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By the Doctor Francisco de Avila, Presbyter (Cura of the parish of
San Damian in the said province of Huarachiri, and vicar of the three
above mentioned), from trustworthy persons who, with special diligence,
ascertained the whole truth, and that, before God enlightened them,
they lived in the said errors, and performed these ceremonies. It is an
agreeable subject and well worthy to be understood, that the great
blindness in which those souls walk, who have not the light of faith,
nor desire to admit it to their understandings, may be known.
At present nothing more is given than the narrative, but our
Lord will thus be well served if the said illustrious
Doctor, God sparing his life, would adorn it with
reflections and interesting notes.

In the year 1608.

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Chauca-chiipita was the name of the Indian we found with the new shirt; and the cloaks show whether they are of Masnu-yauri or Carhua-yalli.

Conopa is the general name for all the small stone idols that we found.

Uncuraya is the name of the jar with the figure of the Devil. They used it in the feast of Massuma.

Chellcascayu is the idol that we went to search for.

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p. 123


Of the first and most ancient God of these people, and how the men of these provinces say that, in ancient times, it was a very hot country, and how afterwards some other idols were adopted, after the first.

IT is a most ancient tradition that, before any other event of which there is any memory, there were certain huacas or idols, which, together with the others of which I shall treat, must be supposed to have walked in the form of men. These huacas were called Yananamca Intanamca; and in a certain encounter they had with another huaca called Huallallo Caruincho, they were conquered and destroyed by the said Huallallo, who remained as Lord and God of the land. He ordered that no woman should bring forth more than two children, of which one was to be sacrificed for him to eat, and the other,—whichever of the two the parents chose,—might be brought up. It was also a tradition that, in those days, all who died were brought to life again on the fifth day, and that what was sown in that land also sprouted, grew, and ripened on the fifth day; and that all these three provinces were then a very hot country, which the Indians call Yunca or Ande; and they say that these crops were made visible in the deserts and uninhabited places, such as that of Pariacaca and others; and that in these Andes there was a great variety of most beautiful and brilliant birds, such as macaws, parrots, and others. All this, with the people who then inhabited the land (and who, according to their account, led very evil lives), and the said idol, came to be driven away to other Andes by the idol Pariacaca, of whom I shall speak presently, and of the battle he had with this Huallallo Carrincho.

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 It is also said that there was another idol called Coniraya, of which it is not known certainly whether it existed before or after the rise of Pariacaca. It is, however, certain that it was invoked and reverenced almost down to the time when the Spaniards arrived in this land. For when the Indians worshipped it they said, "Coniraya Uiracocha (this name is that which they gave, and still give, to the Spaniards), thou art Lord of all: thine are the crops, and thine are all the people." In commencing any arduous or difficult undertaking, they threw a piece of coca (a well-known leaf) on the ground, as an oblation, and said, "Tell me, O Lord Coniraya Uiracocha, how I am to do this?" The same custom prevailed among the weavers of cloths, when their work was toilsome and difficult. This invocation and custom of calling the idol by the name of Uiracocha certainly prevailed long before there were any tidings of Spaniards in the country. It is not certain whether Coniraya or Pariacaca were first; but as it is more probable that Coniraya was the more ancient, we will first relate his origin and history, and afterwards that of Pariacaca.


In which the account of Coniraya is continued, and how he became enamoured of the goddess Cavillaca, and of other things which are worthy to be known,

 They say that in most ancient times the Coniraya Uiracocha appeared in the form and dress of a very poor Indian clothed in rags, insomuch that those who knew not who he was reviled him and called him a lousy wretch. They say that this was the Creator of all things; and that, by his word of command, he caused the terraces and fields to be formed on the steep sides of ravines, and the sustaining walls to rise up and supporl them. He also made the p. 125 irrigating channels to flow, by merely hurling a hollow cane, such as we call a cane of Spain; and he went in various directions, arranging many things. His great knowledge enabled him to invent tricks and deceits touching the huacas and idols in the villages which he visited. At that time they also say that there was a woman who was a huaca. Her name was Cavillaca, and she was a most beautiful virgin, who was much sought after by the huacas, or principal idols, but she would never show favour to any of them. Once she sat down to weave a mantle at the foot of a lucma tree, when the wise Coniraya succeeded in approaching her in the following manner: He turned himself into a very beautiful bird, and went up into the lucma tree, where he took some of his generative seed and made it into the likeness of a ripe and luxurious lucma, which he allowed to fall near the beautiful Cavillaca. She took it and ate it with much delight, and by it she was made pregnant without other contact with man. When the nine months were completed she conceived and bore a son, herself remaining a virgin; and she suckled the child at her own breast for a whole year without knowing whose it was nor how it had been engendered. At the end of the year, when the child began to crawl, Cavillaca demanded that the huacas and principal idols of the land should assemble, and that it should be declared whose son was the child. This news gave them all much satisfaction, and each one adorned himself in the best manner possible, combing, washing, and dressing in the richest clothes, each desiring to appear brighter and better than the rest in the eyes of the beautiful Cavillaca, that so she might select him for her spouse and husband. Thus there was an assembly of false gods at Anchicocha, a very cold inhospitable spot between the villages of Chorrillo and Huarochiri, about half way. When they were all seated in their order, Cavillaca addressed them as follows: "I have invited you to assemble p. 126 here, O worthies and principal persons, that you may know my great sorrow and trouble at having brought forth this child that I hold in my arms. It is now aged one year: but I know not, nor can I learn, who was its father. It is notorious that I have never known man nor lost my virginity. Now that you are all assembled, it must be revealed who made me pregnant, that I may know who did this harm to me, and whose son is this child." They were all silent, looking at each other, and waiting to see who would claim the child, but no one came forward. They say that, in this assembly, in the lowest place of all, sat the god Coniraya Uiracocha in his beggar's rags; and the beautiful Cavillaca scarcely looked at him, when she addressed the gods; for it never entered into her head that he was the father. When she found that all were silent, she said:—"As none of you will speak, I shall let the child go, and doubtless his father will be the one to whom he crawls, and at whose feet he rests." So saying, she loosed the child, who crawled away, and, passing by all the others, he went to where was his father Coniraya in his rags and dirt, and when the child reached him, it rejoiced and laughed, and rested at his feet.

 This conduct caused Cavillaca great shame and annoyance, and she snatched up the child, exclaiming:—"What disgrace is this that has come upon me, that a lady such as I am should be made pregnant by a poor and filthy creature." Then she turned her back and fled away towards the seashore. But Coniraya Uiracocha desired the friendship and favour of the goddess, so, when he saw her take her flight, he put on magnificent golden robes, and, leaving the astonished assembly of gods, he ran after her, crying out:—"O my lady Cavillaca, turn your eyes and see how handsome and gallant am I," with other loving and courteous words; and they say that his splendour illuminated the whole country, Yet the disdainful Cavillaca would not turn her head, but rather increased her speed, saying:—"I have p. 127 no wish to see any one, seeing that I have been made pregnant by a creature so vile and filthy."1 She disappeared, and came to the sea coast of Pachacamac, where she entered the sea with her child, and was turned into a rock. They say that the two rocks may still be seen, which are mother and child. Coniraya continued the pursuit, crying out, and saying, "Stop! stop! lady. Turn round and look! where are you, that I cannot see you?" As he ran, he met a condor, to whom he said:—"Brother, tell me whether you encountered a woman with such and such marks?" The condor answered:—"I saw her very near this place, and if you go a little faster, you will certainly overtake her." To whom Coniraya, rejoicing at the good news, thns made reply, blessing the condor, and saying:—"You shall live for ever, and I give you power to go whithersoever you please, to traverse the wildernesses and valleys, to search the ravines, to build where you shall never be disturbed; and I grant you the faculty of eating all things that you find dead, such as huanacu, llamas, lambs, and even when they are not dead but merely neglected by their owners, you shall have power to kill and eat them. I further declare that he who kills you shall himself be killed."

 Coniraya then continued his journey, and met a small fox of the kind that emits a strong odour, and asked him the same question touching Cavillaca. The fox answered that it was in vain for him to run fast, to seek, or to follow, because the goddess was now far off, and he could not overtake her. Then Coniraya cursed the fox, saying:—"As a punishment for the bad news you have given me, I command that you shall never go abroad but at night, that a bad smell shall always come from you, and that men shall persecute and hate you."

 The god went on and met a lion which, in reply to his p. 128 question, told him that he was very near the goddess Cavillaca, and that if he made a little more haste he would overtake her. This good news pleased the sage, and he blessed the lion, saying:—"You shall be respected and feared by all, and I assign to you the office of punisher and executioner of evil doers, you may eat the llamas of sinners, and after your death you shall still be honoured; for when they kill you and take your skin they shall do so without cutting off the head, which they shall preserve, with the teeth, and eyes shall be put in the sockets so as to appear to be still alive. Your feet shall remain hanging from the skin with the tail, and, above all, those who kill you shall wear your head over their own, and your skin shall cover them. This shall they do at their principal festivals, so that you shall receive honour from them. I further decree that he who would adorn himself with your skin, must kill a llama on the occasion, and then dance and sing with you on his back."

 After having given the lion this blessing, he continued his journey and met a fox, which said that his running was useless, for that the lady was far off, and it was impossible to overtake her. In payment for such news, the wise Coniraya pronounced the following curse:—"I command that you shall be hunted from afar, and then when the people see you, even at a great distance, they shall come out and hunt you; and when you die you shall be of no account, and no one shall take the trouble to use your skin, or to raise you from the ground."

 He then met a falcon, which said that the lady Cavillaca was very near; so Coniraya declared that the falcon should be highly esteemed, that in the morning it should breakfast on the alquenti,2 which is a very delicate and beautiful little bird living on the honey within the flowers (I do not know its name in Spanish),3 and during the day that it should p. 129 eat any other bird it choose; and that he who killed it should also kill a llama in its honour; and that when he came out to sing and dance at the festivals, he should have the falcon's skin on his head.

 Next he met some parrots that gave him bad news; so he declared that they should always give out cries and shrieks, and that, as they said the lady was far off, they should be heard from afar; that when they wished to feed they should not be safe, for their own cries should betray them, and that they should be hated by all people.

 Thus he rewarded and granted privileges to all the animals that gave him news that accorded with his wishes, and cursed all those whose tidings were not agreeable to him.

 When he reached the sea-shore he found that Cavillaca and her child were turned into stone; and as he walked along the beach he met two beautiful young daughters of Pachacamac, who guarded a great serpent, because their mother was absent, visiting the recently arrived Cavillaca in the sea. The name of this wife of Pachacamac was Urxayhuachac.4 When Coniraya found these girls alone without their mother, he did not care for the serpent, which he could keep quiet by his wisdom; so he had intercourse with the elder sister, and desired to do the same with the younger, but she flew away in the shape of a wild pigeon (called by the Indians urpi); hence the mother of these girls was called Urpi-huachac, or mother of the doves.

 In those days it is said that there were no fishes in the sea, but that this Urpi-huachac reared a few in a small pond. Coniraya was enraged that Urpi-huachac should be absent in the sea, visiting Caviliaca; so he emptied the fishes out of her pond into the sea, and thence all the fishes now in the sea have been propagated. Having done this, Coniraya continued his flight along the coast. When the mother of p. 130 the girls returned they told her what had happened, and she pursued Coniraya in a great fury, calling out, until at last he determined to stop and wait for her. Then she addressed him with loving and tender words, saying,—"Coniraya, do you wish that I should comb your head and pick out the lice?" So he consented, and reclined his head on her lap; but while she was pretending to do this, she was forming a rock over which she might hurl him when he was off his guard. He knew this through his great wisdom, and told her he must retire for a few minutes. She agreed to this; and he went back to the land of Huarochiri, where he wandered about for a long time, playing tricks both to whole villages and to single men or women. The end of this huaca will be related presently.

 The above traditions are so rooted in the hearts of the people of this province at the present time that they preserve them most inviolably; and thus they hold the condors to be sacred, and never kill one, believing that he who kills one will die himself. I know that there was a condor in the ravine of San Damian, near the bridge, which was unable to fly from extreme old age; but there was not an Indian who would touch it, and it lived there for thirteen or fourteen years. When I had killed some of these condors, the people asked me how it was that I dared to do so, but I did not understand why they should ask the question until I had heard this fable. They also have a great horror of the small fox; and they do to the lion all that was ordained in the blessing of Coniraya, bringing out the skin on great occasions, while he who owns it kills a llama. I have often seen this done in my own parish in Huarochiri, on occasion of the drinking bouts called Huantachinaca.5

 Also as regards the fox, I have seen, in the village of San Juan, near that of Santa Ana, because one man cried out p. 131 that he saw a fox, the whole village turned out, and ran in chase of it without knowing where it was, but all following the first, and I after them to see what was the matter. I have seen this happen twice in that village, and the same custom prevails in the others.

 As to the falcon, there is scarcely a festival in which one does not appear on the heads of the dancers and singers; and we all know that they detest the parrots, which is not wonderful considering the mischief they do, though their chief reason is to comply with the tradition.

 Who will not grieve at the blindness of these poor people, and at the small fruit which the preaching of the Catholic truth has borne during so many years. Yet they can neither plead ignorance, nor can they complain that they have not been taught. It is true that in some parishes the priests have been negligent in teaching, but in others it is not so; and we have seen that the people are as much and more attached to their errors in those parishes where the preaching has been attended to, as in those where it has been neglected.


Of an eclipse of the Sun which is said to have taken place in ancient times.

 In all the stories and fables of these people I have never been able to make out which came first, or in what order they should be placed, for they are all very ancient traditions. They relate that, a long time ago, the sun disappeared and the world was dark for a space of five days; that the stones knocked one against the other; and that the mortars, which they call mutca, and the pestles called marop, rose against their masters, who were also attacked by their sheep, both those fastened in the houses and those in the fields. This p. 132 may have been the eclipse which occurred when our Redeemer died; but I cannot clearly make this out, for when it was day in that hemisphere it was night here, so that here the eclipse would have taken place at night. The rest of the story consists of lies, for, as these people had no watches, how could they tell that the sun was absent for five days, seeing that we count days by the absence and presence of the sun?


Of a deluge which is said to have taken place; with a refutation of all the preceding fables.

 It is necessary to go back a step in this chapter, for this should be the third, and the preceding chapter the fourth. For what I have to mention here is a saying of the Indians which is more ancient than the eclipse. They relate that there was nearly an end to the world, which happened in the following way: An Indian was tethering his llama in a place where there was good pasture, and the animal resisted, showing sorrow and moaning after its manner, which it does by crying yu’ yu’. The master, who happened to be eating a choclo, observing this, threw the core (which they call coronta) at the llama, saying, "Fool, why do you moan and refrain from eating? Have I not put you where there is good pasture?" The llama thus replied: "Madman! what do you know, and what can you suppose? Learn that I am not sad without good cause; for within five days the sea will rise and cover the whole earth, destroying all there is upon it." The man, wondering that his llama should speak, answered it by asking whether there was any way by which they could save themselves. The llama then said that the man must follow it quickly to the summit of a high mountain p. 133 called Villca-coto, which is between this parish6 and San Geronimo de Surco, taking with him food for five days, and that he might thus be saved. The man did as he was told, carrying his load on his back and leading the llama, and he arrived on the summit of the mountain, where he found many different kinds of birds and animals assembled. Just as he and his llama reached the top the sea began to rise, and the water filled the valleys and covered the tops of the hills, except that of Villca-coto; but the animals were crowded together, for the water rose so high that some of them could hardly find foothold. Among these was a fox, whose tail was washed by the waves, which they say is the reason that the tips of foxes' tails are black. At the end of five days the waters began to abate, and the sea returned to its former bounds; but the whole earth was without inhabitants except that solitary man, from whom, they say, descend all the people who now exist. This is a notable absurdity, for they do not say that any woman was saved; and they make out that the man had intercourse with some devil; and, as the commentator of the books of the city of God (Lib. xv. cap. 23) says, they glory and rejoice, like some others of those times, at being the sons of a demon. The Egyptians denied that a man could have connection with a demon, though they affirmed that it was possible with a female demon; but the Greeks related stories of many men having been, with this object, beloved by the Devil, such as Hyacynto, Phæbus, Hypolito, all of whom the Devil loved.

 According to the most certain and true opinion there could not have been inhabitants in this land before the universal deluge; for as it is certain that all men sprang from our father Adam, and that in the period between Adam and Noah so wide a dispersion could not have taken place, how is it possible that these Indians can have had p. 134 any knowledge of the deluge? They declare that, in the days of Coniraya Uiracocha, their country was yunca, and that the crops ripened in five days. This is also impossible, for the situation of this province is the same as that of all the country which slopes from the snowy chain of mountains to the sea, from Pasto to Chile, a distance of more than twelve hundred leagues. If this small portion was ever yunca, the whole of the rest of that region which slopes towards the sea must also have been yunca, which the people deny; therefore this district cannot have been so. For there cannot have been a change of climate affecting this small district without breaking the chain of mountains, and then continuing it again, which is absurd. How, too, could they know this if, as they say, it was before the deluge, when there can then have been no inhabitants; and if the deluge, as is certain, destroyed all, including even the llama on Vilica-coto?7

 It is certain that there were no inhabitants in this land until many days and years after the deluge; for it was necessary that the descendants of those who were saved in the ark should spread themselves to the new world, and it is certain that they cannot have handed down these fables to their sons. It follows that the Devil, who has been so great a lord over these people, made them believe in lies, and in the matter of the deluge told them about the llama that spoke, the fox that wetted its tail, and the other stories. If any Indian would object that, if there was no yunca in Parracaca, how is it that there are remains and ruins of farms and cultivation? I reply that, God permitting, the Devil could easily make those terraces to deceive those who, leaving the natural light of God, served him.

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Relates who was Huathiacuri, and howa certain man made himself a God, and perished; also of the origin of Pariacaca and his brothers.

 We have related the most ancient traditions of these people, and how they assert that, after the deluge, they were all descended from that one man. It must now be understood that in the time after the deluge, in every district, the Indians chose the richest and most valiant man among them for their leader, and this period they call Purunpacha,8 which means the time when there was no king. They say that in those days there appeared five large eggs on a mountain between Huarochiri and Chorrillo, towards the south, (and this is the origin of Pariacaca) called Condorcoto. At that time there lived a poor and ill-clad Indian named Huathiacuri, who, they say, was a son of Pariacaca, and who learnt many arts from his father. They say that he was called Huathiacuri because his food was all huatyasca, which means parboiled, not properly cooked, or, as we say here, roasted "en barbacoa." Being poor, he could afford nothing better. At the same time they say that a very rich and great lord had his house on Anchicocha, about a league and a half from the place where the five eggs appeared. His house was very richly and curiously adorned, for the roof was made of the yellow and red feathers of certain birds, and the walls were covered with similar and even more curious materials. This lord had a great number of llamas—some red, others blue and yellow and of other bright colours, so that, to make mantles, it was unnecessary to dye the wool, and he had many other kinds of riches. For these reasons people came to him from all directions to pay their respects; and he made himself to be very wise, even saying that he was the God and Creator. But at last p. 136 a great misfortune befell him, which was that he fell sick of a tedious and disgusting disease, and everybody wondered that a man who was so wise and rich, and was a God and Creator, should be so ill and be unable to cure himself. So they began to murmur against him. During all this time the pretended God did not fail to seek for remedies, trying various cures, procuring extraordinary medicines, and sending for all who had any knowledge of the healing art. But all was of no avail, and there was no man who understood either the disease or the cure. At this time they say that Huathiacuri journeyed towards the sea, and slept on that height, called Latallaco, where the ascent commences in going from Lima to Cienequilla. While he was there he saw a fox going towards the sea, and another coming from the coast towards Anchicocha. The one coming from the sea asked the other whether there was any news, and the other answered that "all was well except that the rich man was very sick, and was taking extraordinary pains to get cured, and to assemble learned men who could tell him the cause of his illness, and that no one understood it. But," added the fox, "the real cause is that, when his wife was toasting a little maize, one grain fell on her skirt, as happens every day. She gave it to a man who ate it, and afterwards she committed adultery with him. This is the reason that the rich man is sick, and a serpent is now hovering over his beautiful house to eat it, while a toad with two heads is waiting under his grinding-stone with the same object. But no one knows this," concluded the fox; and it then asked the other fox whether it had any news. The other fox replied that a very beautiful daughter of a great chief was dying for having had connection with a man. But this is a long story, which I shall tell presently; and now we will return to the proceedings of Huathiacuri.

 Having heard what the foxes said, he went to the place where the rich man was lying sick, and, with much dissimulation, p. 137 he asked a young and beautiful girl (who, with another elder sister already married, was daughter to the sick God) if any one was ill. She said, "Yes, my father is sick." He replied: "If you will consent to show me favour and to love me, I will cure your father." The name of this girl is not known, although some say that she is the same who was called Chaupiñaca. But she did not wish to consent, so she went to her father and told him that a dirty ragged man said he could cure him. Then all the wise men who were assembled laughed heartily, saying that none of them could effect a cure, and how much less could this poor wretch succeed. But the sick man, by reason of his earnest desire to be cured, did not refuse to place himself in the hands of the stranger, and ordered that he should be called in, whoever he might be. He entered, and said that he could certainly effect a cure if the sick man would give his young daughter to him for a wife. The sick man replied that he would willingly do so; which the husband of his elder daughter took very ill, holding it to be a shame that his sister-in-law should be the wife of so poor a man, who would thus appear to be the equal of himself, being rich and powerful. The contention between these two will be related presently.

 The wise Huathiacuri commenced the cure by saying—"Do you know that your wife has committed adultery, and that this is the reason of your sickness? Do you know that there are two great serpents above your house waiting to eat you? and that there is a toad with two heads underneath that grind-stone? Before everything else we must kill those animals, and then you will begin to recover your health. But, when you are well, you must worship and reverence my father, who will appear before many days, for it is quite clear that you are neither God nor Creator. If you were God you would not be ill, nor would you be in need of a cure." The sick man and those who stood round were astonished. p. 138 The wife said that the accusation against her was a wicked lie, and she began to shout with rage and fury. But the sick man was so desirous to be cured that he ordered search to be made, and they found the two serpents on the top of the house and killed them. Then the sage reminded the wife that when she was toasting maize one grain had fallen on her skirt; that she had given it to a man; and that afterwards she had committed adultery with him. So she confessed. The sage then caused the grindstone to be raised, and there hopped from underneath a toad with two heads, which went to a spring that now flows by Anchicocha, where they say that it still lives, making those who go to it lose their way, and become mad, and die. Having done all this, the sick man became well, and the wise Huathiacuri enjoyed the girl. They say that he generally went once a day to that mountian of Condorcoto where were the five eggs, round which a wind blew, and they say that before this there was no wind. When the sage wanted to go to Condorcoto, the sick man, now recovered, gave him his daughter to take with him, and there the pair enjoyed themselves much to their own satisfaction.

 To return to the brother-in-law of the girl, that rich man who, as we have said, was displeased that she should be given to Huathiacuri,—he was very angry when he was told that Huathiacuri had enjoyed her, and declared that he was a poor wretch and not a sage. He resolved to make others think this. So one day he said to Huathiacuri, "Brother, I am concerned that you, as my brother-in-law, should be ragged and poor, when I am so rich and powerful and so honoured by the people. Let us choose something at which we may compete, that one may overcome the other." Huathiacuri accepted the challenge. Then he took the road to Condorcoto, and went to the place where his father Pariacaca was in one of the eggs, and told him what had taken place. Pariacaca said that it was well to accept any challenge, p. 139 and that he should come back and tell him what it was. So with this advice Huathiacuri returned to the village.

 One day his brother-in-law said—"Now let us see which can vanquish the other in drinking and dancing on such a day." So Huathiacuri accepted the challenge, and posted off to his father Pariacaca, who told him to go to a neighbouring mountain, where he would turn into a dead huanacu. Next morning a fox with its vixen would come to the place, bringing a jar of chicha on her back, while the fox would have a flute of many pipes called astara. These would have to approach Pariacaca, because the object of their coming was to give him drink, and to play and dance a little; but when they should see the dead huanacu on the road, they would not wish to lose the opportnnity of filling their stomachs; and that they would put down the chicha, the drum, and the flute, and would begin to eat; that then he would come to himself and return to his own shape, and begin to cry aloud, at which the foxes would take to flight, and that he would then take the things they had left behind, and might be sure of victory in the challenge with his brother-in-law.

 All this happened as Pariacaca had said; and Huathiacuri went to the place where his brother-in-law was drinking to those who stood round with great quantities of chicha, and was dancing with many of his friends. His drums were beaten by more than two hundred women. While this was going on Huathiacuri entered with his wife, dancing with her, and she charging his cup and playing on a drum. At the first sound of her drum the whole earth began to shake, as if it was keeping time to the music, so that they had the advantage of the rich man, for not only the people but the earth itself danced. Presently they went to the place where they kept the drinking bouts, and the brother-in-law and all his friends came to beat Huathiacuri in drinking, thinking p. 140 that it was impossible for him to drink alone as much as the rich man and all his friends. But they were deceived, for he drank all they gave him without showing a sign of having had enough. Then he rose and began to drink to those who were seated, his wife filling the cups with chicha from the fox's jug. They laughed, because they thought that before he had given cups to two of them the jug would be empty; but the chicha never failed, and each man that drank fell down in a state of intoxication. So in this also he came out as a conqueror.

 When the brother-in-law saw how badly he came out of this encounter he determined to try another, which was that each should come dressed in festive attire, with splendid plumes of various colours. Huathiacuri accepted this challenge also, and went for help to his father Pariacaca, who dressed him in a shirt of snow, and so he vanquished his brother-in-law once more.

 Then the brother-in-law challenged him once more, saying that people should now see who could enter the public square, with the best lion-skin on his shoulders, for dancing. Huathiacuri went again to his father Pariacaca, who sent him to a fountain, where he said he would find a red lionskin with which to meet the challenge; and when he entered the square, men saw that there was a rainbow round the lion's head; so Huathiacuri again obtained a victory.

 Still the conquered brother-in-law was determined to have a final trial. This was a challenge for each to build a house in the shortest time and in the best manner. Huathiacuri accepted it; and the rich man at once began to collect his numerous vassals, and in one day he had nearly finished the walls, while Huathiacuri, with only his wife to help him, had scarcely begun the foundations. During the night the work of the rich man was stopped, but not that of Huathiacuri. For, in perfect silence, an infinite number of birds, snakes, and lizards completed the work, so that in p. 141 the morning the house was finished, and the rich man was vanquished, to the great wonder of all beholders. Then a great multitude of huanacus and vicuñas came next day laden with straw for the roof; while llamas came with similar loads for the rich man's roof. But Huathiacuri ordered an animal that shrieks loudly, called oscollo,9 to station itself at a certain point; and it suddenly began to scream in such a way as to terrify the llamas, which shook off their loads, and all the straw was lost.

 At the end of this competition Huathiacuri, by advice of his father Pariacaca, determined to put an end to the affair; so he said to the rich man, "Brother, now you have seen that I have agreed to everything that you have proposed. It is reasonable, therefore, that you should now do the same; and I propose that we should both see who dances best, in a blue shirt with a white cotton huara round the loins. The rich man accepted the challenge, and, as usual, was the first to appear in the public square, in the proposed dress. Presently Huathiacuri also appeared, and, with a sudden shout, he ran into the place where the other was dancing; and he, alarmed at the cry and the sudden rush, began to run, insomuch as, to give him more speed, he turned, or was turned by Huathiacuri, into a deer. In this form he came to Anchicocha, where, when his wife saw it, she also rose up saying, "Why do I remain here? I must go after my husband and die with him." So she began to run after him, and Huathiacuri after both. At last Huathiacuri overtook the wife in Anchicocha, and said to her, "Traitress! it is by your advice that your husband has challenged me to so many proofs, and has tried my patience in so many ways. Now I will pay you for this by turning you into a stone, with your head on the ground and your fect in the air." This happened as he said, and the stone is there to this day; and the Indians go there to p. 142 worship and to offer coca, and practise other diabolical superstitions. Thus the woman was stopped; but the deer ran on and disappeared, and it maintained itself by eating people; but after some time the deer began to be eaten by men, and not men by deer.

 They say that those five eggs in Condorcoto, one of which contained Pariacaca, opened, and five falcons issued from them, who were presently turned into five men, who went about performing wonderful miracles; and one was that the rich Indian, whom we have mentioned in this chapter as having pretended to be God, perished, because Pariacaca and the others raised a great storm and a flood which carried him and his house and wife and family away into the sea. The site of this man's house is between two very lofty mountains, the one called Vicocha, near the parish of Chorrillo, and the other Llantapa, in the parish of San Damian, and between them flows the river of Pachacamac. There was a sort of bridge, consisting of a great tree called pullao, forming a most beautiful arch from one hill to the other, where a great variety of parrots and other birds passed to and fro. All this was swept away by the flood.


 Having come forth from the five eggs with his four brothers, and having caused the above tempest, Pariacaca aspired to perform great and mighty deeds throughout the world, though the region he traversed did not exceed twenty leagues in circuit. Especially he conceived the idea of encountering the valiant Caruyuchu Huayallo, to whom they sacrificed children, as we have related in the first chapter. So Pariacaca went in search of Caruyuchu, of whose end and defeat I shall speak presently; but first I must relate what happened to Pariacaca on the road.

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 On his way from Condorcoto to the residence of Caruyuchu, he came to the place where now stands the village of Santa Maria de Jesus de Huarochiri, at the bottom of the ravine in which the river flows, and by which one goes to the parish of Quinti.1 Here there was a village called Huagaihusa, where they were celebrating a great festival. It is to be noted that all this country was then yunca, with a hot climate, according to the false opinion of the Indians. Pariacaca entered the place, where all the people were drinking, in the dress of a poor man, and he sat down with the others, but at the end of all, as is the custom with those who are not invited. But no man drank to him nor gave him to drink during the whole day. Seeing this, a girl was moved with pity and compassion, and she said, "How is it that no one gives a drink to this poor man or takes any notice of him?" and she put a good draught of chicha into one of those large white calabashes called by the Indians putu, and took it to Pariacaca, who received it with thanks, and told her she had done a very good deed, and had gained his friendship. "This," he added, "is worth to you the same as your life, for at the end of five days wonderful things will happen in this place, and none of the inhabitants shall remain alive, for their neglect has enraged me. You must put yourself in safety on that day, with your children, that you may not share their fate; but if you reveal this secret to any other inhabitant of the village, your death is also inevitable."

 The woman was thankful at receiving this warning, and on the fifth day she took good care to go far away from the village with her children, brothers, and relations; leaving the rest of the inhabitants off their guard, and still engaged in drinking and feasting. But the enraged Pariacaca had ascended a high mountain called Matro-coto, which overhangs the village of Huarochiri, and below which there is p. 144 another mountain peak called Puipu-Huana, which is on the road from San Damian to Huarochiri. Then an enormous quantity of rain began to fall, with hail and yellow and white stones, which carried the village away into the sea, so that no man escaped. This flood is still a tradition among the people of Huarochiri, and some high banks were left, which may be seen before arriving at the village. Having completed this work, Pariacaca, without speaking to anyone in the other villages, or communicating with them, crossed over to the other side of the river, where he did what I shall describe in the following chapter.


How Pariacaca gave water in abundance to the Indians of the Ayllu Copara, for their fields; how he became enamoured of Choque Suso, an idol which is still very famous.

 Having crossed the river, Pariacaca travelled over the fields which now belong to the Ayllu Copara, and which then were in great want of water for irrigation. They did not then procure it from the river, but from a spring on the mountain called Sienacaca, which overhangs the village now called San Lorenzo.2 A large dam was built across this spring, and other smaller dams were thrown across it lower down, by which means the fields were irrigated. In those days there was a very beautiful girl belonging to the Ayllu Copara, who, seeing one day that the maize crop was drying up for want of water, began to weep at the small supply that came from one of the smaller dams she had opened. Pariacaca happened to be passing by, and, seeing her, he was captivated by her charms. He went to the dam, and taking off his yacolla or cloak, he used it to stop p. 145 up the drain that the girl had made. He then went down to where she was trying to irrigate the fields, and she, if she was afflicted before, was much more so now, when she found that there was no water flowing at all. Pariacaca asked her, in very loving and tender words, why she was weeping, and she, without knowing who he was, thus answered:—"My father, I weep because this crop of maize will be lost and is drying up for lack of water." He replied that she might console herself and take no further thought, for that she had gained what he had lost, namely, his love; and that he would make the dam yield more than enough water to irrigate her crop. Choque-suso told him first to produce the water in abundance, and that afterwards she promised willingly to yield to his wishes. Then he went up to the dam, and, on opening the channel, such a quantity of water flowed out, that it sufficed to irrigate the thirsty fields, and to satisfy the damsel. But when Pariacaca asked her to comply with her promise, she said that there was plenty of time to think about that. He was eager and ardent in his love, and he promised her many things, among others to conduct a channel from the river which should suffice to irrigate all the farms. She accepted this promise, saying that she must first see the water flowing, and that afterwards she would let him do what he liked.

 He then examined the country, to see whence he could draw the water; and he observed that above the site of the present village of San Lorenzo (in which that Ayllu Copara now resides) a very small rill came from the ravine of Coca-challa, the waters of which did not flow beyond a dam which had been thrown across it. By opening this dam and leading the water onwards, it appeared to Pariacaca that it would reach the farms of the Ayllu Copara, where were the fields of his lady-love. So he ordered all the birds in those hills and trees to assemble, together with all the snakes, lizards, bears, lions, and other animals; and to remove the p. 146 obstruction. This they did; and he then caused them to widen the channel and to make new channels until the water reached the farms. There was a discussion as to who should make the line for the channel, and there were many pretenders to this duty, who wished to show their skill as well as to gain the favour of their employer. But the fox managed, by his cunning, to get the post of engineer; and he carried the line of the canal to the spot just above the present site of the church of San Lorenzo. Then a partridge came flying and making a noise like Pich-pich, and the unconscious fox let the water flow off down the hill. So the other labourers were enraged, and ordered the snake to take the fox's place, and to proceed with what he had begun. But he did not perform the work so well as the fox; and the people to this day deplore that the fox should have been superseded, saying that the channel would have been higher up and better, if this had not taken place: and because the course of the channel is broken, just above the church, they say that is the place where the fox let the water flow off, and which has never since been repaired.

 Having brought the water to irrigate the farms in the way that is still working, Pariacaca besought the damsel to keep her promise, and she consented with a good grace, but proposed that they should go to the summit of some rocks called Yanacaca.3 This they did, and there Pariacaca obtained his desires, and she was well repaid for her love when she knew who he was. She would never let him go anywhere alone, but always desired to accompany him; and he took her to the head-works of the irrigating channel, which he had constructed for her love. There she felt a strong wish to remain, and he again consented, so she was converted into a stone, while Pariacaca went up the mountains. Thus Choque Suso was turned into a stone at the head of the channel, which is called Cocochalla.

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 Above this channel there is another called Vim-lompa,4 where there is another stone, into which they say Coniraya was turned.


How the Indians of the Ayllu of Copara still worship Choque Suso and this channel, a fact which I know not only from their stories, but also from judicial depositions which I have taken on the subject.

 (Here was to be added that which I saw, and the story of the hair of Choque Suso, and the rest of the depositions that were taken, concerning this irrigating channel.)





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1 They say that the word she used was cachca-sapa, which means "itchy".

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2 Ccenti, the humming bird.

3 Tominejo.

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4 Urpi-huachac.

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5 Or Ayrihua. A harvest dance. The huantay-sara was the fertile stalk of maize round which the dance was performed.

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6 San Damian.

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7 The origin of the tradition is clear enough. The people of Huarochiri originally came from the coast, and hence they said that the land of their ancestors was hot.

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8 See page 70.

p. 141

9 A wild cat.

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1 San Lorenzo de Quinti.

p. 144

2 San Lorenzo de Quinti.

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3 Yana, black. Caca, a rock.

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4 Corrupt.