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As at the time of the battle the coward looks behind him for a ditch, thicket, or other hiding-place 1, (thinking that) nobody knows who will win; (1)

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'A moment's moment will bring the decision 1; when we lose, we shall fly.' Thus thinks the coward. (2)

So some Sramanas, knowing themselves to be weak, have recourse to worldly sciences 2 when they see that they will suffer want. (3)

(They say): 'Who knows what will cause my loss of sanctity, women or water? When we are questioned, we shall speak out (i.e. show our knowledge). We have no (other) resource (in case of need)!' (4)

They are cautious, like those who look out for a ditch, &c. Those who doubt (their ability for control) are like men ignorant of the way. (5)

But famous warriors, leaders of heroes at the time of the battle, do not look behind them; (they think) what if all end with death? (6)

A monk who exerts himself in a similar way, should slip off the ties that bind him to his house. Putting aside all undertakings, he should wander about for the welfare of his soul. (7)

Some revile a monk who leads a holy life. But these revilers are far off from perfection 3. (8)

(The revilers say), 'You live just as the laymen do, being attached to one another, for (e.g.) you beg alms for a sick man and give it him. (9)

'Therefore you still have an attachment, being obedient to the will of one another; you have not the purity produced by the right path, and have not got beyond the Circle of Births.' (10)

Now a monk who knows (the truth about) Môksha

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should answer them 1: 'You speak thus, wavering between two ways of life (viz, that of householders and monks). (11)

'You eat out of the vessels 2 (of householders, and make them) bring food for a sick brother; you eat seeds and drink cold water 3, and what has been especially prepared (for you when sick). (12)

'You are infected by great faults, you are void of discrimination, and your resolutions are bad. It is not good to scratch a wound too much, for it will grow worse 4.' (13)

They should be instructed in the truth by one who knows it and is free from passions 5: 'Yours is not the right way, you speak and act without consideration. (14)

'This your talk is weak, like the top of a bamboo, (when you say: a sick brother) may eat the food brought by a householder, but not that brought by a monk! (15)

'(And when you say that) our religious precepts are wholesome only for householders (not for monks, we reply that our prophet had) no such (inconsistent) ideas when he taught (his Law).' (16)

When (these heretics) cannot prove (their assertion) by any arguments they give up the discussion, and fall back on their bold (assertion). (17)

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Overcome by their passions and infected by untruth, (these men) have recourse to bad language, as the (savage) Taṅkana 1 (when beaten) have recourse to their hills. (18)

The argumentation of a monk whose mind is at rest 2 should possess many good qualities. He should proceed in such a way as not to exasperate his opponent. (19)

Following this Law which has been proclaimed by the Kâsyapa, a sound monk should carefully attend a sick brother. (20)

Knowing the beautiful Law, a wise and thoroughly restrained monk should bear all hardships and wander about till he reaches final liberation. (21)

Thus I say.


265:1 Nûma = prakkhannam, giriguhâdikam.

266:1 Literally, a moment of a moment of moments will be such.

266:2 As grammar, astrology, medicine, &c.

266:3 Samâhi, explained môksha, compare first note in the Tenth Lecture.

267:1 According to Sîlâṅka the Âgîvikas or the Digambaras are intended.

267:2 For these heretics carry the principle of absolute poverty so far as to reject even the use of almsbowls.


267:4 The meaning is that the overdoing of the principle of poverty is just as harmful as the scratching of a wound.

267:5 Apadinna = apratigña, explained by râgadvêsharahita.

268:1 This hill tribe lived somewhere in the north-east of Madhyadêsa, see Petersburg Dictionary, sv.

268:2 Attasamâhiê = âtmasamâdhika.

Next: Book 1, Lecture 3, Chapter 4