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p. 67



I, DON JUAN DE SANTA CRUZ PACHACUTI-YAMQUI SALCAMAYHUA, a Christian by the grace of God our Lord, am native of the towns of Santiago1 of Hanalucayhua and Hurinhuayhuacanchi of Urco-suyu,2 between Canas and Canches of Colla-suyu,3 legitimate son of Don Diego Felipe Coudorcanqui and of Doña Maria Huayrotari, legitimate grandson of Don Baltasar Cacyaquivi and of Don Francisco Yamquihuanacu (whose wives, my grandmothers, are alive), great grandson of Don Gaspar Apuquiricanqui and of General Don Juan Apu Ynca Mayhua, great great grandson of Don Bernabe Apu-hilas Urcuni the less, and of Don Gonzalo Pizarro Tintaya, and of Don Carlos Anco, all once principal chiefs in the said province, and professed Christians in the things of our holy Catholic faith. They were the first chiefs who came to the tambo of Caxamarca to be made Christians,4 renouncing all the errors, rites, and ceremonies of the time of heathenry, which were devised by the ancient enemies of the human race, namely the demons and devils. In the p. 68 general language they are called hapiñuñu5 achacalla.6 When the first Apostolic Priests entered this most noble province of Ttahuantin-suyu, inspired by the holy zeal of gaining a soul for God our Lord, like good fishers, with their loving words, preaching and catechising on the mystery of our holy Catholic Faith, then my ancestors, after having been well instructed, were baptized. They renounced the Devil and all his followers and his false promises, and all his rites. Thus they became Christians, adopted sons of Jesus Christ our Lord, and enemies of all the ancient customs and idolatries. As such they persecuted the wizards, destroyed and pulled down all the huacas and idols, denounced idolaters, and punished those who were their own servants and vassals throughout all that province. Therefore our Lord God preserved these my ancestors; and to their grandchildren and descendants, male and female, He has given his holy benediction. Finally I am, through the mercy of his divine majesty, and by his divine grace, a believer in his holy Catholic faith, as I ought to believe. All my paternal and maternal ancestors were baptized by the mercy of God, and freed from the servitude of the infernal yoke under which they were enthralled in the times of idolatry, with great risk and peril, on whose souls may our Lord have pity; and pardon all the offences committed in times past by those souls who were made in His image and likeness. I myself, as the grandchild and legitimate descendant of these ancestors, have, ever since I have reached manhood, continued firm and established in the mystery of our holy Catholic faith, exhorting my family to be good Christians, keeping the ten commandments of the law of God, believing in our Lord Jesus Christ, in obedience to our holy Mother Church of Rome. Thus the holy Roman Mother Church believes what I, Don Juan de Santa Cruz, p. 69 believe, and in her I desire to live and die in the fear of God three and one, who lives and reigns for ever without end, as I declare. I believe in God three and one, who is the powerful God that created heaven and earth and all things that are therein, the sun, the moon, the stars, the day star, thunder and lightning, and all the elements. I also believe that he created Adam, the first man, in his image and likeness, progenitor of all mankind, whose descendants we, the natives of Ttahuantin-suyu, are, as well as the other nations throughout the whole world, as well white as black. I believe that, for their sakes, the living son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, by the work of the Holy Ghost, became incarnate in the womb of the holy Virgin Mary, coming down from heaven alone to free the human race from the infernal thraldom of the Devil in which they were kept. I believe that our Lord Christ, living among men during thirty-three years, and being true God and Man, afterwards suffered death on the cross at Jerusalem to redeem the human race, and died and was buried, and entered the infernal regions to free the souls of the holy fathers. I believe that he rose from the dead on the third day, and was in the body for forty days, and ascended into Heaven, where he sits in the great power of the Almighty God, and whence he sent the gift of the Holy Spirit to his apostles and disciples, that they might be more powerful in the spiritual things of God. God is the true God above all other Gods, the powerful God our Creator, and he it is who, by his order, rules the heavens throughout all ages, as supreme Lord and Judge and merciful Lord.

 I affirm that I have heard, from a child, the most ancient traditions and histories, the fables and barbarisms of the heathen times, which are as follows; according to the constant testimony of the natives touching the events of past times.

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 They say that, in the time of Purun7-pacha, all the nations of Ttahuantin-suyu came from beyond Potosi in four or five armies arrayed for war. They settled in the different districts as they advanced. This period was called Ccallac-pacha8 or Tutayac-pacha.9 As each company selected suitable places for their homes and lands, they called this Purunpacharacyaptin.1 This period lasted for a vast number of years. After the country was peopled, there was a great want of space, and, as the land was insufficient, there were wars and quarrels, and an the nations occupied themselves in making fortresses, and every day there were encounters and battles, and there was no rest from these tumults, insomuch that the people never enjoyed any peace. Then, in the middle of the night, they heard the Hapi-ñuños disappearing, with mournful complaints, and crying out—"We are conquered, we are conquered, alas that we should lose our bands!" By this it must be understood that the devils were conquered by Jesus Christ our Lord on the cross on Mount Calvary. For in ancient times, in the days of Purun-pacha, they say that the Hapi-ñuñus walked visibly over an the land, and it was unsafe to go out at night, for they violently carried off men, women, and children, like infernal tyrants and enemies of the human race as they are.

 Some years after the devils called Hapi-ñuñus Achacallas had been driven out of the land, there arrived, in these kingdoms of Ttahuantin-suyu2 a bearded man, of middle p. 71 height, with long hair, and in a rather long shirt. They say that he was somewhat past his prime, for he already had grey hairs, and he was lean. He travelled with his staff, teaching the natives with much love, and calling them all his sons and daughters. As he went through all the land, he performed many miracles. The sick were healed by his touch. He spoke all languages better than the natives. They called him Tonapa or Tarapaca (Tarapaca means an eagle) Uiracocharapacha yachipachan or Pachaccan.3 This means the servant, and Uicchaycamayoc4 means a preacher, and vicchaycamayoc cunacuycamayoc.5 Although he preached the people did not listen, for they thought little of him. He was called Tonapa Uiracocha nipacachan; but was he not the glorious apostle St. Thomas?

 They say that this man came to the village of a chief called Apo-tampu (this Apo-tampu is Paccari-tampu6) very tired. It was at a time when they were celebrating a marriage feast. His doctrines were listened to by the chief with friendly feelings, but his vassals heard them unwillingly. From that day the wanderer was a guest of Apo-tampu, to whom it is said that he gave a stick from his own staff, and through this Apo-tampu, the people listened with attention to the words of the stranger, receiving the stick from his hands. Thus they received what he preached in a stick, marking and scoring on it each chapter of his precepts. The old men of the days of my father, Don Diego Felipe, used to say that Caçi-caçi were the commandments of God, and especially the seven precepts; so that they only wanted the names of our Lord God and of his son Jesus Christ our Lord; and the punishments for those who broke the commandments p. 72 were severe. This worthy, named Thonapa, is said to have visited all the provinces of the Colla-suyu, preaching to the people without cessation, until one day he entered the town of Yamquesupa. There he was treated with great insolence and contempt, and driven away. They say that he often slept in the fields, without other covering than the long shirt he wore, a mantle, and a book. They say that Thonapa cursed that village, so that it was covered with water. The site is now called Yamquisupaloiga.7 It is a lake, and nearly all the Indians of that time knew that it was once a village, and was then a lake. They say that, on a very high hill called Cacha-pucara,8 there was an idol in the form of a woman,9 and that Tonapa was inspired with a great hatred against it, and afterwards burnt it, and destroyed it with the hill on which it stood. They say that to this day there are signs of that awful miracle, the most fearful that was ever heard of in the world.

 On another occasion they say that he began to preach with loving words, in a town where they were holding a great festival and banquet to celebrate a wedding, and they would not listen to the preaching of Tonapa. For this they were cursed and turned into stones, which may be seen to this day. The same thing happened in Pucara and other places.1 They further say that this Tonapa, in his wanderings, came to the mountains of Caravaya, where he erected a very large cross, and he carried it on his shoulders to the mountain of Carapucu, where he preached in a loud voice, and shed tears. And they say that a daughter of a chief of that province was sprinkled on the head with water, and the Indians, seeing this, understood p. 73 that he was washing his head. So, afterwards, Tonapa was taken prisoner and shorn, near the great lake of Carapucu. The meaning of Carapucu is when a bird called pucu-pucu sings four times, at early dawn.2 They say that, when day broke, when Tonapa was a prisoner, a very beautiful youth came to him, and said:—"Do not fear; for I come to call you in the name of the matron, who alone watches over you, and who is about to go to the place of rest." So saying, he touched the cords, by which Tonapa was tied hand and foot, with his fingers. There were many guards, for Tonapa had been condemned to a cruel death. But at dawn, being five in the morning, he entered the lake with the youth, his mantle bearing him up on the water and serving in the place of a boat. On his arrival in the town and province of Carapuco, the chiefs and principal men were disturbed at having seen their idol thrown down and destroyed. They say that this idol flew like the wind to a desert place, which was never visited by men. Here the idol or huaca was mourning and lamenting with its head down; and in this plight it was found by an Indian, whose report caused the chiefs to be excited at the arrival of Tonapa, who had been imprisoned. They say that Tonapa after he had been freed from the hands of those savages, remained for a long time on a rock called Titicaca, and afterwards he passed by Tiquina to Chacamarca, where he came to a town called Tiyahuanacu. They say that the people of that town were engaged in drinking and dancing when Tonapa came to preach to them, and they did not listen to him. Then, out of pure anger, he denounced them in the language of the land; and, when he departed from that place, all the people who were dancing were turned into stones, and they may be seen to this day.3 Tonapa then followed the course of the river Chacamarca until he came to the sea. This is reported by those most ancient Yncas.

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 They say that the staff which Tonapa delivered into the hands of Apu-tampu was turned into fine gold on the birth of his son named Manco Ccapac Ynca, who had seven brothers and sisters. Their names were Ayar-cachi, Ayar-uchu, Aya-raeca, etc. The said Apu Manco Ccapac, after the death of his father and mother, named Apu Tampu Pacha and Mama Achi, being now an orphan, but grown to man's estate, assembled his people to see what power he had to prosecute the new conquests which he meditated. Finding some difficulties, he agreed with his brothers to seek new lands, taking his rich clothes and arms, and the staff which had been left by Tonapa. This staff was called Tupac-yauri.4 He also had two golden cups from which Tonapa had drunk, called Tupac-usi. Thus he set out, with his brothers, towards the hill over which the sun rose. They say that, marching in this direction, he arrived at the hill which was the highest point in that land. Then, over Apu Manco Ccapac arose a very beautiful rainbow, and over the rainbow appeared another, so that Apu Manco Ccapac seemed to be in the midst of the rainbows. He exclaimed: "We have a good sign. We shall have great prosperity and gain many victories, and we shall obtain all that we desire." After saying this, he joyfully advanced, singing the song of Chamay5 huarisca from mere delight. Then he descended to Collcapampa with his brothers, and from the town of Sañuc he saw, afar off, the form of a man. One of his brothers ran towards it, thinking that it was some Indian. They say that when he came up to it, he saw one like an Indian, looking most fierce and cruel with bloodshot eyes. He who went to look at him was the youngest brother, and when he approached the form raised its head, and said: "It is well that you have come in search of me; for you will find p. 75 that I am looking for you, and now you are in my power." When Manco Ccapac saw that his brother was so long in returning, be sent one of his sisters to call him. But she also remained away, and both were kept at the huaca of Sañuc. Seeing that both one and the other did not return, Manco Ccapac went himself in great wrath, and found them both nearly dead. He asked them why they stayed away so long, and they answered by complaining of a stone which was between the two. Then Apu Manco Ccapac struck the stone or huaca with much fury, giving it blows with his tupac-yauri on the head. Then words came from the midst of the stone, as if it was alive, saying, that if he had not got that staff, it would also do to him as it pleased. "Go on," it added; "for you have attained to great honour. But these, your brother and sister, have sinned, and it is therefore right that they should be where I am," meaning the infernal regions. This is called pitusiray sanasiray, which means one person fastened on the top of another. When Manco Ccapac saw his brother and sister in such fearful danger, he shed tears of natural grief and sorrow, and he went thence to the place where he had first seen the rainbow, the names of which are cuchi, and turumanya and yayacarui. He bemoaned the loss of his brother and sister, and exclaimed that he was the most unfortunate of orphans. But the rainbow strengthened him, and removed all his sorrows and afflictions.6 "Huaynacaptiy" or "Huaynacaptiyllapun chica chiqui unachayamoran Huanacauri." From that time the place was called Huaynacaptiy. Thence he went to Collcapampa7 with the tupac-yauri in his hand, and with a sister named Ypa mama huaco, and with another sister and a brother. They arrived at Collcapampa, where they were for p. 76 some days. Thence they went to Huamantiana,8 where they remained some time, and thence they marched to Cori-cancha,9 where they found a place suitable for a settlement. There was good water from Hurinchacan and Hananchacan (whence the names of Hurin-Cuzco and Hanan-Cuzco), which are two springs. A rock was called by the natives (who are the Allcayriesas, the Cullinchinas, and the Cayaucachis) by the name of Cuzco-cara-urumi, whence the place came to be called Cuzco-pampa and Cuzco-llacta; and the Yncas were afterwards called Cuzco-Ccapac and Cuzco-Ynca. This Ynca Apu Manco Ccapac married one of his own sisters named Mama Ocllo, and this marriage was celebrated that they might have no equal, and that they might not lose the caste. Then they began to enact good laws for the government of their people, conquering many provinces and nations of those that were disobedient. The Ttahuantin-suyus1 came with a good grace and with rich presents. The tidings of a new Ynca had spread widely. Some were joyful, others were afflicted; when they heard that the Ynca was the most powerful chief, the most valiant, and the most fortunate in arms, that his captains and men of valour were better armed than other men; and that all his affairs were prosperous.

 This Ynca ordered the smiths to make a flat plate of fine gold; which signified that there was a Creator of heaven and earth; and it was of this shape. He caused it to be fixed in a great house called Ccuricancha pachaya-chachipac huasin.2 This Ynca Manco Ccapac was an enemy to the huacas,3 and, as such, he destroyed the Curaca Pinao Ccapac
p. 77 with all his idols. He also conquered Tocay Ccapac, a great idolater.

 Afterwards he ordered works to be executed at the place of his birth; consisting of a masonry wall with three windows, which were emblems of the house of his fathers whence he descended. The first window was called Tampu-toco,4 the second Maras5-toco, and the third Sutic6-toco: referring to his uncles and paternal and maternal grandparents.

 These two trees typified his father and mother Apu-tampu and Apachamama-achi, and he ordered that they should be adorned with roots of gold and silver, and with golden fruit. Hence they were called Ccurichachac collquechachac tampu-yracan, which means that the two trees typified the parents, and that the Yncas proceeded from them, like fruit from the trees, and that the two trees were as the roots and stems of the Yncas. All these things were executed to record their greatness.

 He ordered that the dresses of each village should be different, that the people might be known, for down to this time there were no means of knowing to what village or tribe an Indian belonged. He also ordered, with a view to each tribe being clearly distinguished, that they should choose whence they were descended and from whence they came, and, as the Indians generally were very dull and stupid, p. 78 some chose, for their pacarisca7 or pacarimusca, a lake, others a spring, others a rock, others the hills or ravines; but every lineage selected some object for its pacarisca. The devils, or hapi-ñuñus, deceived those stupid people with little difficulty, entering into the false pacariscas, and thence uttering deceitful promises. Every day these pacariscas continued to increase, the origin or pacarinim being the Pacari-tampu. All the provinces and tribes said Pacariscanchic huccsiscanchic umachun chicpa-pacariscan.

 The leading cause of the invention of the pacarinim, was, that the Ynca Manco Ccapac was often at a loss to know to what village an Indian belonged. This Ynca also ordered the heads of infants to be pressed, that they might grow up foolish and without energy; for he thought that Indians with large round heads, being audacious in any enterprise, might also be disobedient.

 His legitimate son was Sinchi Ruca Ynca, and he inherited all the dominions of his father. The other younger sons, whether legitimate or illegitimate, were called Chima-panaca-ayllu.

 Sinchi Ruca Ynca began to rule over all the territory of his father, and was a great patron of agriculture, of weaving cloth, and of mining. He was not much addicted to warlike affairs, for, being a very proud man, and of haughty disposition, he seldom went abroad. All the provinces from Chacamarca and Angaraes sent him presents. When he desired to make conquests be sent his captains and their men. In each ravine they had to take stones to make usnus, which are certain stones arranged in heaps. They say that an Indian wizard appeared to one of the officers of war, and told him that the heaps must becalled apachitas. A rite was established, which was that every passer by should bring a great stone; and the wizard also told the officer of the p. 79 Ynca that all the soldiers must throw their coca pallets on the heap as they passed, saying:—Saycoyñiycaypitac quipasiyon coyñiypashinatac. From that time they began to bring stones and to throw coca, because the wizard had so ordered it.8

 They say that when the Ynca Manco Ccapac was very old, he went down on his knees, and prayed for the prosperity of his son in these words:—


A Uiracochantic çicapac caycaricachun cay raimicachun ñeca apa hinamtima chiccha camac maypin canqui manachurycayquiman hanampichun hurimpichun quinrayñimpichun capac usnoyqui hay-ñillalay, hanan cochaman tarayac hurincocha, tiyancay, camacpacha runarallpac, apoyunay, quicuna camman allcañancyran riaiy-tam munayqui ricaptiy yachaptiy unanchaptiy hamuttaptiy ricunan-quim yacharanquira, yntic quillaca punchaoca, tutaca, pocoyca, chiraoca, manamyancacho, camachiscan purin unanchascaman tupus-camanmi chayan, maycanmi, ttopayaricta apachinarcanqui hay-ñillaray uyarillaray manaracpas, saycaptiy rañuptiy.


 After this he always remembered Tonapa, saying:—


Runa rallcapacpalhacan yananssi cahuac, ari, chayariyuya llanay coscocapac churatamuquiy apo, Tarapaca Tonapa pacta varoytiypas capacparatamus cayquicta concaraca rañoytayri yuyayronayta callpanchan quistacmi payllanquitacmi recsichillaran quimampichun carcan achus, camchomcanquiman papi-ñuñu llasac atic manchachic risci ayman yacha llayman, allpamantaca maquiylluttaquey riculla raypancanqueña allparnumachun cani.


 Having said this he watched to see if he might have a sign from the Creator. He offered a very white lamb upon an altar, which sacrifice is called arpay. When no answer was given, he ordered the most beautiful of his sons, aged about eight years, to be offered up, cutting off his head, and sprinkling the blood over the fire, that the smoke might reach the Maker of heaven and earth. To all these offerings no answer was ever given in Coricancha.

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 Afterwards, in the visit of Itaripanaca to the people, he admitted a great number of youths aged from seventeen to eighteen, among the number of men and soldiers, giving them white breeches. He marked out a line to a high and very distant hill, called Huanacauri, and he ordered to be placed on the hill a falcon, a humming bird, a vulture, an ostrich (suri), a vicuña, an anatuya (fox), a serpent, a toad. It was announced that these birds and animals had been placed there that these boys and youths might run to them and show the qualities of their swiftness or sluggishness. The swift received as rewards the huarachicuy and ccamantiras (ccamantira are the small bright feathers that birds have under the beak), and the sluggish were given black breeches. After the breeches and other clothes had been distributed, the youths were made to sit down with the men, and from that time they were called men, and their parents came to them with many presents as a reward for their good deeds. Manco Ccapac, seeing that the fathers and mothers of the youths were so well satisfied, ordered them to be given to eat and drink plentifully, that they might remain his vassals, and the vassals of his son, Sinchi Ruca. Besides this he ordered that the girls of sixteen years should comb and plait their hair. This is called quicuchicuy (when they plait the hair to come forth from among young girls). Then he ordered them to be shod with llanquisi, which are a kind of shoes. All this was done in order that henceforth they might be known as women or tasqui huarmi. Afterwards all the young men of thirty years were ordered to take wives, arms being given to the men, cooking and spinning gear to the women. This was called huarmi hapiypacha carichasquiy pacha. Then certain men of holy lives were selected, as priests, to call upon the name of the Creator of heaven and earth, and to these chosen men the Ynca spoke as follows:—

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Cusisimirac cusi callurac cayhuacyanquital sasicuspa suyanqui, ychastalpas cusinchicpi quillpunchicpi maymantapas runahualpac apu, ticcicapac uyari sunquichay nisunqui camtaca, mayñic mantapas hinatac viñaypas caycama yocllamunqui.


 These chosen men always held the office of priests during the life of Manco Ccapac.

 On the death of the old Ynca, the sovereignty descended to his son Sinchi Rocca Ynca, who was a very proud man. In his time it fell out that there were youths and maidens who loved each other excessively, and, in answer to questions put to them by the Ynca, they publicly confessed that they could not live apart. It was found that these lovers had certain small stones, perfectly round, and they said that these stones were called soncoapa chinacoc huacca chinacoc. They say that a poor boy in rags, a shepherd (llama-michec), entered the house of the Ynca Sinchi Rocca, and that a virgin who was very dear to the Ynca went away with that boy. A search was made until they were found, and orders were given that they should be tortured. The girl confessed that the llama-michec had stolen away her love, after having made a huacanqui9 to appear, given to him by a demon. The boy had made a pact with the devil in a certain cave; but the Ynca did not understand that this was the work of the old enemy, and that he had succeeded with the boy and girl because they had become his subjects, and held the huacanquis in their hands. They say that from that time many huacas appeared on the hills and in the streams without shame, and it was ordered that there should be sacrifices in each village.

 In those days they began to sacrifice with human blood, white lambs, guinea pigs, coca, shells, grease and sancu.1 This unfortunate Sinchi Rocca passed all his time in sensuality, and he ordered search to be made for chutarpu p. 82 and huanarpu,2 to make fornication a custom, and thus there were so many huacanquis that the Indians gave them as presents.

 They say that this ill-fated Ynca had a son named Ynca Lloque Yupanqui, whom he left as his successor when he died. This heir was a great proficient at fasting, and had never chosen to know a woman till he was very old. He prohibited fornication and drunkenness, and was a great patron of agriculture. He did not undertake conquests like his grandfather, though occasionally he assembled an army, in order to strike terror among his enemies. They also say that he ordered all his men to pull out their beards and appear without hair.3 He also ordered that all the people in his dominions should flatten the heads of their children, so that they might be long and sloping from the front; and this was done to make them obedient. He also commanded houses to be made for the virgins, and these houses were divided into four classes:—yurac-aclla, huayru-aclla, pacu-aclla, and yana-aclla.4 The first for the Creator, called Uiracocha-pacha-yachachi; the huayru-aclla for the virgins of the Ynca, the pacu-aclla for the women of the Apu-curacas,5 and the yana-aclla for the common people. Many youths were also reared who were not to know women, who afterwards became soldiers.

 They say that when the Ynca Lloque Yupanqui was very old, he had a son by a woman named Mama Tancarayacchi Chimpu Cuca, daughter of a huaca in the village of Tancar. She bore the Ynca Mayta Ccapac6 at the end of a year, and p. 83 they say that he cried out many times while he was yet in the womb of his mother. A few months after his birth he began to talk, and at ten years of age he fought valiantly and defeated his enemies, He governed very well, making moral laws, and forbidding evil customs. They say that this Ynca Mayta Ccapac foretold the coming of the holy gospel. While he was a boy he ordered all the huacas and idols to be brought to the city of Cuzco, promising to hold a great festival; but he caused trouble to the worshippers of these huacas by setting them on fire. They say that many escaped in the form of fire and wind, and as birds. There were Aysso-uilca, Chinchay-cocha, and the huaca of the Cañaris, and Uilcañota, Putina, Coropuna, Antapuca, Choquiracra, and Chuquipillu.7

 They say that this Ynca was a great enemy of the idols, and as such he ordered his people to pay no honours to the sun and moon, declaring that the sun and moon and all the elements were made for the service of men. He was also a severe judge of those who practised forbidden things, such as enchanters, canchus, umus,8 layccas,9 huaca-muchas,1 and those who worked on the chief day of the festival of Ccapac-raymi. He gave thanks on that day to the Creator Tica-ccapac (called also Caprichay), and chastised those who were undutiful to himself or to their parents, liars, adulterers, fornicators, evil livers, thieves, murderers, drunkards. He commanded that there should be no unjust wars, and that all men should be employed in tilling the ground and building. He caused landmarks to be set up in every village, and those who moved them were punished. In his reign there was universal peace.

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 They say that, in appearance, this Ynca was more noble than the others. He caused the plate to be renewed, which his great-grandfather had put up, fixing it afresh in the place where it had been before. He rebuilt the house of Ccuricancha; and they say that he caused things to be placed round the plate, which I have shown, that it may be seen what these heathens thought. The Ynca also instituted new songs, and caused very large drums to be made for the feast of Ccapac Raymi. But he only held this feast in honour of the Lord and Creator, despising all the created things, even the highest, such as men, and the sun and moon. Here I will show how they were depicted until the arrival of the holy gospel, except that then the plate was missing, because Huascar Ynca had removed it, and had substituted another round plate, like the sun with rays. Nevertheless, some say that they were placed on each side of the plate of Mayta Ccapac.

 Although Huascar Ynca had placed an image of the sun in the place where that of the Creator had been, yet it shall not be omitted here; for there was an image of the sun and moon on either side of it.

Plate of fine gold; image of the Creator and of the
true Sun of the Sun, called Uiracocha-pachaya-

 They say that a Spaniard gambled for this plate of gold in Cuzco,2 as I shall presently mention in its place, for now I want to proceed with the lives of other Yncas.

{See here for the picture facing page 84. There is no description or explanation of it given in the text}

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 They say that Mayta Ccapac Ynca was very wise, that he knew all the medicines, and could foresee future events. On occasion of the Ccapac Raymi, in honour of Uiracocha Pachayachachi, they held a solemn festival, which lasted for a whole month. The Ynca said many times, in the evenings after the days of festivity, that the feast will soon be over, and then comes death, as the night follows the day, and as sleep is the image of death. The festival, he would say, is the type of the true festival, and fortunate are those reasoning creatures who shall attain to the true feast of eternity, and know the name of the Creator; for men do not die like beasts. In consequence of these reflections he kept a fast in Toco-cachi,3 with great mourning, only eating one row of grains from a mazorca of maize, each day, and so he passed a whole month.

 This Mayta Ccapac had a son named Ccapac Yupanqui4 by Mama Tancapay-yacchi. He had another son Apu Urco Huaman Ynti Cunti Mayta, and another Unco Huaranca. Their descendants multiplied so as to form the Usca Mayta Ayllu and Huañayñin Ayllu;5 though Ccapac Yupanqui was the heir, who was most successful in arms.

 After the death of Mayta Ccapac, many great Curacas and chiefs of this kingdom submitted to his son Ccapac Yupanqui. They say that, in his time, they invented the sacrifices of capaucha-cocuy, burying virgin boys with silver and gold; and of the arpac with human blood, or with white lambs called uracarpaña, cuyes,6 and grease. It happened one day that the same Ynca Ccapac Yupanqui wished to witness how the huacas conversed with their friends, so he entered the place selected, which was in a village of the p. 86 Andes called Capacuyo. When the young Ynca entered among these idolaters, he asked why they closed the doors and windows so as to leave them in the dark, and they all replied that in this way they could make the huaca come, who was the enemy to the name of God Almighty, and that there must be silence. When they had made an end of calling the Devil, he entered with a rush of wind that made them all in a cold sweat of horror. Then the young Ynca ordered the doors and windows to be opened, that he might know the shape of that thing for which they had waited with such veneration. But as soon as it was light the Devil hid its face, and knew not how to answer. The dauntless Ynca Ccapac Yupanqui said—"Tell me what you are called"; and, with much shame, it replied that its name was Cana-chuap yauirca. The Ynca then said—"Why are you so frightened and ashamed? If you can grant children, long life, good fortune, coycollas and huacanquis, why do you stand there like a criminal without raising your eyes? I tell you that you are some false deceiver; for if you were powerful you would not be afraid nor hang down your head. I now feel that there is another Creator of all things, as my father Mayta Ccapac Ynca has told me." The figure of this devil was ugly, with a foul smell, and coarse matted hair. It fled out of the house, raising shouts like thunder; and they say that from that time all the huacas feared the Yncas; and the Yncas also used the yacarcay, in the name of the Creator, as follows:—


Hurinapachap hicrinpachap, cochamantarayocpa camaquimpa tocuya pacopa sinchiñauiyocpa manchaysimiyocpa caycasicachun cayhuarmicachun ñispacamacpa sutinrammica machiyqui pincanqui maycanmicanqui y mactamñinqui rimayñi.


 With these words the Yncas made all the huacas tremble; although they had not left off performing capacochacocuy. If these Yncas had heard the gospel, with what love and joy would they have believed in God! They say that this Ynca p. 87 Ccapac Yupanqui had a son, by his wife Mama Corillpay-cahua, named Ynca Ruca, at whose birth there was much festivity. But the Ynca did not entirely separate himself from idolaters, as he allowed the huacas of each village to be worshipped. It is said that the Ynca sent men to search for the place called Titicaca, where the great Tonapa had arrived, and that they brought water thence to pour over the infant Ynca Ruca, while they celebrated the praises of Tonapa. In the spring on the top of the rocks, the water was in a basin called ccapacchama quispisutuc unu.7 Future Yncas caused this water to be brought in a bowl called curi-ccacca,8 and placed before them in the middle of the square of Cuzco, called Huacay-pata: Cusi-pata: where they did honour to the water that had been touched by Tonapa.

 In those days the Curacas of Asillu and Hucuru told the Ynca how, in ancient times, a poor thin old man, with a beard and long hair, had come to them in a long shirt, and that he was a wise councillor in affairs of state, and that his name was Tonapa Vihinquira. They said that he had banished all the idols and hapi-ñuñu demons to the snowy mountains. All the Curacas and chroniclers also said that this Tonapa had banished all the huacas and idols to the mountains of Asancata, Quiyancatay, Sallcatay, and Apitosiray. When all the Curacas of the provinces of Ttahuantin-suyu were assembled in the Huacay-pata, each in his place, those of the Huancas said that this Tonapa Varivillca had also been in their land, and that he had made a house to live in, and had banished all the huacas and hapi-ñuñus in the province of Hatun Sausa Huanca to the snowy mountains in Pariacaca and Vallollo. Before their banishment these idols had done much harm to the people, menacing the Curacas to make them offer human sacrifices. The p. 88 Ynca ordered that the house of Tonapa should be preserved. It was at the foot of a small hill near the river as you enter Xauxa from the Cuzco road, and before coming to it there are two stones where Tonapa had turned a female huaca into stone for having fornicated with a man of the Huancas. It was called Atapymapuranutapya, and afterwards, in the time of Huayna Ccapac Ynca, the two stones declared to the people that they were huacanqui coycoylla. In those days there were also huacanquis in the wilderness of Xauxa, and before coming to Pachacamac, and in a nest of the suyuntuy (turkey buzzard) and stones in Chincha-yunca.

 The Ynca Ccapac Yupanqui commenced the building of the fortress of Sacsahuaman. He extended his territory to Vilcañota, where he found a huaca called Rurucachi, and in returning he found another huaca in the village of Huaruc called Uiracochamparaca besides the huacas of Yanacocha, Yacachacota, Yayanacota de Lanquisupa, Achuy Tupiya, and Atantacopap. Ccapac Yupanqui exclaimed:—"How many false gods are there in the land, to my sorrow and the misfortune of my vassals! When shall these evils be remedied?" But he returned to Cuzco without doing more harm to the huacas; for in those days there were very few Apu Curacas who had not their huacas, and they were all deceived by false gods.

 When the Ynca died, he was succeeded by his son the Ynca Ruca, who received the tupac-yauri, tupac-cusi, and tupac-pichuc-llautu. This Ynca Ruca understood the making of cloth of cumpis,9 and he was a great patron of dancing, so that in his time nothing was done but dancing, eating, drinking, and other enjoyment. Idolatrous rites increased, and people devoted themselves to the worship of huacas; for the chiefs and people always follow the example that is set them by their sovereign.

 They say that the eldest son of this Ynca Ruca was named p. 89 Yahuar-huaccac1 Ynca Yupanqui. His mother was Mamicay-chimpu; and at his birth there was a grand feast. The square and all the streets were filled with arches of feathers, and the house of Curicancha was entirely covered with rich plumes, both within and without. They played on eight drums, and sang the ayma, torca, cayo, and huallma chamayuricssa, and haylli, and cachra, giving thanks to the Creator, and saying—


Hananhamuyrac chiccha hurinchiccha apu hinantima lluttactic-cicapac runahuallpac llaychunca muchay cuscayqui allcañañiy huan chipicñispa hullpaycuscayqui riacllahuay mayucuna pachacunaripis cucunari callapallatichinay hanantarac cahariusinay llapan concay-qui raurac manayllay quihuanpas ynya y cuspalla rochocallasun cusicullasun ancha hinalla tachca nispañicusun.


 While they were all singing in the Huacay-pata, they say that the infant wept blood, an unheard of miracle, which caused much alarm, and hence the name Yahuar-huaccac Ynca. His father the Ynca diligently searched for some one who could interpret the meaning of this incident. In those days the hualla-huisas, cunti-huisas, cana-huisas were great sorcerers; and there assembled such a vast number of canchus, carcas, umus, uscatus, huisas, that there was not room for them all in Cuzco. The Ynca did not like to confide his secrets to so many, lest the people should lose their veneration for him, so he reprehended them publicly, saying that there were many wise men but little wisdom, and he dismissed them; but these enchanters, necromancers, wizards, and witches returned with more liberty than they had had before, and their idolatrous practices increased.

 The Ynca Ruca died, and left the sovereignty to his eldest son Yahuar-huaccac Ynca Yupanqui, who began by being very free and liberal, but was finally so impoverished that he was obliged to draw tribute from the provinces, for the expenses of his house. At last the people rose in rebellion, p. 90 and, seeing this, the Ynca dissimulated, so that the people became quiet and brought him all kinds of presents. They say that this Ynca ordered the prisons to be made outside the town, that he might not see the punishment of criminals. As he grew old he began to undertake conquests, and ordered dresses to be made with plumes, and purapuras of gold and silver, and of copper for the soldiers, to put on the breast and shoulders as a protection against arrows and spears; and he distributed these among his captains and soldiers.

 This Ynca's eldest son was named Uira-ccocha Ynca Yupanqui, whose mother was Mama Chuqui-checya, a native of Ayamarca, and great-great-grand-daughter of Tocay Ccapac. In the festival of his birth they represented plays called añay saoca, hayachuco, llama-llama hañamsi. The Ynca marched round Cuzco with his army, without making war upon any enemy. On his death he left the Ynca Uira-ccocha to succeed him.

 The Ynca Uira-ccocha was married to Mama Runtucay, a native of Anta, and at the marriage and coronation all the people assembled, and among them Chuchi-ccapac of the Hatun-Collas, who came in a litter with his guards and servants, and with his idol or huaca richly adorned; and he often disputed with the Ynca, saying:—


Cam Cuzco-Ccapac ñuca Colla-Ccapac hupyasumicusu rimasu amapirima ñuca collque tiya cam chuqui tiya. Cam Uiracochanpa-chayachi mucha. Nuca Ynti-mucha.2


 At last the Ynca, being affable and friendly, assented; for he is said to have been too gentle. His chief employment was the building of houses, and of the fortress on the Sacsahuaman, and to cultivate and plant quiscuar and molli trees; but he neglected all warlike pursuits. He had a natural p. 91 son named Ynca Urcu, to whom he renounced the kingdom during his life time. This Ynca Urcu undertook the conquest of Colla-suyu with a great army. Before setting out he sent a haughty demand for tribute, but all the tribes, which had not acknowledged him as their lord, refused compliance. Ynca Urcu then set out with a powerful army, and undertook the conquest without securing the loyalty of the intervening tribes. He passed through the country of the Caviñas, taking with him the statue of Manco-Ccapac, to secure good fortune for himself. But he was defeated and killed at Huana-calla, by the hand of Yamqui Pachacuti, the chief of Huayra-Cancha. Then the Hanco-allos and Chancas besieged the city of Cuzco, which roused the Ynca Uira-ccocha Yupanqui from his careless ease. He knew not what course to pursue, and applied to the Hanco-allos and Chancas. Eventually he came out to arrange a peace, to Yuncay-pampa. Then his legitimate son, named Ynca Yupanqui, whom his father detested, was afflicted at the sight of his capital encompassed by an enemy. His heart was emboldened and he took the road to Cuzco, but before he arrived at Callachaca, as he travelled along the road alone, he saw a very fair and beautiful youth on the top of a rock, who said: "O son, I promise, in the name of the Creator, on whom you have called in your troubles, that he has heard you, and will give you the victory over your enemies. Fight then without fear." He then disappeared, and the prince felt at once emboldened and capable of command. On reaching his palace, he cried out, saying:—"Cuzco Ccapac pac churacllay yana pahuay may pimcanqui." Then he entered the house of arms, and took out all the offensive and defensive weapons. At that juncture twenty Orejones arrived, his relations, sent by his father. He armed all the men and women and, entering the temple, he took the tupac-yauri3 and ccapac unancha,4 and unfurled the p. 92 standard of the Yncas. The city became a fortress, and the enemy commenced the attack, but the prince had forgotten the tupac-yauri. At the first encounter, the prince Ynca Yupanqui was knocked down by a stone from a sling, and remained half insensible. Then he heard a voice from heaven saying that he had not got the sceptre of tupac-yauri. So he went back to the temple and took the sceptre, and returned to the battle, encouraging the captains and soldiers to fight. Meanwhile an old Ynca, a near relation of the prince's father, named Tupac Ranchiri, who was a priest of the Ccuricancha, set some stones in a row, and fastened shields and clubs to them, so that they might look at a distance, like rows of soldiers sitting down. The prince, looking out for succour from his father Uira-ccocha Yupanqui Ynca, saw these rows from a distance, and cried out to the supposed soldiers to rise, as his men were on the point of yielding. The Chancas continued the attack with increased fury, and then the prince saw that the stones had become men, and they rose up and fought with desperate courage and skill, assaulting the Anco-allos and Chancas; so the prince gained a victory, and followed the enemy to Quizachilla, where he beheaded the chiefs of the hostile army, named Tomay-huaraca, Asto-huaraca, and Huasco-Tornay Rimac. He thus gained a great victory;5 and they say that a widow named Chanan Coricoca fought valiantly in the battle like a soldier. The prince sent presents of the heads of the Chancas and Anco-Allos to his father. But the Ynca Uira-ccocha Ynca Yupanqui was ashamed to return to Cuzco, and lived at Puna-marca until his death. The young prince Ynca Yupanqui assembled more troops, and followed the Anco-Allos and Chancas, overtaking them at the river Apurimac, where the flying enemy killed one of the bravest of the Ynca captains, named Vilcaquiri, by hurling a stone upon him. p. 93 He exclaimed to the prince, "Is it possible that I must die without having fought or gained any glory?" They hollowed out the trunk of a tree, and buried the body in the tree, and the fruit of that tree yields a medicine called villca, which is good for all heated and feverish humours.6

 The Ynca Yupanqui followed the enemy as far as Anda-huayllas; and, on his return to Cuzco, he undertook the conquest of Colla-suyu; and other provinces submitted peaceably. Among them was that of the famous chief Yamqui-Pachacuti, whom the prince thanked for the death of Ynca Urcu, his brother. And the prince took his name and added it to his own, which became Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui. He conquered all the land of the Colla-suyu, and invaded the provinces of the Chayas and Caravayas, where he destroyed a famous idol. He subdued the Chayas and Ollacheas, and, leaving a garrison in Ayapata,7 he returned to Cuzco. He next marched to the country of the Chancas with fifty thousand men; and at Vilcas-huaman he found seven huacas in the form of very great Curacas, black, and very ugly. They were called Ayssa-vilca, Pariacaca, Chinchacocha, Huallallu Chuquiracra; and two others of the Cañaris. The prince took them and sent them to Cuzco, to work at the Sacsahuaman fortress, and also afterwards to labour at the look-out towers on the sea-shore, at Chincha and Pachacamac. Then Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui conquered the provinces of the Angaraes, Chilqui-urpus, Rucanas, and Soras. He received news that the Huancas were preparing for war at Taya-cassa; so he encamped at Paucaray and Rumi-huasi, where he formed three armies, which were to invade the valley of Hatun-Huanca-Sausa simultaneously. They advanced from Paucaray, but the enemy p. 94 submitted, and brought in provisions, and presents of maidens. The Ynca was pleased at the peaceful submission of these people, and he promised to confirm their three Curacas in their lordships, conferring upon them the additional title of Apu; and he ordered one of them to be given shoes of gold. He then entered the valley of Sausa in pursuit of his enemy Anco-allo, passing by Tarma, Colla-pampa, Huanucu, and Huamalies, and Cassamarca, until he reached a province where the people feasted on their dead. He continued to advance until he came to the province of the Cañaris, which was full of sorcerers and huacas. Thence he marched to Huancavillca; but the Anco-allos entered the forests, leaving their idol behind them.8

 The Ynca Pachacuti obtained great sums of gold, silver, and umiña (emeralds); and he came to an island of the Yuncas, where there were many pearls called churup-mamam, and many more umiñas. Thence he marched to the country of Chimu, where was Chimu Ccapac, the chief of the Yuncas, who submitted and did all that was required of him. The Curaca of Cassamarca, named Pisar-Ccapac, did the same. The Ynca then marched along the coast to Rimac-yuncas, where he found many small villages, each with its huaca. Here he found Chuspi-huaca, and Puma-huaca, and a great devil called Aissa-villca. He then advanced, by Pachacamac, to Chincha, where he found another huaca and devil. Returning to Pachacamac, he rested there for some days. At that time there was hail and thunder, which terrified the Yuncas. The Ynca did not demand tribute here, as he had done in the other provinces.

 He then pursued his way without stopping, by Mama and Chaclla to Xauxa, and went thence to Huancavilca, where he found two natural springs flowing with chicha, at a time when an his soldiers were suffering from thirst. The p. 95 natives presented him with ychma (colour), and the Yauyus brought him gold and silver. He next came to Huamañin, near Villcas, where he had first seen the seven evil huacas. In Puma-cancha,9 a very hot place before coming to Villcas, his eldest legitimate son was born, named Amaru Yupanqui, and he rested there for some days. Here the news arrived of a miracle at Cuzco. A yauirca or amaru, a ferocious creature, half a league long and two brazas and a half wide, with ears, eye-teeth, and a beard, had come forth from the mountain of Pachatusan, and entered the lake of Quichuipay. Then two sacacas (comets) of fire came out of Ausancata, and went towards Arequipa; and another went towards some snowy mountains near Huamanca. They were described as animals with wings, ears, a tail, and four legs, with many spikes on their backs; and from a distance they appeared to be made of fire. So Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui set out for Cuzco, where he found that his father, Uiraccocha Ynca Yupanqui, was now very old and infirm.

 Then were celebrated the festivals of his return, and of the Ccapac Raymi of Pachayachachi, with great rejoicing. The Curacas and Mitmays of Caravaya brought a chuqui-chinchay, which is an animal of many colours, said to have been chief of the uturuncus.1 This Ynca caused all the deformed and idiotic persons to be employed in making clothes. He was very fortunate in arms. When his father died, the mourning was vicuña wool of a white colour; and the soldiers were ordered to carry the body of the old man, with his arms and insignia, through the city, singing a war-song and bearing their shields and clubs, their llaca-chuquis,2 chasca-chuquis, suruc-chuquis. The women came forth in another procession, with their hair shorn, and dressed in black, and their faces blackened, flogging themselves with p. 96 quichuas and coyas, secsec, sihuicas.3 They say that these women mourned for a whole week, and sought for the body of the dead Ynca.

 Afterwards Pachacuti undertook the conquest of the Cunti-suyus, and in the Collao he fell in with the Collas and Camanchacas, who are great sorcerers. Thence he marched to Arequipa, Chancha, and to the Chumpivillcas, and thence to Parina-cocha, returning to the city by the country of the Aymaraes, Chollques, and Papris. At that time they say that the Capacuyos sent a poor man with hultis (clay pots in which they keep llipta), who gave Pachacuti Ynca a blow on the head with the intention of killing him. The man was tortured, and confessed that he was a Caviña of the Quiquijanas, and that he had come to kill the Ynca at the request of the Capacuyos. So the Ynca ordered the province of the Caviñas to be laid waste; but they said that the fault was not theirs, but the Capacuyos, whose Curaca was Apu Calama Yanqui, and who numbered near 20,000 men, besides women and children. They were all put to death. They say that they tried to murder the Ynca, by advice of their huaca, Canacuay.4 Then the Yuca's second son was born, named Tupac Ynca Yupanqui; and the Ynca undertook the conquest of the Antisuyus with 100,000 men. But the huaca of Canacuay sent forth fire, and stopped the passage with a fierce serpent which destroyed many people. The Ynca raised his eyes to heaven and prayed for help with great sorrow, and a furious eagle descended, and, seizing the head of the serpent, raised it on high and then hurled it to the ground. In memory of this miracle the Ynca ordered a snake to be carved in stone on the wall of a terrace in this province, which was called Anca-pirca.

p. 97

 The Ynca returned to Cuzco, and he was very old. News came that a ship had been seen on the sea; and after another year a youth entered the city with a great book which he gave to the old Ynca and then disappeared. The Ynca fasted for six months in Tococachi without ceasing. Afterwards the Ynca Pachacuti resigned the kingdom to his son Amaru Tupac Ynca, who would not accept it, but devoted his time to farming and building. Seeing this, Pachacuti transferred the succession to his second son, Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, whom all the tribes joyfully acknowledged. So he was crowned, and the sceptre called Tupac-yauri was delivered to him. He ordered that the soldiers of all the tribes should assemble in Cuzco, for he had heard that there was a rebellion in Quito. He marched to conquer the rebels with twenty thousand men; and another twelve thousand with their wives as garrisons and mitimaes.5 He ordered the troops to join him from all parts, he punished the rebels, removed them from their native land to other parts, and divided the spoils among his soldiers. He distributed rich dresses of cumpis and puracahuas of plumes, shields, pura-puras of gold and silver; and to the officers shirts of gold and silver, and diadems called huacra-chucu.6 Thus he arrived at Quito, always gaining the victory, and afterwards he returned to Tumipampa, after leaving mitimaes in Cayambis; but he did not punish the natives because they made very humble excuses and were pardoned.

 In those days there was a great famine which lasted for seven years, and during that time the seed produced no fruit. Many died of hunger, and it is even said that some ate their own children. The Ynca was then living at Tumipampa. They say that Amaru Tupac Ynca, during those seven years of famine, obtained large harvests from p. 98 his farms at Calla-chaca and Lucrioc-chullo, that the dews always descended upon them at night, and that frost never visited them, insomuch that the people would have worshipped him by reason of the miracle; but Amaru Tupac would not consent to this insult to the Creator. He rather humbled himself, feeding the poor during the seven years of famine. For his disposition was to be humble and meek to all. He had filled the collcas or granaries with food many months before. His descendants were the Ccapac-Ayllu. At that time Huayna Ccapac Ynca was born in Tumipampa, a town of the Cañaris, his father being Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, and his mother Coya Mama Anahuarqui. The Ynca built the great palace of Tumipampa-Pachacamac; and all the sorcerers were pardoned in honour of the prince's birth, at the intercession of his mother, they having been condemned to death. For the Ynca Tupac Yupanqui had always been a great executor of justice upon llaycas and umus, and a destroyer of huacas, but not for this did they cease to increase in number.

 Eventually the Ynca returned to Cuzco, sending a captain in advance, named Arequi Ruca, with twelve thousand men, by the coast road, that he might visit the provinces and punish all rebels. The Ynca went direct to Cuzco, taking with him Cayambis, Cañaris, and Chachapuyas as labourers. He also took many girls of the Quitus, Quilacus, Quillasencas, Chachapuyas, Yuncas, Huayllas, and Huancas, as chosen maidens for Ticci Ccapac Uiracochan Pachacya-chachi, called Yurac-aclla, Huayra-aclla, Paco-aclla, and Yana-aclla;7 and much wealth of gold and silver and precious stones, and plumes of feathers. He then ordered that all the provinces from Quitu to Cuzco should make farms and collcas or granaries, roads and bridges and tampus;8 that there should be acllas,9 in all the provinces, p. 99 officers of cumpis,1 smiths, Paucar-camayoc, Pillcu-camayoc,2 and garrisons of soldiers for the security of the land, and hampi-camayoc.3 The Ynca also gave orders that every village should supply food for the poor.

 When the Ynca approached Cuzco, where Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui had remained with thirty thousand men of war, the old man came out to meet him as far as Villca-cunca, with his chiefs or Apu Curacas, in litters; and the two armies made a most brilliant appearance with their gold and silver and rich plumes. The two forces imitated skirmishes, and the good old man, from joy at seeing his son and grandson, made his son a general, and his grandson master of the camp. He then sent half his army with Uturuncu achachi4 and caçir ccapac (this caçir ccapac means a vice-general or viceroy), and with all the Apu Curacas, that they might all be in order of battle on the Sacsahuaman fortress, to defend the city; that his grandson, Huayna Ccapac, might have a battle with fifty thousand men all armed with gold and silver. This was done by way of a representation or comedy, and those in the fortress were conquered, who were Cayambis and Pastus, and their heads were cut off (which was done by anointing them with the blood of llamas) and put upon lances. Then there was a triumphal march, with the haylli,5 to the Ccuricancha, where they offered up their prayers to the simple image of the Creator. Then the captains came forth by the other door to the square of Huacay-pata-Cusi-pata, with the song of the quichu, and the Curacas sat on their tiyanas6 in their order. Here also sat Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui, with his sons Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, and Amaru Tupac Ynca, all on p. 100 equal tiyanas made of gold, all richly dressed with their ccapac-llautus,7 and the old man held the golden sceptre of tupac yauri, while his sons only had champis8 of gold.

 But the administration of the empire was left to Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, and his child Huayna Ccapac remained in the Ccuri-cancha without coming forth during that year. The festival of Ccapac Raymi was kept with great solemnity by the three ministers of the temple of Ccuricancha, Apu-Rimac, and Auqui-Challcu-Yupanqui, and Apu-cama; who called the Ynca their son, and his house was on the site of the present convent of San Agustin.

 At this time the old Pachacuti Yupanqui died, seeming to fall asleep, without feeling any pain, at whose death there was much mourning, and food, wool, and clothing were distributed among the poor, throughout the kingdom, and many old captains were buried with him, together with all his pages, whom, it was said, he would require for his service in the other life. They made them drunk before they were put to death. They say that this Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui had great store of gold and silver, which was kept in a vault, divided into three chambers, in the valley of Pisac. The body of Pachacuti was placed in the house of the dead bodies of the other Yncas and their wives, where they are embalmed and arranged in their order, each in its recess.

 On his death the provinces of the Puquinas and Collas rebelled, from Villcañota to Chacamarca, with all the Urco-suyus of Achacache, Huancane, Asillu, and Asancaru, and they made their fortress in Llallahua Pucara with two hundred thousand men; but as this fortress could not contain them all, those who had least courage went into two other strongholds in the province. So Tupac Ynca Yupanqui assembled an army to attack them; and the Hanan-Quichuas and Hurin-Quichuas, confident in their prowess, p. 101 petitioned to be allowed to march against the enemy. At last the Ynca yielded to their importunity, and a very powerful army of twelve thousand Quichuas marched from Cuzco, full of confidence, well armed, taking with them a huaca, or idol.

 They began to fight in Huarmi-Pucara9 with the women of the Quillacas, and the Quichuas were defeated. They retired to the principal fortress of Llahua-pucara, where they were besieged by the Collas and entirely cut to pieces. One man escaped, and brought the news to Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, who mourned for the flower of his army. Then he set out himself from Cuzco with one hundred and twenty thousand men, and marched against the Collas, laying siege to the said fortress of Llallahua-pucara. This siege lasted for three years. Then the Collas offered up sacrifices to the sun, of children and cuis,1 and from the air there was an encouraging answer to their Tayta2 (Tayta means a minister of the huacas). Then they waged war upon the Ynca without any fear; but it fell out very differently from what they expected, for the Ynca attacked these Collas with renewed fury, and there was much bloodshed. Next day the Collas, to strike terror among the troops of the Ynca, began to sing and beat drums, after which there was another battle without any decisive result. On the third day the Ynca and his captains renewed the assault at sunrise and drove back the Collas. Then Chuchi-Ccapac and his chiefs escaped to the province of the Lupacas dressed as women. They were brought before the Ynca in the town of Cac-yaviri, with the huaca of Ynti and other huacas. Tupac Ynca Yupanqui ordered the chiefs and the huacas to be placed in the centre of their army of one hundred thousand men, where they were insulted, and, to increase the affront, he sent for the huyachucos, suyuntus,3 llama-llamas, and chuñires p. 102 to trample upon them, and eventually they were thrown into the lake of Urcos, while the Collas were brought in triumph to Cuzco. In memory of these cruel wars of the Collas, the Ynca ordered two darts of gold and siver to be placed in Villcañota, and he left mitimaes and garrisons of loyal men for the security of the conquered provinces.

 The Ynca then assembled 200,000 men to undertake a new conquest in the Andes, naming Uturuncu Achachi as general of the army, and Ccapac Huari, Poqui-llacta, and others of the Chillquis, Papris, and Canas, as officers. These did good service in the conquest of the provinces of Mana-resu and Upatari, as far as the confines of Huancavillca on one side, and to Caravaya on the other, where they met with a province inhabited entirely by women, called Huarmi-auca.4 They then crossed a river of great volume; but at first, as no man could pass over, some audacious monkeys, belonging to a chief of the Manares, went across, and secured ropes and cables after overcoming great difficulties. This province is called the Golden, and in it they found a great and rich land called Escay-oya,5 with a very warlike race of people who were said to be cannibals; and they make such deadly poison, that it would seem they have a pact with the devil. They fought two desperate battles, and in the third they were defeated by the soldiers of the Ynca, not because they were less brave, but by superiority of arms and discipline. They say that while these new provinces were being numbered, and while arrangements were being made for leaving garrisons, news came that Tupac Ynca Yupanqui had banished a captain to a province of the Chirihuanas.6 The captain, Apu Quillacta, proclaimed this news to his people, and they returned to their own land, leaving the Ynca army with the general, Uturuncu Achachi. This was the reason that the Escay-oyas, and Upataxis, and Manares p. 103 again took up arms, for the forces of Uturuncu Achachi were reduced; and he returned to Cuzco, abandoning the conquests made by the labours of three armies and at great cost of lives. If this had not happened these provinces would now be subject to the crown of Spain, and their inhabitants would have been Christians; but our Lord knows it, and has reserved this good work for another time.

 In those days the Ynca sent Caçir Ccapac as visitor-general to the land, giving his commission in lines on a painted stick; and before his departure Colla-chahuay, the Curaca of Tarma, in Chinchaysuyu, was sent to travel through the country, and eat and drink with all the Curacas, for this Collcachahuay was the greatest eater and drinker that God had created in those parts.

 The Ynca was in the fortress of Sacsahuaman with all his officers when Apu-Quillacta and his twelve thousand men of Colla-suyu returned, and complained of the ill-treatment of the exiles. The Ynca excused himself, saying that he knew nothing of it. Then news came that the Chillis were assembling warriors to attack the Ynca, and he sent a captain against them with twenty thousand men, and twenty thousand of the Huarmi-aucas. The two commanders marched as far as the Coquimpus, Chillis, and Tucumans, who were easily subdued, and a great quantity of very fine gold was brought back to Cuzco. When the Ynca received this large quantity of gold, he ordered plates of it to be made to cover the walls of the Ccuricancha. In the feast of Ccapac-Raymi it was the usual custom of the Ynca to invite all the people of Ttahuantin-auyu to drink in their order. The Curacas and common people murmured that there was stint in the liquor; and when this came to the ear of the Ynca, he ordered enormous querus7 for the ensuing year, when portentously large querus were given three times in the day.

p. 104

 At this time there came from the Andes of Upatari three huudred Antis laden with gold in dust and tubes, and at the moment of their arrival it began to freeze, and all the crops were frozen to the roots. So, by advice of the old councillors, the Yncar ordered the three hundred men to carry their loads of gold to Pachatusun, a very high hill, and there to have them buried. So the unfortunates were killed and buried as a welcome.

 The Ynca died, being very old, as well as his brother Amaru Tupac Ynca, who had attained a great age. Both the brothers died in the same year, leaving Huayna Ccapac Ynca as their heir, and Apu Hualpaya as governor, for the heir was of tender age. They mourned for the Ynca as they had done for Pachacuti, forming two armies, one of men and the other of women, and they buried many yanas,8 pachacas,9 women, and servants, who were beloved by the Ynca. The barbarous captains thought that their Ynca would require to be served in the next world by these people. They say that this governor and coadjutor intended to raise himself to be ruler of Ttahuantin-suyu, and that he ordered troops to be secretly assembled from all parts for a given day. They say that this governor began to worship the sun and moon and thunder; and Huayna Ccapac, being a young child, also adored them, and all things that were put into the Ccuricancha by his ancestors, supposing that they were put there to be worshipped. And they say that the governor assigned estates for these false gods, and that some evil disposed Curacas executed his orders with alacrity.

 This Hualpaya was now ready to rebel without the knowledge of the provinces; and one night a bastard uncle of Huayna Ccapac was lying half awake and half asleep, very early in the morning, when he saw troops headed by Hualpaya surrounding the city, and pointing their arrows at the p. 105 child Huayna Ccapac. This was a dream; but the uncle jumped up as if it had been true, went to the house of Cuys Manco, and assembled all the councillors. The governor entered the chamber where twelve grave councillors were assembled, and asked the cause. The uncle had told them his dream, and they made him repeat it three times. Then one ordered the friends of the governor to be seized, another that fifty men should watch the roads and see if anything unusual was on foot; and finally, the most trusted favourite of Apu Hualpaya confessed that many Indians laden with coca were on the roads, with their arms concealed, ready to rebel. Then the governor, with his numerous followers, could not be seized by the councillors; so they assembled five hundred of the most loyal and faithful of the councillors of Ttahuantin-suyu, who were sworn to defend the royal house, and he took the ccapac-uancha, or standard of the Yncas, out of the temple, and went to the governor, taking the infant Huayna Ccapac with them. Hualpaya was well armed, and on the point of coming forth with many captains, but he was seized with his followers and his head was cut off, and those who came from the provinces to help him were flogged. Then the councillors continued to rule the whole realm without a governor.

 After three years they began to prepare for the feast of the coronation; and they assigned as the wife of Huayna Ccapac his own sister Ccoya Mama Cusirimay, according to the custom of his ancestors. They were married on the day of the coronation, when all the walls and roofs in the city were covered with rich plumes of feathers, and the streets were paved with golden pebbles. The people were gorgeously dressed in cumpis and plumes. The Ynca came forth from the house of his grandfather Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui, followed by all the Apu Curacas of Colla-suyu and councillors; while Mama Cusirimay came out of the p. 106 palace of Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, attended upon by the Apu Curacas of Chinchay-suyu, Cunti-suyu, and Anti-suyu, with all their Auqui-cuna1 according to their rank. They were in litters, and Huayna Ccapac did not hold the tupac-yauri, but only the champi. Many attendants of less note surrounded him, all dressed in shining churus2 and mother-of-pearl, and well armed with their purupuras3 and chipanas4 of silver. They say that fifty thousand men guarded the city and the fortress of Sacsahuaman, and that the festival was a wonderful sight.

 The Ynca and his spouse then entered the temple, each by a separate door, the temple being that of the Creator Pachayachachi.5 This is the name given by these heathens, and the High Priest was called Apu Challcu Yupanqui. The sovereign and his wife were shod in llanques of gold; and afterwards they gave him the chipana of gold and raised him to the platform whence he performed these ceremonies, where he said a prayer in a loud voice, which concluded the proceedings of that day, and they were considered to be married. Afterwards they delivered to him the tupac-yauri6 and the suntur-paucar,7 after three days, and the ccapac-llautu8 and the unincha9 in the same place where they were married, and in continuation of the same ceremony. They also delivered to him the ccapac-unancha1a or royal standard to be carried before him, and the huaman-champi2a of two edges, with the shields or huallcancas,3a uracahuas, and uma-chucus.4a The Ynca took an oath and touched the ground, promising to emulate the deeds of his forefathers, and to attend to the things of Pachayachachi and his Ccuri-cancha, p. 107 and to do no evil to the kingdom of Ttahuantin-suyu, keeping the laws of former Yncas, and favouring all loyal servants. Then the Apu Challca Yupanqui said a prayer to the Creator, beseeching him to guard and protect the Ynca with his powerful hand, and to defend him from his enemies. Those present then shouted out their acclamations. Then they all praised the Creator called Pachaya-chachi Uiracochan. Then the Ynca went to the Huacay-pata, where was his ccapac-usnu,5 as in Villcas, and there each chief, and captain, in his order, promised obedience to the new sovereign.

 They say that the disposition of Huayna Ccapac was very affable and knightly, and that Ccoya Mama Cusirimay was beautiful. But before he married, Huayna Ccapac had a son named Ynti Tupac Cusi Hualpa, whose mother was Rahua Ocllo; and he was also the father, by a princess named Tocto Ocllo Cuca, of another son named Tupac Atahualpa. Then the Ynca had a son by his wife named Ninancuyochi, whose mother, the Ccoya, died soon afterwards. Then Huayna Ccapac Ynca wished to marry his second sister, named Mama Cuca, who refused her consent, and he then ill-treated her and began to use force, but her prayers and menaces made him desist. Then he went with presents and offerings to the body of his father, praying him to give her for his wife, but the dead body gave no answer, while fearful signs appeared in the heavens, portending blood. This was called Ccalla-sana.6 This made Huayna Ccapac give up his intention in regard to his sister, so he gave her to a very old and ugly Curaca who was a great chewer of coca; and he did this, not for her good, but in order to bring shame upon her. She wept; and leaving the old man, whose name was Hacaroca, she entered the p. 108 house of the Acllas as a princess, and became abbess, never having submitted to the old man. The Ynca Huayna Ccapac was then married a second time, but not with such ceremonies as on his union with his first wife, to Ccoya Chimpu Runtucay.

 Then he set out for the provinces of Colla-suyu, to order the assembly of an army to march to Quito. On the road his second wife bore a son, named Manco Ynca Yupanqui, and they went through all the land, and the chiefs and army assembled at Puma-cancha to march against Quito and the Cayambis, for every day news came that these provinces had rebelled. Then the Ynca distributed clothes and arms and provisions to the soldiers, and the chiefs took oaths, and the army prepared for the war. The Ynca named Mihicnaca Mayta as general of the army, and as generals of the four provinces he nominated four of the oldest and most experienced chiefs.

 The festival of Ccapac Raymi was celebrated in Villcas, where there was another plate of gold. Here the chiefs remembered that they had forgotten the statute of Huayna Ccapac, and the Ynca, consenting to their wishes, sent for it. In those days messengers came from Rimac, bringing word that, within the Ccuricancha of Pachacamac (the Ccuricancha was a temple, and there were many in different parts, the largest being in Cuzco), the huaca had said that it desired to see the Ynca. So he went to visit Pachamac, and the huaca spoke to him alone, saying that he must take riches to Chimu, and honour him more than Uiracochan Pachayachachi. The Ynca consented, and the wizards rejoiced. The army reached the town of Tumipampa, where the Ynca ordered water to be brought from a river by boring through a mountain, and making the channel enter the city by curves in this way.7

 Half the army was employed in building the edifices for a p. 109 Ccuricancha, a wonderful work. Then the Ynca departed with his army, numbering a million and a half of men, and came to Picchuya Sicchupuruhuay. All the inhabitants with the Cayambis, Quillisencas, and Quillacus, fled to fortresses to defend themselves against the Ynca. The two

armies then began to fight, and much blood was shed. The Colla-suyu troops had been ordered to take the enemy in the rear, but meanwhile the Cayambis did great injury to the royal camp, and discovered that the Colla-suyus were marching very leisurely. So they fell upon them furiously, and caused great slaughter, so that few escaped in the fine and powerful army of Colla-suyu. The Ynca felt this misfortune deeply, for the general of Colla-suyu was one of his wisest councillors. But the Ynca was to blame for having confided in the promises of the huaca at Pachacamac and other idols. His men were now left starved and in rags, while the war became more fierce than ever. At last the Ynca sent to Cuzco for reinforcements; but news came that the Chirihuanus had invaded his territory, which caused him fresh anxiety. He despatched his most experienced captains for the conquest of the Chirihuanus, with 20,000 men of the Chinchay-suyus. Thus his army was reduced to 100,000 men, and with this he continued the war. He sent the Colla-suyu troops over the mountains to attack the fortress of the Cayambis, while the Chinchay-suyus marched by the plains. The Ynca himself advanced by the direct p. 110 road. They fought more furiously than ever, and the Colla-suyus climbed to the fortresses of the Cayambis and attacked them fiercely, sparing neither age nor sex. The Ynca also fought in person, attended by the Mayus, Sancus, and Quillis-cachis. The enemies were worn out with fatigue; but next day the battle was renewed, and the Colla-suyus and Chinchay-suyus again attacked the fortresses, which were steep rocks. The enemy began to fly to another place, and the Ynca ordered his army to rest for that day. The enemy took refuge in a stronger fortress, and reinforcements joined the Ynca's army from Cuzco. The Cayambis fled to the montañas of Otabala,8 and assembled on the shores of a lake, where they were surrounded, and there was great slaughter. The warriors washed their arms in the lake, and there was a mass of blood in the centre, so the lake was called Yahuar-ccocha.9

 Then the Ynca went to Quito to rest, and to establish his government and laws. He then advanced beyond Pasto, but returned to Quito, where he solemnized the Ccapac-Raymi. At the hour for eating a messenger arrived in a black mantle, who reverently kissed the Ynca, and gave him a pputi1 covered up. The Ynca told the messenger to open it, but he excused himself, saying, that the command of the Creator was that the Ynca alone should do so. So the Ynca opened it, and there came flying out a quantity of things like butterflies or bits of paper, which spread abroad until they disappeared. This was the pestilence of Saram-pion (?), and in a few days the general Mihcnaca Mayta died, with many other captains, their faces being covered with scabs. When the Ynca saw this, he ordered a house to be built of stone, in which he hid himself, and there died. After eight days they took out the body quite dried up, and p. 111 embalmed it, and took it to Cuzco on a litter, richly dressed and armed as if it had been alive.

 A son, named Tupac Atahualpa, was left in Quito, and many chiefs and captains, called Quis-quis, Challcuchima, Unacchuyllu, Rumi-ñaui, Ucumari, and many more.

 The body of Huayna Ccapac was conveyed to Cuzco with much ceremony, and the people made obeisances to it. After it was deposited with the other bodies of the Yncas, there was general mourning for his death. Then Yuti Tupac Cusi Huallpa Huascar Ynca made his mother, Rava Ocllo, marry the dead body, in order that he might become legitimate, and the ministers of the temple performed the ceremony out of fear. Thus Tupac Cusi Huallpa took the title of legitimate son of Huayna Ccapac, and called upon all the chiefs of Ttahuantin-sayu to swear obedience to him, which was done. He then prepared for his coronation, and induced the great Curacas to ask the ministers of Ccuri-cancha to deliver to him the ccapac llautu, suntur-paucar, tupac-yauri, and ccapac-uncu. Great preparations were made for the coronation, and there was a distribution of rich dresses, plumes, and arms, which was merely done to gain over the chiefs. At the end of a year he received the ccapac-llautu, with the name of Yuti Cusi Huallpa Huascar Ynca.2 He married his sisters, named Chuqui-huy-pachu-quipa, and Ccoya Mama Chuqui huypa chuquipa.

 Afterwards Tupac Cusi Huallpa took 1200 Chachapuyas and Cañaris for the servants of the palace, and dismissed p. 112 those of his father. He also began to punish his father's captains with death because they had left Tupac Atahuallpa and the other captains in Quito. Then he marched into the provinces of Colla-suyu, and came to Titicaca, where he ordered a golden image of the sun to be set up. He worshipped it as Uiracocha Ynti, thus adding the name of Ynti. On his return to Cuzco he came to Pocana-cancha, where he found all the Apu Curacas coming in their litters according to the privilege granted by former Yncas, and Huascar Ynca laughed at this, although he did not take away the privilege. In this place he ordered the Acllas, of all four classes, to be brought into the open square, in the middle of all the Apu Curacas and the whole army. Then he told a hundred Indians of the Llamallamas and Hayacuchos, while they were performing their dances, to seize the damsels and ravish them in public. The damsels, when they were thus treated, cried out and raised their eyes to heaven; and all the great men of the kingdom resented such conduct, and looked upon this Huascar Ynca as half a fool, and only treated him with reverence from fear.

 At that time Tupac Atahuallpa sent to Huascar Ynca, beseeching him to give him the title and nomination of Governor of the Provinces of Quito, and the Ynca Huascar granted the request, and gave him the name of Ynca-ranti.3 Then the chief of the Cañaris, named Urco-calla, brought false news to Huascar Ynca, asking him why he consented that Tupac Atahuallpa should have the title of Ynca. This enraged the Ynca, and when Tupac Atahuallpa sent him rich presents he caused them to be burnt, and drums to be made of the skins of the messengers who brought them, except a few, whom he sent back to Quito dressed as women, and with very shameful messages to Auqui Atahuallpa. They were followed by a chief named Huaminca-atoc, whom p. 113 the Ynca sent against Atahuallpa with 1200 men, and orders to take him and the other captains prisoners. This captain rested at Tumipampa. Meanwhile the surviving messengers arrived at Quito, and reported what had happened to Auqui Tupac Atahuallpa, who received the news in great sorrow, but in silence. Then he sent to the captain Huaminca-atoc, asking him to declare for what purpose he had come with an army; and the captain replied that he would answer by his deeds. Then Auqui Atahuallpa, with the consent of all his captains, determined to take up arms, and the people of Quito swore to obey him. He assumed the title of Ynca, and began to use a litter, and assembled 13,000 warriors. After a few days the captain Atoc reached Mullu Hampatu,4 near Quito, and Atahuallpa came out against him. There was a battle, in which Atahuallpa was defeated, and all the Mitimaes5 were terrified. But he resolved to attempt further resistance. So he appointed Challcuchima to be general, and Quis-quis to be master of the camp, who defeated and captured the captain Atoc and put out his eyes. When Huascar Ynca heard the news of the disaster he was transported with greater rage, and sent his brother Huanca Auqui, with 12,000 men, to attack Atahuallpa. He was ordered to increase his army on the road; and he advanced to Tumipampa, and thence to Quito. Atahuallpa came out with 16,000 men. In the first battle Huanca Auqui ordered a retreat to Yana-yacu, where both sides fought valiantly, and again at Tumipampa; but Huanca Auqui was defeated between the country of the Cañaris and Chachapuyas. Atahuallpa returned to Quito, punishing the Cañaris with great cruelty. Thus the army of Huanca Auqui was defeated in four battles. Challcuchima remained at Tumipampa, Atahuallpa returned to Quito, and Huanca Auqui conquered the province of the Pacllas of Chachapuya, in the name of Huascar Ynca. He fought the p. 114 enemy between Chachapuya and Caxamarca, and was again defeated, retreating to Huanuco. After many challenges, the two armies met once more at Bombon, each with 100,000 men. After having been arrayed for the encounter, the soldiers on both sides ate and drank. The battle lasted for three days, and on the last day Quis-quis and Challcu-chima, the captains of Atahuallpa, were victorious, 20,000 having fallen. Huanca Auqui, now almost despairing, retreated to Xanxa, where he met another fine army which had been sent from Cuzco to reinforce him; and the captain who commanded angrily reprehended Huanca Auqui. The defeated general had drinking bouts with his uncles in the valley of Xauxa, and sent thence to the huaca at Pacha-camac for help, and received a hopeful reply.

 So Huanca Auqui ordered all the Huancas, Yauyus, and Aymaras to come to the defence of Huascar Ynca, and thus he assembled 200,000 men. The army of Quis-quis entered the valley of Xauxa, where he rested for some days and sent to Quito for reinforcements. He also sent to the huaca at Pachacamac, which replied that he would gain the victory. At the same time Huascar sent for a true answer, and the huaca promised him the victory. He must take heart and assemble all his power, and that then he would conquer. Then Huascar Ynca sent to all the huacas and idols in the land, and they all promised that he should gain a victory in Villcas. He likewise ordered all the layccus, umus, canchus, vallavicas, contivicas, canavicas, auzcovicas, to come and offer up sacrifices and to divine; and they foretold that the enemy would not advance beyond Ancoyacu, and that Huascar would gain the victory.

 At that time a captain from Cuzco, with 12,000 men, offered battle to the enemy on the river of Ancoyacu, and Huanca Auqui refused to send him any help; yet he detained them for a month; but at last he was defeated, and all his men were destroyed. This news reached Huascar p. 115 when he was engaged in the mucha6 of the huacas. There were forty huacas assembled, and the Ynca began to abuse them with many insulting words, saying:—


Llulla vatica hauchha auca supay, chiquiy manta pallcaymantam chirmayñaymantam camcam Cuzco capacpa aucan-cunacta muchar-cayque callpaays ayran callpari cuyhuan aspacay niyhuan runa arpay ñiy huan camcam hillusu huaccunacatacay chapas camcam acoycunacataca runa huallpaquiypa hahocha aucana catamuscampas canquichic, chicallatac hinallatac mitaysanay villcaycunapas camcuna huaca rimachun camca cunactam, ari tonapa tarapaca Uiracochan Pachayachip yanan ñiscaca chienisus canqui.


 Saying this he took an oath, shaking his mantle and kissing a little earth; and from that time he became an enemy of the huacas, idols, and sorcerers. Then he sent messengers throughout the realm of Ttahuantin-suyu to summon his vassals, as far as Chile, Coquimbo, Chirihuana, the Andes of Caravaya, the country of the Hatun-runas, who were giants; and in a few days a countless multitude assembled. The news soon arrived that Quis-quis and Challcuchima were encamped in Villcas-huaman, and the Ynca sent orders to Huanca Auqui to attack them; but he sustained another defeat, and the enemy advanced to Andahuaylas. Then Huascar Ynca Ynti Cusi Huallpa sent his three millions of men of war to try what Quis-quis and Challcuchima were made of. The enemy had at least a million and a half of men, and the captains alone numbered fifteen hundred; but the army of Huascar contained double the number.

 Huanca Auqui, on coming to Curampa, left a million of men at Huancarama and Cocha-cassa to keep the enemy in check, while he went to Cuzco to report to the Ynca the reasons of his reverses; and the two princes made a brotherly reconciliation. Then the Ynca set out from Cuzco, taking all the Apu-Curacas and Auquis, and the p. 116 chiefs called Mancop-churin-cuzco, who are knights, and the Ayllun-cuzcos as body-guards; and as a vanguard he had the Quehuars and those of Colla-suyu, the Tambos, Mascas, Chillquis, Papris, Quichuas, Mayus, Sancus, Quillis-cachis; and as supports came the Chachapuyas and Cañaris. All were in good order, and so the Ynca Huascar reached Utcu-pampa surrounded by an imperial pomp and majesty never before seen. Each tribe, with its general, was in battle array from Ollanta-tambo to beyond Huaca-chaca. The enemy extended from Chuntay-cassa to the river of Pollcaro; and thus the plains were covered with the men of both armies.

 On that day the two armies were formed ready for battle, and the Ynca Huascar ascended a high hill near the Apuri-mac, and beheld, with feelings of pleasure, the people covering the land like flour; and all the hills, huayccus,7 and plains glistening with the gold and silver and bright-coloured plumes of the warriors, so that there was no spot unoccupied for twelve leagues by six or seven. Each nation and province had its war songs and musical instruments. On the next day Huascar Ynca sent messengers to order each company to make the assault with all possible fury, and the battle then began. They continued to fight from dawn until dark, and they say that twenty thousand men were killed. Next day they began again after breakfast, and a most fierce battle raged until sunset. On the third day it was again renewed, and at the hour for eating both armies were nearly worn out, and they rested, and all the plains were covered with dead bodies, and well irrigated with blood. On the fourth day they began again with still greater fury; and Quis-quis and Challcuchima, the captains of Atahuallpa Ynca, retreated to three high hills with only half a million of men. Here they entrenched themselves, and at dawn next day the men of Colla-suyu attacked them fiercely, p. 117 while the Ynca ordered the hills to be surrounded and assaulted on all sides. Then Quis-quis and Challcuchima, having lost many men, collected the survivors and retreated to the highest of the three hills, which was covered with grass, with groves of trees at the base. An Indian of the Canas suggested that the trees and grass should be set on fire, and the Ynca gave the necessary orders. A high wind arose and burnt the men of Chincha-suyu, while the troops of the Ynca killed them like flies in honey. Challcuchima and Quis-quis escaped with only two thousand three hundred men. They say that rivers of blood flowed from the battle field, which was covered with dead bodies.

 The two captains, with their surviving followers, fled under cover of the night, and Huascar Ynca ordered his troops not to continue the pursuit until the following day; but, by that time, Quis-quis and Challcuchima had reached the hill of Cochacassa, ten leagues from the battle field, with only seven hundred men.

 At midnight Challcuchima and Quis-quis lighted a fire on their left hands with a piece of grease; putting one lump of grease to represent the camp of Huascar Ynca, and the other for the camp of Atahuallpa. And the one in the place of Huascar Ynca burnt much more than that in the place of Atahuallpa, so that the grease of Huascar, burning up so high, went out very quickly, while that of Atahuallpa went on burning. Then Challcuchima and Quis-quis sang the haylli, and told their men that all would go well. They set out for Utcu-pampa in search of Huascar Ynca, and got there at sunset with six hundred and forty men, when the Ynca was asleep, and took him prisoner, routing the Rucanas8 who were his bearers, and so they carried him to Sallcantay. When the army found that Huascar Ynca was taken they were terrified, and each tribe went off to its own land. As soon as Quis-quis and Challcuchima p. 118 had got possession of the body of Ynca Huascar, they desired nothing more. They did not enter the city, but posted their men at Quepay-pampa, whence they sent orders to all the Apu-curacas and Auquis to come to them, with the mother of Huascar, the general Huanca Auqui, and his captains.

 They insulted the Ynca by tying a rope round his neck, and Quis-quis called him Cocahacho and Sulluya, which means bastard, eater of coca, and offered him many other affronts. Then Quis-quis and Challcuchima abused the mother of the Ynca, saying: "Come here, Mama Ocllo, you who were the concubine of Huayna Ccapac." When Huascar heard this, he asked them who they were that they should pass judgment on his descent; upon which Quis-quis struck him, and gave him chillca leaves instead of coca. When he was thus outraged, Huascar raised his eyes, and cried out: "O Lord and Creator, how is it possible? Why hast thou sent me these burdens and troubles." In those days Quis-quis ordered all the children of Huascar Ynca to be slain, and all his servants, up to fifteen hundred persons, who were within the palace of Puca-marca.9

 Huascar Ynca, his wife and mother, and two children, with Huanca Auqui and the chief officers and councillors of the Ynca, were sent with a guard of a hundred men to Atahuallpa. But in a few days the news arrived that the Spaniards had landed, and there was great dismay. By the advice of Quis-quis great riches were buried in the earth; and it is also said that Huascar had previously ordered a chain of gold and three thousand loads of gold, with as many of silver, to be concealed in Cunti-suyu. They also hid all the cumpis and rich dresses of gold. One named Barco and Candia arrived at Cuzco without meeting Huascar Ynca, and Challcuchima was seized on the way to Caxamarca. Francisco Pizarro captured Atahuallpa in the p. 119 midst of a vast concourse of Indians, after he had spoken with the friar Vicente de Valverde, when twelve thousand men were killed. For the people thought that they were the messengers of Pachayachachic Uiracocha; and when they fired off their guns, it was supposed to be Uiracocha.

 When Atahuallpa was in prison the cock crowed, und he said that even the birds knew his name. From that time they called the Spaniards Uiracocha, because they declared to Atahuallpa that they brought the law of God. Hence they called the Spaniards Uiracocha, and the cock Atahuallpa. This Atahuallpa sent messages to Antamarca with orders that Huascar should be killed; and after he had sent them he began to pretend to be sad, trying to deceive the captain, Francisco Pizarro. So, by orders of Atahuallpa, they killed Huascar Ynca in Antamarca, with his son, wife, and mother, with great cruelty, and the Marquis knew all this through the complaints of the Curacas. Atahuallpa was baptized and called Don Francisco, and afterwards he was put to death as a traitor. Then the captain, Francisco Pizarro, accompanied by the friar Vicente, set out for Cuzco, taking with him a bastard son of Huayna Ccapac as Ynca, who died in the valley of Xauxa. The captain Francisco Pizarro reached the bridge of the Apurimac with sixty or seventy men, where he was met by Manco Ynca Yupanqui, with all the Curacas, who had come to offer obedience and become Christians. On reaching Villca-cunca, these Curacas, out of pure joy and satisfaction, began to make skirmishes. At Sacsahuana, on the following day, the friar Vicente, with the captain Francisco Pizarro, said to Manco Ynca Yupanqui that they wished to see the dresses of Huayna Ccapac Ynca, his father. He showed them, and they said they must see richer dresses, and the same Pizarro put them on him in the name of the Emperor. Then they all set out for Cuzco, with Manco Ynca Yupanqui borne in a litter.

p. 120

 In passing the village of Anta they came upon Quis-quis, the tyrant captain of Atahuallpa. Then they all entered Cuzco with great pomp and majesty, and the marquis, with his grey hairs and long beard, represented the Emperor Charles V, while the friar Vicente, in his robes, personified his holiness the Pope. The Ynca, in his litter lined with rich plumes of feathers, his sumptuous clothes, the suntur-paucar in his hand, and the royal insignia of the ccapac unancha, was greeted with great joy by the people. The friar Vicente went straight to the Ccuricancha, the house erected by the ancient Yncas in honour of the Creator; and at length the holy evangel entered upon possession of a new vineyard, which had been so long usurped by the ancient enemies of the faith. There the friar preached like another Apostle St. Thomas, the patron of these kingdoms, without ceasing, filled with zeal for the conversion of souls, baptizing Curacas; and if he had known the language his labours would have borne still more fruit; but he spoke through an interpreter. May God be praised for ever and ever.



p. 68

1 I do not find this Santiago in Alcedo.

2 Urco-suyu, "the hill country".

3 That is to say, in the valley of the Vilcamayu, south and east of Cuzco, on the road to the Collao. The Canas and Canches were tribes on either side of the valley.

4 That is, the last three, his great great grandfathers.

p. 68

5 Hapini is the verb "I seize". Ñuñu is a woman's bosom.

6 Achalla is an exclamation of admiration.

p. 70

7 Purum means wild, savage, untamed. Purum aucca, unconquered enemy. Purum soncco, hardened heart. Purum allpa, fallow land. Purum-purum, uninhabited wilds. Purum-pacha, heathen times.

8 Ccallani, to break down a wall, to destroy by making holes. Ccallarichini, to begin. Ccallariynin-manta, "from the beginning." "Ccallac-pacha," "beginning of time."

9 "Time of night." Dark Ages.

1 Purun, "savage." Pacha, "time." Racya, "before." Ntin, Plural of multitude. "The people before the savage time."

2 The four provinces in one. The empire.

p. 71

3 A steward or head servant. Chamberlain of the Ynca.

4 Huichay (not Uicchay) is "up." Huicharini, "I ascend." Camayoc, "one who has charge of anything."

5 Cunacuni, "I advise or preach."

6 The fabled cradle of the Ynca race, near Cuzco.

p. 72

7 I cannot identify it.

8 Cacha, in the valley of the Vilcamayu. Pucara, a fortress. See the account of the famous temple at Cacha in G. de la Vega, i, p. 159; ii, p. 69.

9 To this idol they offered human sacrifices.

1 See ante, Molina, p. 6.

p. 73

2 See Mossi, p. 207.

3 See ante, Molina, p. 6.

p. 74

4 Tupac, royal or splendid. Yauri, a sceptre.

5 Chamani, "I am satisfied." Chamay, "satisfaction, joy."

p. 75

6 Afterwards later Yncas placed a very well-carved stone in the form of a vulture, which means the good omen, and which is called Yncap huaynacanim, and the Indians began to treat it with idolatrous worship.

7 Or Collcampata, above Cuzco.

p. 76

8 Or Sacsahuaman, the site of the fortress of Cuzco. Huaman, "a falcon." Tiana, "a throne."

9 The site of the temple of the Sun. Ccuri, "gold;" Cancha, "a place."

1 People of the four provinces.

2 "The golden place, the house of the teacher of the world."

3 Idols.

p. 77

4 Toco, "a window."

5 Maras, "mill-stone."

6 Sutini, "I name." Sutic, "name."

p. 78

7 Paccari, "morning, dawn," Paccarisca, "birth, origin," Paccarimuni, "I am born," Paccarimusca, "being born."

p. 79

8 The practice is continued to this day.

p. 81

9 Mossi (113). Herbs given by sorcerers, as love philtres.

1 Maize pudding.

p. 82

2 The chutarpu is the male form of committing fornication, and the huanarpu the opposite.

3 The beardless chin is called pachacaqui, and the tweezers with which they pull out the hairs canipachi.

4 See Historia de Copacabana, by Ramos. Aclla, "chosen, set apart." Yurac, "white." Yana, "black."

5 Great Lords.

6 Mayta Ccapac was so called because, as a child, he used to say Maytac p. 83 Ccapac, "O Lord, where art Thou?" and he repeated this thought by reason of his longing to know his Creator.

7 Names of the places where these Huacas were worshipped.

8 Priests.

9 Sorcerers.

1 Idol worshippers. Huaca, "an idol," and Muchani, "I worship."

p. 84

2 See G. de la Vega, i, p. 272.

p. 85

3 A suburb of Cuzco. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 249.

4 This son of Mayta Ccapac was called Ccapac Yupanqui because, when he was a child, his father said, "Ccapacta tacmi yupanqui", "Thou also shalt count as one rich in all virtues."

5 See G. de la Vega, ii. p. 531. Huañayñin is, I think, a clerical error for Huahuanina.

6 Guinea pigs.

p. 87

7 Ccapac, "rich." Chama, "joy." Quispisutu, "crystal drops". Unu, "water."

8 "Golden flock."

p. 88

9 Fine cloth. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 324.

p. 89

1 See G. de la Vega, i, pp. 327, 347; ii, 62.

p. 90

2 Thou art Lord of Cuzco. I am Lord of the Collas. I have a silver throne. Thy throne is of gold. Thou art a worshipper of Uira-ccocha-Pachayachachi. I worship the Sun.

p. 91

3 Sceptre.

4 Standard.

p. 92

5 This is the same battle described by Garcilasso de la Vega, ii, p. 53.

p. 93

6 Huillca, a tree, the fruit of which, like the lupin, is a purgative.—Mossi, p. 127.

7 Ollachea and Ayapata are villages to the eastward of the Andes, in Caravaya.

p. 94

8 See the account of the flight of Hanco-hualla (Anco-allo) in G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 82 and 329.

p. 95

9 The deep hot valley of the river Pampas.

1 Jaguars.

2 Llaca, a plumed lance (Mossi).

p. 96

3 Xhichca of Mossi (148); secsec of Mossi (278); sihui of Mossi (235). Different kinds of thorn bushes.

4 Name of the mountain between Paucartampu and the eastern forests.—See G. de la Vega, i, p. 330.

p. 97

5 Colonists.

6 Huacra, a horn; and chucu a head-dress. This was the name of a large tribe near Cassamarca.—See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 322.

p. 98

7 See p. 82.

8 Inns.

9 Chosen virgins.

p. 99

1 Fine cloth.

2 Keepers of plumes and garlands.

3 Doctors. Hampi, medicine.

4 Name of a general. The words mean "Grandfather of a jaguar". But Achachi is a grandfather in the Colla language. In Quichua a grandfather is Machu. He was probably a Colla general.

5 Song of triumph.

6 Thrones.

p. 100

7 Royal fringe.

8 Battle-axes.

p. 101

9 Huarmi, a woman. Pucara, a fortress.

1 Guinea pigs.

2 Tayta means father, master.

3 Turkey buzzards.

p. 102

4 Huarmi, a woman. Auca, a soldier.

5 Illegible in MS.

6 This passage is obscure.

p. 103

7 Bowls.

p. 104

8 Servants.

9 Officers in command of a hundred men.

p. 106

1 Auqui, an unmarried prince. Cuna, the plural particle.

2 A shell.

3 I am uncertain of the exact meaning. Puru is a calabash; also false. Puru-ccayan, mourning.

4 A bracelet.

5 See p. 11.

6 Royal sceptre.

7 Royal head-dress.

8 Fringe.

9 Fillet.

1a Royal standard.

2a Club.

3a Shield.

4a Uma, "head." Chucu, "head-dress."

p. 107

5 Ccapac, royal. Usnu, a station, land-mark, heap of stones; tribunal or judgment seat.

6 Ccallani, I break. Sanampa, a sign.

p. 108

7 See opposite {next} page.

p. 110

8 Otavalla. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 350; and Cieza de Leon, p. 138.

9 See Cieza de Leon, p. 133; and G. de la Vega, ii, p. 449.

1 Puti, a trunk, parcel.

p. 111

2 This Ynca Cusi Huallpa caused a garden to be made at Sappi, near Cuzco, with many animals of gold and silver, amongst the trees. Then he caused a very long chain to be made, of gold, and each link was in the form of a serpent twined with the tail in the mouth, and adorned with colours like a serpent's skin. This Ynca was not called Huascar, as some say, on account of this chain; but because he was born at Huascar-pata, near Molina. It is a tradition that the chain was thrown into this lake of Molina (Muyna) when the Spaniards came, and not into that of Urcos-ccocha.

p. 112

3 Ranti, a deputy. Ynca-ranti, viceroy.

p. 113

4 See Cieza de Leon, p. 153.

5 Colonists.

p. 115

6 Worship.

p. 116

7 Ravines.

p. 117

8 See G. de la Vega, i, p. 267; ii, p. 147, 358.

p. 118

9 See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 246.