:20 I.e., "their point of departure." It must also be remembered that "road "came to have the sense of "circuit "or "province," so that we might translate this phrase by "the commencement of the circuit." Conf. such denominations as Koshi no michi no kuchi, Koshi no michi no naka, and Koshi no michi no shiri for what are in modern parlance the provinces of Echizen, Etchiū and Echigo. The region nearest to the capital was called the mouth, while equally graphic designations were bestowed on the more remote districts. It was, as we learn by comparison with a passage in the history of the reign of the Emperor Su-jin (see Sect. LXVI, Note 13), customary thus to plant earthenware jars in the earth at the point whence an army started on an expedition, this being considered a means of invoking upon it the blessing of the gods. Not only so, but down to the Middle Ages travellers in general were in the habit of worshipping at the shrine of the god of roads. For "road" in the sense of "circuit," "province," or "administrative division "see Sect. LXVI, Note 2.

196:21 Kibi no kamu-tsu-michi no omi. Kamu-tsu-michi i.e., "the Upper Road "or "Circuit," was the ancient name of the province of Bizen (or of a portion of it), which formerly was a part of the Land of Kibi.

197:22 p. 199 Kibi no shimo-tsu-michi no omi. Shimo-tsu-michi means "the lower road," and was the ancient name of a portion of the province of Bitchiū, which formerly was a part of the land of Kibi.

197:23 Kasa no omi, i.e., "Grandees of the Hat," a "gentile name" which is referred by the compiler of the "Catalogue of Family Names" to an incident in the reign of the Emperor Ō-jin, which he however by no means clearly relates (See Motowori's Commentary, Vol. XXI; p.p. 57-58).

197:24 Harima no Uzhika no omi. Uzhika is the name of a place. It is written with characters signifying "cow and deer," but the true derivation is quite uncertain.

197:25 Koshi no Tonami no omi. Tonami is a district in Etchiū. The signification of the name is uncertain.

197:26 Toyo-kuni no Kunisaki no omi. Kunisaki is a district in Bungo. The name seems to signify "land's end."

197:27 Ihobara no kimi. Ihobara is a district in Suruga. The signification of the name is obscure.

197:28 Tsunuga no ama no atahe. For Tsunuga see Sect. CI, Notes 3 and 12. Perhaps the name should rather be rendered "the Suzerains of Ama in Tsunuga," as Ama may, after all, as Motowori suggests, be here the name of a place.

197:29 In the Province of Yamato. Kata-woka signifies "side-mound" or "incomplete mound." Uma-saka signifies "horse-hill" or "horse-pass." Umasaka should perhaps be understood as the particular designation of a portion of the ascent of Katawoka, which is mentioned in the "Chronicles "as the name of a mountain.

Next: Section XLI.—Emperor Kō-gen