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The Qur'ân, part I (Sacred Books of the East volume 6), Palmer edition [1880]; at

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Prayer for guidance.


The Qur’ân a guidance. Rebuke to misbelievers: parable of one who kindles a fire. God is not ashamed of trifling similitudes. The creation of man: Adam taught 'the names:' Iblîs refuses to adore him: the temptation and fall. The children of Israel: their trials in Egypt: the golden calf: the manna and quails: bidden to enter the city and say ‘hittatun. Moses strikes the rock: he bids the people slaughter a dun cow to discover a murder. Charge against the Jews of corrupting the Scriptures. The golden calf: the mountain held over them. Gabriel reveals the Qur’ân: Hârût and Mârût. Believers are not to say râ’hinâ, but unthurnâ. Verses which are annulled will be replaced by better ones. Paradise not exclusively for Jews and Christians. Mosques to be free. Story of Abraham: he rebuilds the Kaabah: was a ‘Hanîf. The qiblah fixed. Zafâ and Merwah may be compassed. Proofs of God's unity. Lawful and unlawful food. The law of retaliation for homicide. Testators. The fast of Rama.dhân. Rites  of the pilgrimage: its duration. Fighting for religion lawful during the sacred months. Wine and gaming forbidden. Marriage with idolaters unlawful. The law of divorce. Of suckling children. The Muhâgerîn to be rewarded. The children of Israel demand a king. Saul (Tâlût): the shechina: the ark. Saul and Gideon confounded. Goliath. Jesus. The âyat el kursîy ('verse of the throne') asserting the self-subsistence and omnipresence of God. Nimrod and Abraham. Almsgiving. No compulsion in religion. Proofs of the resurrection: Ezekiel's vision of the dry bones

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referred to: Abraham and the birds. Almsgiving recommended. Usurers denounced. Laws relating to debt and trading. Persons mentally incapable are to act by agents. The believers' prayer.


God's unity and self-subsistence. The Qur’ân confirmatory of previous Scriptures. The verses are either decisive Or ambiguous. Example of Pharaoh's punishment. The battle of Bedr. Islâm the true religion. Future torment eternal. Obedience to God and the Apostle enjoined. Conception of the Virgin Mary; she is brought up by Zachariah. Birth of John: the annunciation of the Virgin. Birth and infancy of Jesus: the miracle of the birds of clay: the disciples: allusion to Mohammed's dispute with a Christian deputation from Nagran. Abraham a ’Hanîf. Reproof to Jews who pretend to believe and then recant; and who pervert the Scriptures. No distinction to be made between the prophets. The Jews rebuked for prohibiting certain kinds of food. The foundation of the Kaabah. Abraham's station. Pilgrimage enjoined. Schism and misbelief reproved. Battle of Ohod referred to. The victory at Bedr due to angelic aid. Usury denounced. Fate of those who rejected the prophets of old. Mohammed's death must not divert the believers from their faith. Promise of God's help. Further account of the battle of Bedr. The Muslim martyrs to enter Paradise. The victory of Bedr more than counterbalanced the defeat at Ohod. The hypocrites detected and reproved. Death the common lot even of apostles. Prayer for the believers. Exhortation to vie in good works and be patient.


God creates and watches over man. Women's dowries. Administration of the property of orphans and idiots. Distribution of property among the heirs. Witnesses required to prove adultery. Believers are not to inherit women's estates against their will: no false charge of adultery to be made with a view of keeping a woman's dowry. Women whom it is unlawful to marry. Men are superior to women: punishment of refractory wives. Arbitration between man and wife. Duty towards parents, kinsmen, orphans, the poor, neighbours, &c. Almsgiving for appearance sake a crime. Believers must not pray when drunk or polluted. Sand may be used for purification when water is not to be had. Charge against

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[paragraph continues] Jews of perverting the Scriptures and saying râ’hinâ: they are threatened with transformation, like those who broke the Sabbath, for their unbelief. Idolatry the unpardonable sin. Some who have the Scriptures believe. Trusts to be paid back. Quarrels to be referred to God and the Apostle only. The Apostle will intercede for the believers. Mohammed commanded to settle their differences. Believers to take precautions in sallying forth to battle. They are exhorted to fight, and promised Paradise if they fall. Obedience to the prophet is obedience to God. Salutation to be returned. The hypocrites. Deserters are to be slain, unless they have taken refuge with a tribe in league with the Muslims. Penalty for killing a believer by mistake. Believers are not to plunder others on the mere pretence that they are infidels Fate of the half-hearted Muslims who fell at Bedr. Precautions to be taken against an attack during prayers. Exhortation to sincerity in supporting the faith. Rebuke to the pagan Arabs for their idolatry and superstitious practices. Islâm the best religion, being that of Abraham the ’Hanîf. Laws respecting women and orphans: equity and kindness recommended. Partiality to one wife rather than another reproved. Fear of God inculcated. God does not pardon the unstable in faith or the hypocrites. No middle course is allowed. The Jews were punished for demanding a book from heaven. Of old they asked Moses to show them God openly and were punished. They are reproached for breaking their covenant with God, for calumniating Mary, and for pretending that they killed Jesus, whereas they only killed his similitude, for God took him to Himself. Certain lawful foods forbidden the Jews for their injustice and usury. Mohammed is inspired in the same manner as the other apostles and prophets. Jesus is only an Apostle of God and His Word and a spirit from Him. Doctrine of the Trinity denounced. God has not begotten a son. The law of inheritance in the case of remote kinship.


Believers are to fulfil their compacts. Brute beasts, except those hereafter mentioned, are lawful; but chase during the pilgrimage is unlawful. The rites and sacrifices of the pilgrimage are lawful. The Muslims are not to bear ill-will against the Qurâis who prevented them at ‘Hudâibîyeh from making the pilgrimage. Forbidden meats. The food of Jews and Christians is lawful

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to Muslims: so too their women. Ablutions before prayers. Rules for purification in cases of pollution. The Muslims are bidden to remember the oath of fealty (at ‘Akabah), and how God made a similar covenant with the children of Israel, and chose twelve wardens. Mohammed is warned against their treachery as well as against the Christians. Refutation of the doctrine that Christ is God; and of the idea that the Jews and Christians are 'sons of God' and His beloved. Mohammed sent as a warner and herald of glad tidings. Moses bade the children of Israel invade the Holy Land and they were punished for hesitating. Story of the two sons of Adam: the crow shows Cain how to bury the body of Abel. Gravity of homicide. Those who make war against God and His Apostle are not to receive quarter. Punishment for theft. Mohammed is to judge both Jews and Christians by the Qur'ân, in accordance with their own Scriptures, but not according to 'their lusts.' Or would they prefer to be judged according to the unjust laws of the time of the pagan Arabs? The Muslims are not to take Jews and Christians for patrons. The hypocrites hesitate to join the believers: they are threatened. Further appeal to the Jews' and Christians: fate of those before them who were transformed for their sins. The Jews reproved for saying that 'God's hand is fettered.' Some of them are moderate, but the greater part are misbelievers. The prophet is bound to preach his message. Sabæans, Jews, and Christians appealed to as believers. Prophets of old were rejected. Against the worship of the Messiah and the doctrine of the Trinity. Jews and idolaters are the most hostile to the Muslims; and the Christians are nearest in love to them. Expiation for an inconsiderate oath. Wine and gambling forbidden. Game not to be hunted or eaten during pilgrimage. Expiation for violating this precept: fish is lawful at this time. Rites of the ‘Hagg to be observed. Believers must not ask about painful things till the whole Qur'ân is revealed. Denunciation of the superstitious practices of the pagan Arabs with respect to certain cattle. Witnesses required when a dying man makes his testament. The mission of Jesus: the miracles of the infancy: the apostles ask for a table from heaven as a sign: Jesus denies commanding men to worship him and his mother as gods.

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Light and darkness are both created by God. Rebuke to idolaters. They are exhorted to take warning by the fate of those of old, who rejected the prophets. Had the revelation been a material book they would have disbelieved it: if the prophet had been an angel he would have come in the guise of a man. Attributes of God. Mohammed bidden to become a Muslim. Those who have the Scriptures ought to recognise Mohammed as the one foretold in them. The idolaters will be disappointed of the intercession of their gods on the judgment day. They deny the resurrection day now, but hereafter they will have awful proof of its truth. The next world is preferable to this, Prophets aforetime were also mocked at and they were patient. God could send them a sign if He pleased. Beasts, birds, and the like are communities like men: their fate is all written in the Book: they too shall be gathered on the judgment day. Arguments in proof of the supreme power of God. Mohammed is only a messenger: he is to disclaim miraculous power: is not to repulse believers: he is bidden to abjure idolatry and not follow the lusts of the Meccans. God's omniscience. He takes men's souls to Himself during sleep: sends guardian angels to watch over them: preserves men in danger by land and sea. Mohammed is not to join in discussions on religion with idolaters, nor to associate with those who make a sport of it. Folly of idolatry set forth: God the creator: Abraham's perplexity in seeking after the true God: worships successively the stars, the moon, and the sun, but is convinced that they are not gods by seeing them set. Turns to God and becomes a ‘Hanîf. Other prophets of old were inspired: the Qur'ân is also a special revelation from God to the Meccans, fulfilling their Scriptures; but the Jews have perverted or suppressed parts of them. Denunciation of one who falsely pretended to be inspired. The creation a proof of God's unity. Rebuke to those who call the ginn His partners, or attribute offspring to Him. Idolaters are not to be abused lest they too speak ill of God. The Meccans would not have believed even if a sign had been given them. Mohammed is to trust to God alone. Men are not to abstain from food over which God's name has been pronounced. God will vindicate His messenger. Belief or the reverse depends on God's grace. The ginns and false gods, together with their worshippers,

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will be condemned to everlasting torment. God never punishes without first sending an apostle with warning. The threatened doom cannot be averted. Denunciation of the idolatrous practices of the Arabs: setting apart portions of the produce of the land for God and for the idols, and defrauding God of His portion: infanticide: declaring cattle and tilth inviolable. God created all fruits and all cattle; both are therefore lawful. Argument proving the absurdity of some of these customs. Enumeration of the only kinds of food that are unlawful. The prohibition to the Jews of certain food was only on account of their sins. God's revealed word is the only certain argument. Declaration of things really forbidden, namely, harshness to parents, infanticide, abominable sins, and murder. The property of orphans is to be respected, and fair dealing to be practised. No soul compelled beyond its capacity. The Qur’ân to be accepted on the same authority as the book of Moses was. Faith required now without signs: no later profession on the judgment day shall profit them. Good works to be rewarded tenfold, but evil works only by the same amount. Islâm is the religion of Abraham the ‘Hanîf: a belief in one God, to whom all prayer and devotion is due. Each soul shall bear its own burden. The high rank of some of the Meccans is only a trial from the Lord whereby to prove them.


Mohammed is bidden to accept the Qur’ân fearlessly. The Meccans must take warning by the fate of those who rejected the prophets of old. The creation and fall of Adam. Iblîs allowed to tempt mankind. Men are to go to Mosque decently clad. God has only prohibited sinful actions. Men are warned not to reject the mission of the apostles: their punishment at and after death if they do so. The happiness of believers in Paradise. Description of Al Aarâf, the partition between heaven and hell. Immediate belief in the Qur’ân required. God the Creator. Humble and secret prayer enjoined. Proofs of God's goodness. Noah sent to warn his people: he is saved in the ark while they are drowned. Hûd sent to ‘Âd: they reject his preaching and are punished. Zâli‘h sent to Thamûd: produces the she-camel as a sign: the people hamstring her and are punished. Lot sent to the people of Sodom: their punishment. Sho’hâib sent to Midian: his people reject him and are destroyed. Thus city after city was

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destroyed for rejecting the apostles. Moses sent to Pharaoh: the miracles of the snake and the white hand. The magicians eon-tend with Moses, are overcome, and believe. Pharaoh punishes them. The slaughter of the firstborn: the plagues of Egypt. The Israelites are delivered. Moses communes with God, who appears to him on the Mount. The giving of the Law. The golden calf. Moses' wrath against Aaron. The seventy elders. The coming of Mohammed 'the illiterate prophet' foretold. Some Jews are just and rightly guided. The division into twelve tribes. The miracle of smiting the rock: the manna and quails: the command to enter the city, saying ‘hittatun, and punishment for disobedience. The Sabbath-breaking city: the transformation of the wicked inhabitants into apes. The dispersion of the Jews. The mountain held over the Jews. The covenant of God with the posterity of Adam: 'Am I not your Lord 1?' Humiliation of one who having foretold the coming of a prophet in the time of Mohammed would not acknowledge the latter as such. Many both of the ginn and of mankind predestined for hell. The names of God are not to be perverted 2. Mohammed is not 'possessed.' The coming of 'the Hour.' Creation of Adam and Eve: conception and birth of their first child, '‘Abd el ‘Hareth:' their idolatry. Idols are themselves servants of God: they have neither life nor senses. Mohammed is bidden to treat his opponents with mildness. The mention of God's name repels devilish influences. Men are recommended to listen to the Qur’ân and to humble themselves before God, whom the angels adore.


Spoils belong to God and the Apostle. Who are the true believers. The expedition of Mohammed against the caravan from Syria under Abu Sufiân. The miraculous victory at Bedr. Address to the Meccans who, fearing an attack from Mohammed, took sanctuary in the Kaabah, and prayed to God to decide between themselves and him. Exhortation to believe and avoid treachery. Plots against Mohammed frustrated by divine interference. The revelation treated as old folks' tales. Rebuke of the idolaters for mocking the Muslims at prayer. Offer of an amnesty to those

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to Muslims: so too their women. Ablutions before prayers. Rules for purification in cases of pollution. The Muslims are bidden to remember the oath of fealty (at ‘Akabah), and how God made a similar covenant with the children of Israel, and chose twelve wardens. Mohammed is warned against their treachery as well as against the Christians. Refutation of the doctrine that Christ is God; and of the idea that the Jews and Christians are 'sons of God' and His beloved. Mohammed sent as a warner and herald of glad tidings. Moses bade the children of Israel invade the Holy Land and they were punished for hesitating. Story of the two sons of Adam: the crow shows Cain how to bury the body of Abel. Gravity of homicide. Those who make war against God and His Apostle are not to receive quarter. Punishment for theft. Mohammed is. to judge both Jews and Christians by the Qur’ân, in accordance with their own Scriptures, but not according to 'their lusts.' Or would they prefer to be judged according to the unjust laws of the time of the pagan Arabs? The Muslims are not to take Jews and Christians for patrons. The hypocrites hesitate to join the believers: they are threatened. Further appeal to the Jews' and Christians: fate of those before them who were transformed for their sins. The

Jews reproved for saying that 'God's hand is fettered.' Some of them are moderate, but the greater part are misbelievers. The prophet. is bound to preach his message. Sabæans, Jews, and Christians appealed to as believers. Prophets of old were rejected. Against the worship of the Messiah and the doctrine of the Trinity. Jews and idolaters are the most hostile to the Muslims; and the Christians are nearest in love to them. Expiation for an inconsiderate oath. Wine and gambling forbidden. Game not to be hunted or eaten during pilgrimage. Expiation for violating this precept: fish is lawful at this time. Rites of the ’Hagg to be observed. Believers must not ask about painful things till the whole Qur’ân is revealed. Denunciation of the superstitious practices of the pagan Arabs with respect to certain cattle. Witnesses required when a dying man makes his testament. The mission of Jesus: the miracles of the infancy: the apostles ask for a table from heaven as a sign: Jesus denies commanding men to worship him and his mother as gods.

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who will believe. Exhortation to fight the infidels: division of the spoils: description of the battle. The enemy made to seem few in the Muslims' eyes, while they seemed more numerous than they really were. The infidels forsaken by Satan, their leader, on the day of battle. Fate of the hypocrites. Warning from Pharaoh's fate. The infidels who break their treaty. Treachery to be met with the like. God will help the prophet against the traitors. A few enduring believers shall conquer a multitude of infidels. The Muslims are reproved for accepting ransom for the captives taken at Bedr. The spoils are lawful. The Muhâgerîn who fled with Mohammed, and the inhabitants of Medînah who gave him refuge, are to form ties of brotherhood 1.


(This chapter is without the initial formula 'In the name of the merciful,' &c.)

An immunity for four months proclaimed to such of the idolaters as have made a league with the prophet; but they are to be killed wherever found when the sacred months have expired. An idolater seeking refuge is to be helped in order that he may hear the word of God. None are to be included in the immunity but those with whom the league was made at the Sacred Mosque. They are not to be trusted. Exhortation to fight against the Meccans. Idolaters may not repair to the mosques of God. Reproof to Abu ’l ‘Abbâs, the prophet's uncle, who, while refusing to believe, claimed to have done enough in supplying water to the pilgrims and in making. the pilgrimage himself. The Muhâgerîn are to hold the first rank. Infidels are not to be taken for patrons even when they are fathers or brothers. Religion is to be preferred to ties of kinship. The victory of ‘Honein. The idolaters are not to be allowed to enter the Sacred Mosque at Mecca another year. The infidels are to be attacked. The Jews denounced for saying that Ezra is the son of God: the assumption of the title 'Rabbi' reproved. Diatribe against Jewish doctors and Christian monks. Of the sacred months and the sin of deferring them. Exhortation to the Muslims to march forth to battle. Allusions to the escape of Mohammed and Abu Bekr from Mecca and their concealment in a cave. Rebuke to those who seek to be excused from fighting,

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and to those who sought to excite sedition in the Muslim ranks. Reproof to the hypocrites and half-hearted and to those who found fault with the prophet for his use of the alms (zakât). Proper destination of the alms. Hypocrites and renegades denounced: they are warned by the example of the people of old, who rejected the prophets. Rewards promised to the true believers. Continued denunciation of the hypocrites and of those who held back from the fight. Mohammed is not to pray at the grave of any one of them who dies: their seeming prosperity is not to deceive him. Happiness in store for the Apostle, the believers, and the Muhâgerîn. Those who may lawfully be excused military service. The desert Arabs are among the worst of the 'hypocrites;' though some believe. Some people of Medînah also denounced as hypocrites: others have sinned, but confessed: others wait for God's pleasure. Denunciation of some who had set up a mosque from motives of political opposition. Mohammed is not to sanction this mosque, but rather to use that of Qubâ’, founded by him while on his way from Mecca to Medînah during the Flight. God has bought the persons and wealth of the believers at the price of Paradise. The prophet and the believers must not ask forgiveness for the idolaters however near of kin. Abraham only asked pardon for his idolatrous father in fulfilment of a promise. The three Ansârs who refused to accompany Mohammed to Tabûk are forgiven. The people of Medînah and the neighbouring Arabs blamed for holding back on the occasion. All sacrifices for the sake of the religion are counted to them. Exhortation to fight rigorously against the infidels. Reproof to those who receive the revelation suspiciously. God will stand by His Apostle.


No wonder that the Qur’ân was revealed to a mere man. Misbelievers deem him a sorcerer. God the creator and ruler: no one can intercede with Him except by His permission. Creation is a sign of His power. Reward hereafter for the believers. Man calls on God in distress, but forgets Him when deliverance comes. Warning from the fall of former generations. The infidels are not satisfied with the Qur’ân: Mohammed dare not invent a false revelation. False gods can neither harm nor profit them. People require a sign. God saves people in dangers by land and sea. This life is like grass. Promise of Paradise and threat of Hell.

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[paragraph continues] Fate of the idolaters and false gods at the last day. God the Lord of all. Other religions are mere conjecture. The Qur’ân could only have been devised by God. The Meccans are challenged to produce a single sûrah like it. Unbelievers warned of the last day by the fate of previous nations. Reproval of those who prohibit lawful things. God is ever watchful over the prophet's actions. Happiness of the believers: the infidels cannot harm the prophet. Refutation of those who ascribe offspring to God. Mohammed encouraged by the story of Noah and the other prophets of old. Fate of Pharaoh and vindication of Moses and Aaron. The People of the Book (Jews and Christians) appealed to in confirmation of the truth of the Qur’ân. The story of Jonas. The people of Nineveh saved by repenting and believing in time. The people are exhorted to embrace Islam, the faith of the ‘Hanîf. God alone is powerful. Belief or unbelief affect only the individual himself. Resignation and patience inculcated.


The Qur’ân a book calling men to believe in the unity of God: nothing is hidden from Him: He is the creator of all. Men will not believe, and deem themselves secure because their punishment is deferred. They demand a sign, or say the Qur’ân is invented by the prophet; but they and their false gods together cannot bring ten such sûrahs. Misbelievers threatened with future punishment, while believers are promised Paradise. Noah was likewise sent, but his people objected that he was a mere mortal like themselves and only followed by the meaner sort of men. He also is accused of having invented his revelation: he is saved in the ark and the unbelievers drowned: he endeavours to save his son. The ark settles on Mount Gûdî. Hûd was sent to ‘Âd: his people plotted against him and were destroyed, while he was saved. Zâli‘h was sent to Thamûd: the she-camel given for a sign. The people hamstring her and perish. Abraham entertains the angels who are sent to the people of Lot: he pleads for them. Lot offers his daughters to the people of Sodom, to spare the angels: he escapes by night, and Sodom is destroyed. Sho’hâib is sent to Midian; and his people, rejecting his mission, perish too. Moses sent to Pharaoh, who shall be punished at the resurrection. The Meccans too shall be punished: They are threatened with the judgment day, when they shall be sent to hell, while the believers

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are in Paradise. The Meccans are bidden to take warning by the fate of the cities whose stories are related above. These stories are intended to strengthen the prophet's heart: he is bidden to wait and leave the issue to God.


The Qur’ân revealed in Arabic that the Meccans may understand: it contains the best of stories. Story of Joseph: he tells his father his dream: Jacob advises him to keep it to himself. Jealousy of Joseph's brethren: they conspire to throw him in a pit: induce his father to let him go with them: they cast him in the pit, and bring home his shirt covered with 'lying blood.' Travellers discover him and sell him into Egypt: he is adopted by his master his mistress endeavours to seduce him: his innocence proved. His mistress shows him to the women of the city to excuse her conduct: their amazement at his beauty. He is imprisoned: interprets the dreams of the baker and the cupbearer. Pharaoh's dream: Joseph is sent for to expound it. He is appointed to a situation of trust in the land. His brethren arrive and do not recognise him: they ask for corn and he requires them to bring their youngest brother as the condition of his giving it to them. The goods they had brought to barter are returned to their sacks. Benjamin is sent back. Joseph discovers himself to him. Joseph places the king's drinking cup in his brother's pack: accuses them all of the theft: takes Benjamin as a bondsman for the theft. They return to Jacob, who in great grief sends them back again to bring him news. Joseph discovers himself to them, and sends back his shirt: Jacob recognises it by the smell. Jacob goes back with them to Egypt. This story appealed to as a proof of the truth of the revelation.


The Qur’ân a revelation from the Lord, the creator and governor of all. Misbelievers are threatened: God' knows all, and the recording angels are ever present. Lightning and thunder celebrate God's praises. All in heaven and earth acknowledge Him. God sends rain and causes the torrents to flow: the scum thereof is like the dross on smelted ore. The righteous and the believers are promised Paradise and the misbelievers are threatened with hell-fire. Exhortation to believe in the Merciful. Were the

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[paragraph continues] Qur’ân to convulse nature they would not believe. Further threats against misbelievers. God notes the deeds of every soul. Stratagem unavailing against Him. Paradise and Hell. Mohammed bidden to persevere in asserting the unity of God. Had he not followed the Qur’ân God would have forsaken him. Other apostles have had wives and children: none could bring a sign without God's permission: for every period there is a revelation. God can annul or confirm any part of His revelation which He pleases: he has the 'Mother of the Book' (i.e. the Eternal Original). Whether Mohammed live to see his predictions fulfilled or not, God only knows: his duty is only to preach the message. The conquests of Islam pointed to. God will support the prophet against misbelievers.


The Qur’ân revealed to bring men from darkness into light. God is Lord of all. No apostle sent except with the language of his own people. Moses sent to Pharaoh. The people of Noah, and Thamûd objected that their prophets were mortals like themselves. The prophets relied on God who vindicated them. Frightful description of hell. Misbelievers are like ashes blown away by a stormy wind. Helplessness of the damned: Satan will desert them. But believers are in Paradise. A good word is like a good tree whose root is in the earth and whose branches are in the sky, and which gives fruit in all seasons. A bad word is as a tree that is felled. God's word is sure. Idolaters are threatened with hell-fire. God is the creator of all: He subjects all things to man's use. Abraham prayed that the territory of Mecca might be a sanctuary. The unjust are only respited till the judgment day. The ruins of the dwellings of those who have perished for denying the mission of their apostles are a proof of the truth of Mohammed's mission. The Lord will take vengeance at the last day, when sinners shall burn in hell with shirts of pitch to cover them. The Qur’ân is a warning and an admonition.


Misbelievers will one day regret their misbelief. No city was ever destroyed without warning. The infidels mockingly ask Mohammed to bring down angels to punish them. So did the sinners of old act towards their apostles. There are signs enough

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in the zodiac, guarded as they are from the devils who are pelted with shooting-stars if they attempt to listen. All nature is under God's control. Man created from clay, and the ginn from smokeless fire. The angels bidden to adore Adam. Iblîs refuses; is cursed and expelled; but respited until the day of judgment. Is allowed to seduce mankind. Hell, with its seven doors, promised to misbelievers, and Paradise to believers. Story of Abraham's angelic guests: they announce to him the birth of a son: they proceed to Lot's family. The crime and punishment of the people of Sodom. The ruined cities still remain to tell the tale. Similar fate of the people of the Grove and of El ‘Hagr. The Hour draws nigh. The Lord the Omniscient Creator has sent the Qur’ân and the 'seven verses of repetition' (the Opening Chapter). Mohammed is not to grieve at the worldly success of unbelievers. Those who 'dismember the Qur’ân 1' are threatened with punishment. Mohammed is encouraged against the misbelievers.


God's decree will come to pass. He sends the angels to instruct His servants to give warning that there is no other God. The creation and ordering of all natural objects are signs of His power. The false gods are inanimate and powerless. God is but one. The unbelievers who call the revelation old folks' tales must bear the burden of their own sins. On the resurrection day their 'associates' will disown them. Reception by the angels of the wicked and the good in Hell and in Paradise. The infidels strenuously deny the resurrection. The Muhâgerîn are promised a good reward. The Jews and Christians to be asked to confirm the Qur’ân. All nature adores God. Unity of God affirmed. When in distress men turn to God, but forget Him and become -idolaters when deliverance comes. The practice of setting aside part of their produce for the idols reproved. The practice of female infanticide, while they ascribe daughters to God, is reproved, and disbelief in the future life also rebuked. Satan is the patron of the infidels. The Qur’ân sent down as a guidance and mercy. The rain which quickens the dead earth, and the cattle which give milk, and the vines which give fruit and wine are signs. The bee is inspired from the Lord to build hives and to use those made first by men. Its honey is lawful. The rich Arabs are reproved for

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their treatment of their slaves. Helplessness of the false gods illustrated by the parable of the slave and of the dumb man. Goodness of God in providing food and shelter for men. Idolaters shall be disowned by the false gods at the resurrection. Every nation shall have a witness against it on that day. Justice and good faith inculcated, especially the duty of keeping to a treaty once made. Satan has no power over believers. Verses of the Qur’ân abrogated: the Holy Spirit (Gabriel) is the instrument of the revelation. Suggestion that Mohammed is helped by some mortal to compose the Qur’ân: this cannot be, as the person hinted at speaks a foreign language and the Qur’ân is in Arabic. Denunciation of misbelievers. Warning of the fate Mecca is to expect if its inhabitants continue to disbelieve. Unlawful' foods. God will forgive wrong done through ignorance. Abraham was a ‘Hanîf. The ordinance of the Sabbath. Mohammed is to dispute with his opponents kindly. The believers are not to take too savage revenge. They are exhorted to patience and trust in God.


Allusion to the 'Night Journey' from the Sacred Mosque (at Mecca) to the Remote Mosque (at Jerusalem). Moses received the Book. Noah was a faithful servant. Israel's two sins and their punishment. The Qur’ân a guide and glad tidings. Man prays for evil and is hasty. Night and day are two signs. Every man's augury is round his neck. Each one shall have a book on the resurrection day with an account of his deeds. Each is to bear the burden of his own sins. No city is destroyed till warned by an apostle. Choice of good in this world or the next. Mohammed is not to associate others with God. Kindness to parents enjoined. Moderation to be practised. Infanticide and fornication are sins. Homicide is to be avenged except for just cause. Honesty and humility inculcated. The angels are not the daughters of God. If there were other gods they would rebel against God: all in The heavens praise Him. Unbelievers cannot understand the Qur’ân. The unity of God unacceptable to the Meccans. The resurrection. Idolaters not to be provoked. Some prophets preferred over others. False gods themselves have recourse to God. All cities to be destroyed before the judgment day. Had Mohammed been sent with signs, the Meccans would have disbelieved them like Thamûd. The Vision (of the Night Journey) and the

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[paragraph continues] Zaqqûm Tree of Hell are causes of contention. Iblîs' disobedience and fall: he is given permission to delude men. Safety by land and sea a special mercy from God. All shall have justice at the last day. The THaqîf tribe at Tâ’if nearly seduced Mohammed into promulgating an unauthorised sentence. Injunction to pray. Man is ungrateful. Departure of the Spirit. Mankind and ginns together could not produce the like of the Qur’ân. Signs demanded of Mohammed: he is only a mortal. Fate of those who disbelieve in the resurrection. Moses brought nine signs, but Pharaoh disbelieved in them: his fate: the children of Israel succeeded him in his possessions. The Qur’ân was revealed as occasion required: those who believe the Scriptures recognise it. God and the Merciful One are not two gods, for God has no partner.


The Qur’ân is a warning especially to those who say God has begotten a son. Mohammed is not to grieve if they refuse to believe. Story of the Fellows of the Cave. Their number known only to God. Mohammed rebuked for promising a revelation on the subject. He is enjoined to obey God in all things, and not to be induced to give up his poorer followers. Hell-fire threatened for the unbeliever and Paradise promised to the good. Parable of the proud man's garden which was destroyed while that of the humble man flourished. This life is like the herb that springs up and perishes. Good works are more lasting than wealth and children. The last day. Iblîs refuses to adore Adam: the men are not to take him for a patron. They shall be forsaken by their patrons at the last day. Men would believe but that the example of those of yore must be repeated. Misbelievers are unjust and shall not be allowed to understand, or be guided. But God is merciful. Story of Moses and his servant in search of El ‘Hi.dhr: they lose their fish at the confluence of the two seas: they meet a strange prophet, who bids Moses not question anything he may do: he scuttles a ship, kills a boy, and builds up a tottering wall: Moses desires an explanation, which the stranger gives and leaves him. Story of DHu ’1 Qarnâin: he travels to the ocean of the setting sun: builds a rampart to keep in Gog and Magog: these are to be let loose again before the judgment day: reward and punishment on that day. Were the sea ink it would not suffice for the words of the Lord. The prophet is only a mortal.

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Zachariah prays for an heir: he is promised a son, who is to be called John: is struck dumb for three days as a sign. John is born and given the Book, judgment, grace, and purity. Story of Mary: the annunciation: her delivery beneath a palm tree: the infant Jesus in the cradle testifies to her innocence and to his own mission. Warning of the day of judgment. Story of Abraham: he reproves his father, who threatens to stone him: Abraham prays for him: Isaac and Jacob are born to him. Moses communes with God and has Aaron for a help. Ishmael and Idrîs mentioned as prophets. Their seed when the signs of the merciful are read fall down adoring. The Meccans, their successors, are promised reward in Paradise if they repent and believe. The angels only descend at the bidding of the Lord. Certainty of the resurrection:, punishment of those who have rebelled against the Merciful. Reproof to one who said he should have wealth and children on the judgment day. The false gods shall deny their worshippers then. The devils sent to tempt unbelievers. The gathering of the judgment day. All nature is convulsed at the imputation that the Merciful has begotten a son. This revelation is only to warn mankind by the example of the generations who have passed away.


The Qur’ân a reminder from the Merciful, who owns all things and knows all things. There is no god but He. His are the excellent names. Story of Moses: he perceives the fire and is addressed from it by God in the holy valley Tuvâ: God shows him the miracle of the staff turned to a snake and of the white hand: sends him to Pharaoh: Moses excuses himself because of the impediment in his speech. Aaron is given him as a minister. Moses' mother throws him in the sea: his sister watches him: he is restored to his mother. Slays an Egyptian and flees to Midian. Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh and call on him to believe: Pharaoh charges them with being magicians: their contest with the Egyptian magicians, who believe and are threatened with punishment by Pharaoh. Moses leads the children of Israel across the sea by a dry road: Pharaoh and his people are overwhelmed: the covenant on Mount Sinai: the miracle of the manna and quails. Es Sâmarîy makes the calf in Moses' absence. Moses seizes his

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brother angrily by the beard and destroys the calf. Misbelievers threatened with the terrors of the resurrection day: fate of the mountains on that day: all men shall be summoned to judgment: no intercession shall avail except from such as the Merciful permits. The Qur’ân is in Arabic that people may fear and remember. Mohammed is not to hasten on its revelation. Adam broke his covenant with God. Angels bidden to adore Adam: Iblîs refuses: tempts Adam: Adam, Eve, and Iblîs expelled from Paradise. Misbelievers shall be gathered together blind on the resurrection day. The Meccans pass by the ruined dwellings of the generations who have been aforetime destroyed for unbelief: but for the Lord's word being passed they would have perished too. Mohammed is exhorted to bear their insults patiently and to praise God throughout the day. Prayer enjoined. The fate of those of yore a sufficient sign. Let them wait and see the issue.


Men mock at the revelation: they say it is a 'jumble of dreams,' and that Mohammed is a poet, and they ask for a sign. The prophets of old were but mortal: the people who rejected them perished. Heaven and earth were not created in sport. Truth shall crush falsehood. All things praise God. If there were other gods than He heaven and earth would be corrupted. All former prophets were taught that there is no god but God. The Merciful has not begotten children: the angels are only his servants. The separation of earth from heaven, the creation of living things from water, the steadying of the earth by mountains and placing the sky as a roof over it, and the creation of the night and day and of the sun and moon are signs. No one was ever granted immortality: every soul must taste of death. The unbelievers mock at Mohammed and disbelieve in the Merciful. Man is hasty. The infidels are threatened with punishment in the next world. Those who mocked at the prophets of old perished. No one shall be wronged at the last day. Moses and Aaron received a scripture. Abraham destroys the images which his people worshipped: he tells them that it was the largest idol which did it: he is condemned to be burnt alive; but the fire is miraculously made cool and safe. Abraham, Lot, Isaac, and Jacob all inspired. Lot was brought safely out of a city of wrong-doers. Noah also was saved. David and Solomon give judgment about a field. The mountains and

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birds are made subject to David: he is taught the art of making coats of mail. The wind and the demons are subjected to Solomon. Job was saved. Ishmael, Idrîs, and DHu ’l Kifl were patient and entered into the mercy of the Lord. DHu ’nnûn (Jonah) was saved in the fish's belly. Zachariah had his prayer granted and a son (John) given him. The Spirit was breathed into the Virgin Mary. But their followers have divided into sects. A city once destroyed for unbelief shall not be restored till Gog and Magog are let loose. The promise draws nigh. Idolaters shall be the pebbles of hell. But the elect shall be spared the terror of that day; when the heavens shall be rolled up as Es-Sigill rolls up books. As is written in the Psalms, 'The righteous shall inherit the earth.' Mohammed sent as a mercy to the worlds. God is one God: He knows all: He is the Merciful.


Terrors of the last day; yet men dispute about God and follow devils. The conception, birth, growth, and death of men, and the growth of herbs in the ground are proofs of the resurrection. But some dispute, others waver between two opinions. The most desperate means cannot thwart the divine decrees. God will decide between the Jews, Christians, Sabæans, Magians, and Idolaters on the judgment day. All nature adores God. The misbelievers are threatened with hell-fire, and the believers promised Paradise. Punishment threatened to those who prohibit men from visiting the Sacred Mosque. Abraham when bidden to cleanse the Kaabah was told to proclaim the pilgrimage. The rules of the ‘Hagg enjoined. Cattle are lawful food. Warning against idolatry and exhortation to become ‘Hanîfs. Sacrifices at the Kaabah are enjoined. All men have their appointed rite. The name of God is to be mentioned over cattle when slaughtered. Camels may be sacrificed and eaten. God will defend believers, but loves not misbelieving traitors. Those who have been driven from their homes for acknowledging God's unity are allowed to fight. If men did not fight for such a cause, all places of worship would be destroyed. The people of Noah, ‘Âd, Thamûd, Abraham, and Lot called their prophets liars and were allowed to range at large, but at last they were punished. Their cities were destroyed and the ruins are visible to travellers still. Mohammed is only sent to warn the Meccans

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of a like fate. Satan contrives to suggest a wrong reading to the prophet while reading the Qur’ân 1. The kingdom shall be God's upon the judgment day. Those who flee or are slain in the cause shall be provided for and rewarded. Believers who take revenge and are again attacked will be helped. All nature is subject to God. Every nation has its rites to observe. The idolaters treat the revelation with scorn. The false gods could not even create a fly. Exhortation to worship God and fight for the faith of Abraham, whose religion the Muslims profess. God is the sovereign and helper.


The humble, chaste, and honest shall prosper. The creation, birth, death, and resurrection of man: God's goodness in providing for men's sustenance. Noah sent to his' people, who reject him because he is a mere mortal: they are drowned, and he is saved in the ark. Moses and Aaron were also called liars. Mary and her son the cause of their followers' division into sects. The God-fearing encouraged. The Qurâis rebuked for their pride, and for denying Mohammed, and calling him possessed. They are reminded of the famine and defeat they have already experienced. Doctrine of the resurrection. The unity of God: He has no offspring: is omniscient. Mohammed is encouraged not to care for the false accusations of the Meccans, but to seek refuge in God. Punishment, on the day of resurrection, of those who mocked at the little party of believers.


(This chapter deals with the accusation of unchastity against Ayesha. )

Punishment of the whore and the whoremonger. Witnesses required in the case of an imputation of unchastity to a wife. Vindication of Ayesha's character and denunciation of the accusers. Scandalmongers rebuked and threatened with punishment at the last day. Believers are not to enter other persons' houses without permission or in the absence of the owners. Chastity and modest deportment enjoined particularly upon women. Those by whom women may

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be seen unveiled. Slaves to be allowed to purchase their freedom. Slave girls not to be compelled to prostitute themselves. God the Light of the Heavens. Nothing keeps the believer from the service of God; but the unbeliever's works are like the mirage on a plain or like darkness on a deep sea. All nature is subject to God's control. Reproof to a sect who would not accept the prophet's arbitration. Actual obedience required rather than an oath that they will be obedient. Belief in the unity of God, steadfastness in prayer, and the giving of alms enjoined. Slaves and children not to be admitted into an apartment without asking permission, when the occupant is likely to be undressed. Rules for the social intercourse of women past child-bearing, and of the blind, lame, or sick. Persons in whose houses it is lawful to eat food. Salutations to be exchanged on entering houses. Behaviour of the Muslims towards the Apostle. He is to be more respectfully addressed than other people.


The 'Discrimination' sent down as a warning that God is one, the creator and governor of all; yet the Meccans call it 'old folks’ tales:' they object that the prophet acts and lives as a mere mortal, or is crazy. Hell-fire shall be the punishment of those who disbelieve in the resurrection. Description of the judgment day. The Qurâis object that the Qur’ân was revealed piecemeal. Moses and Aaron and Noah were treated like Mohammed, but those who called them liars were punished: ‘Âd and Thamûd perished for the same sin: the ruins of the cities of the plain are existing examples: yet they will not accept the prophet. God controls the shadow; gives night for a repose; quickens the dead earth with rain. He lets loose the two seas, but places a barrier between them. He has created man. He is the loving and merciful God. The Qurâis object to the 'Merciful' as a new God. The lowly and moderate are His servants: they abstain from idolatry, murder, false witness, and frivolous discourse. These shall be rewarded. God cares nothing for the rejection of his message by the infidels: their punishment shall be lasting.


Mohammed is not to be vexed by the people's unbelief. Though called a liar now, his cause shall triumph in the end. Moses sent

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to Pharaoh: he fears lest he maybe killed for slaying the Egyptian. Pharaoh charges him with ingratitude. Their dispute about God. Pharaoh claims godhead himself. The miracles of the rod and the 'white hand.' Moses' contest with the magicians: the magicians are conquered and believe: Pharaoh threatens them with condign punishment. The Israelites leave Egypt and are pursued. The passing of the Red Sea and destruction of Pharaoh and his hosts. The story of Abraham: he preaches against idolatry. Noah is called a liar and vindicated. Hûd preaches to the people of ‘Âd, and Zâli‘h to Thamûd: the latter hamstring the she-camel and perish. The crime and punishment of the people of Sodom. The people of the Grove and the prophet Sho’hâib. The Qur’ân revealed through the instrumentality of the Faithful Spirit (Gabriel), in plain Arabic. The learned Jews recognise its truth from the prophecies in their own Scriptures. The devils could not have brought it. Mohammed is to be meek towards believers and to warn his clansmen. 'Those upon whom the devils do descend, namely, the poets who 'wander distraught in every vale.'


The Qur’ân a guidance to believers. God appears to Moses in the fire: Moses is sent to Pharaoh with signs, but is called a 'sorcerer.' David and Solomon endowed with knowledge. Solomon taught the speech of birds. His army of men, ginns, and birds marches through the valley of the ant. One ant bids the rest retire to their holes lest Solomon and his hosts crush them. Solomon smiles and answers her. He reviews the birds and misses the hoopoe, who, returning, brings news of the magnificence of the queen of Sheba. Solomon sends him back with a letter to the queen. A demon brings him her throne. She comes to Solomon; recognises her throne; marvels at the palace with a glass floor, which she mistakes for water: becomes a Muslim. Thamûd reject Zâli‘h and perish. Lot is saved, while the people of Sodom are destroyed. The Lord the God of nature; the only God and creator. Certainty of the resurrection. The ruins of ancient cities an example. The Qur’ân decides disputed points for the Jews. Mohammed bidden to trust in God, for he cannot make the deaf to hear his message. The beast that shall appear at the resurrection. Terrors of the last day. The prophet bidden to worship 'the Lord of this land,' to recite the Qur’ân, and to become a Muslim.

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The history of Moses and Pharaoh: the latter and his vizier Hâmân oppress the children of Israel. Moses is exposed on the river by his mother: he is adopted by Pharaoh: his sister watches him, and his mother is engaged to nurse him. He grows up and slays the Egyptian: flees to Midian: helps the two maidens to draw water: serves their father Sho’hâib for ten years and then marries his daughter. God appears to him in the fire in the holy valley of Tuvâ, in Sinai. Is sent with his brother Aaron to Pharaoh. Hâmân builds Pharaoh a high tower to ascend to the God of Moses. His punishment. Moses gives the law. These stories are proofs of Mohammed's mission. The Arabs reject the book of Moses and the Qur’ân as two impostures. Those who have the Scriptures recognise the truth of the Qur’ân. The Meccans warned by the example of the cities of old that have perished. Disappointment of the idolaters at the day of judgment. Helplessness of the idols before God. Qarûn's great wealth: the earth opens and swallows him up for his pride and his insolence to Moses. Mohammed encouraged in his faith and purpose.


Believers must be proved. Kindness to be shown to parents; but they are not to be obeyed if they endeavour to lead their children to idolatry. The hypocrites stand by the Muslims only in success. The unbelievers try to seduce the believers by offering to bear their sins. Noah delivered from the deluge. Abraham preaches against idolatry. Is cast into the fire, but saved: flees from his native land: Isaac and Jacob born to him. Lot and the fate of the inhabitants of Sodom. Midian and their prophet Sho’hâib. ‘Âd and Thamûd. Fate of Qarûn, Pharaoh, and Hâmân. Similitude of the spider. Mohammed bidden to rehearse the Qur’ân. Prayer enjoined. Those who have the Scriptures are to be mildly dealt with in disputation. They believe in the Qur’ân. Mohammed unable to read. Signs are only in the power of God. The idolaters reproved, and threatened with punishment. The believers promised reward. God provides for all. This, world is but a sport. God saves men in dangers by sea, yet they are ungrateful. The territory of Mecca inviolable. Exhortation to strive for the faith.

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Victory of the Persians over the Greeks: prophecy of the coming triumph of the latter. The Meccans warned by the fate of former cities. The idols shall forsake them at the resurrection: the believers shall enter Paradise. God is to be praised in the morning and evening and at noon and sunset. His creation of man and of the universe and His providence are signs. He is the incomparable Lord of all. Warning against idolatry and schism. Honesty inculcated and usury reproved. God only creates and kills. Corruption in the earth through sin. The fate of former idolaters. Exhortation to believe before the sudden coming of the judgment day. God's sending rain to quicken the earth is a sign of His power. Mohammed cannot make the deaf hear his message. Warning of the last day.


The Qur’ân a guidance to believers. Denunciation of one who purchased Persian legends and preferred them to the Qur’ân. God in nature. Other gods can create nothing. Wisdom granted to Loqmân: his advice to his son. The obstinacy of the infidels rebuked. If the sea were ink and the trees pens they would not suffice to write the words of the Lord. God manifest in the night and day, in the sun and moon, and in rescuing men from dangers by sea. God only knows the future.


The Qur’ân is truth from the Lord. God the creator and governor. The resurrection. Conduct of true believers when they hear the word: their reward: the punishment of misbelievers: description of hell. The people are exhorted to believe and are admonished by the fate of the ruined cities they see around them: they are warned of the judgment day


Mohammed is warned against the hypocrites. Wives divorced by the formula 'thou art henceforth to me like my mother's back' are not to be considered as real mothers and as such regarded as unlawful. Neither are adopted sons to be looked upon as real sons. The real ties of kinship and consanguinity are to supersede

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the tie of sworn brotherhood 1. God's covenant with the prophets. Miraculous interference in favour of the Muslims when besieged by the confederate army at Medînah. Conduct of the 'hypocrites' on the occasion. Departure of the invaders. Siege and defeat of the Benu Qurâithah Jews: the men are executed: their women and children are sold into slavery and their property confiscated. Laws for the prophet's wives: they are to be discreet and avoid ostentation. Encouragement to the good and true believers of either sex. Vindication of Mohammed's conduct in marrying Zâinab the divorced wife of his freedman and adopted son Zâid (who is mentioned by name). No term need be observed in the case of women divorced before cohabitation, Peculiar privileges granted to Mohammed in the matter of women. Limitation of his license to take wives. Muslims are not to enter the prophet's house without permission: after eating they are to retire without inconveniencing him by familiar discourse: are to be very modest in their demeanour to his wives: are not to marry any of his wives after him. Those relations who are permitted to see them unveiled. God and His angels bless the prophet. Slander of misbelievers will be punished. The women are to dress modestly. Warning to the hypocrites and disaffected at Medînah. The fate of the infidels at the last judgment. Man alone of all creation undertook the responsibility of faith.


The omniscience of God. Those who have received knowledge recognise the revelation. The unbelievers mock at Mohammed for preaching the resurrection. The birds and mountains sing praises with David: iron softened for him: he makes coats of mail. The wind subjected to Solomon: a fountain of brass made to flow for him: the ginns compelled to work for him: his death only discovered by means of the worm that gnawed the staff that supported his corpse. The prosperity of Sebâ: bursting of the dyke (el ‘Arim) and ruin of the town. Helplessness of the false gods: they cannot intercede for their worshippers when assembled at the last day. Fate of the misbelievers on that day: the proud and the weak shall dispute as to which misled the others. The affluence of the Meccans will only increase their ruin. The angels shall disown the worshippers of false gods. The Meccans accuse

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[paragraph continues] Mohammed of imposture; so did other nations deal with their prophets and were punished for it. Mohammed is cleared of the suspicion of insanity. The wretched plight of the misbelievers on the last day.


Praise of God, who makes the angels his messengers. God's unity: apostles before Mohammed were accused of imposture. Punishment in store for the unbelievers. Mohammed is not to be vexed on their account. God sends rain to quicken the dead earth: this is a sign of the resurrection. The power of God shown in all nature: the helplessness of the idols. They will disclaim then worshippers at the resurrection. No soul shall bear the burden of another. Mohammed cannot compel people to believe: he is only a warner. Other nations have accused, their prophets of imposture, and perished. Reward of the God-fearing, of believers, and of those who read and follow the Qur’ân: punishment of hell for the infidels. The idolaters shall be confounded on the judgment day. The Qurâis in spite of their promises and of the examples around them are more arrogant and unbelieving than other people If God were to punish men as they deserve he would not leave so much as a beast on the earth; but He respites them for a time.


Mohammed is God's messenger, and the Qur’ân is a revelation from God to warn a heedless people. The infidels are predestined not to believe. All men's works shall be recorded. The apostles of Jesus rejected at Antioch: ‘Habîb en Naggâr exhorts the people to follow their advice: he is stoned to death by the populace: Gabriel cries out and the sinful people are destroyed. Men will laugh at the apostles who come to them; but they have an example in the nations who have perished before them. The quickening of the dead earth is a sign of the resurrection. God's power shown in the procreation of' species. The alternation of night and day, the phases of me moon, the sun and moon in their orbits, are signs of God's power. So too the preservation of men in ships at sea. Almsgiving enjoined: the unbelievers jeer at the command. The sudden coming of the judgment day. Blessed

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state of the believers in Paradise, and misery of the unbelievers in hell. Mohammed is no mere poet. The Qur’ân an admonition. God's providence. The false gods will not be able to help their worshippers. Proofs of the resurrection.


Oath by the angels ranged in rank, by those who drive the clouds, and by those who rehearse the Qur’ân that God is one alone! They guard the gates of heaven, and pelt the devils who would listen there with shooting-stars. Do the Meccans imagine themselves stronger than the angels that they mock at God's signs and deny the resurrection? The false gods and the Meccans shall recriminate each other at the judgment day. They say now, 'Shall we leave our gods for a mad poet?' They shall taste hell-fire for their unbelief, while the believers are in Paradise. Description of the delights thereof: the maidens there: the blessed shall see their unbelieving former comrades in hell. Immortality of the blessed. Ez Zaqqûm the accursed tree in hell: horrors of that place. The posterity of Noah were blessed. Abraham mocks at and breaks the idols. He is condemned to be burnt alive, but is delivered is commanded to offer up his son Ishmael as a sacrifice; obeys, but his son is spared. His posterity is blessed. Moses and Aaron too left a good report behind them; so too did Elias, who protested against the worship of Baal. Lot was saved. Jonas was delivered after having been thrown overboard and swallowed by a fish. The gourd. Jonas is sent to preach to the people of the city (of Nineveh). The Meccans rebuked for saying that God has daughters, and for saying that He is akin to the ginns. The angels declare that they are but the humble servants of God. The success of the prophet and the confusion of the infidels foretold.


Oath by the Qur’ân. Example of former generations who perished for unbelief and for saying that their prophets were sorcerers and the Scriptures forgeries: the Meccans are warned thereby. Any hosts of the confederates shall be touted. Fate of the people of Noah, Pharaoh, Thamûd, and Lot: the Meccans must expect the same. Mohammed exhorted to be patient of what they say: he is reminded of the powers bestowed on David. The parable of the ewe Iambs proposed to David by

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the two antagonists. David exhorted not to follow lust. The heaven and earth were not created in vain as the misbelievers think: the Qur’ân a reminder. Solomon lost in admiration of his horses neglects his devotions, but repenting slays them. A ginn in Solomon's likeness is set on his throne to punish him: he repents, and prays God for a kingdom such as no one should ever possess again. The wind and the devils made subject to him. The patience of Job. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: Elisha and DHu ’l Kifl. Happiness of the righteous in Paradise. Misery and mutual recrimination of the wicked in hell. Mohammed only sent to warn people and proclaim God's unity. The creation of man and disobedience of Iblîs, who is expelled: he is respited till the judgment day that he may seduce people to misbelief. But he and those who follow him shall fill hell.


Rebuke to the idolaters who say they serve false gods as a means of access to God himself. The unity of God, the creator and controller of the universe. His independence and omnipotence. Ingratitude of man for God's help. Difference between the believers and unbelievers. Mohammed is called to sincerity of religion and to Islam: he is to fear the torment at the judgment day if he disobeys the call. Hell-fire is prepared for the infidels. Paradise promised to those who avoid idolatry. The irrigation of the soil and the growth of corn are signs. The Qur’ân makes the skins of those who fear God creep. Threat of the judgment day. The Meccans are warned by the fate of their predecessors not to reject the Qur’ân. Parable showing the uncertain position of the idolaters. Mohammed not immortal. Warning to those who lie against God, and promise of reward to those who assert the truth. Mohammed is not to be frightened with the idols of the Meccans. Their helplessness demonstrated. The Qur’ân is a guide, but the prophet cannot compel men to follow it. Human souls are taken to God during sleep, and those who are destined to live on are sent back. No intercession allowed with God. The doctrine of the unity of God terrifies the idolaters. Prayer to God to decide between them. The infidels will regret on the resurrection day. Ingratitude of man for God's help in trouble. The Meccans are warned by the fate of their predecessors. Exhortation to repentance before it is too late. Salvation of the God-fearing. God the

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creator and controller of everything. Description of the last judgment. All souls driven in troops to heaven or to hell.


Attributes of God. Mohammed encouraged by the fate of other nations who rejected their apostles. The angels' prayer for the believers. Despair in hell of the idolaters. The terrors of the judgment day. God alone the omniscient judge. The vestiges of former nations are still visible in the land to warn the people. The story of Moses and Pharaoh: the latter wishes to kill Moses; but a secret believer makes a long appeal: Pharaoh bids Hâmân construct a tower to mount up to the God of Moses. God saves the believer, and Pharaoh is ruined by his own devices. Mutual recrimination of the damned. Exhortation to patience and praise. Those who wrangle about God rebuked. The certain coming of the Hour. The unity of God asserted and His attributes enumerated. Idolatry forbidden. The conception, birth, life, and death of man. Idolaters shall find out their error in hell. Mohammed encouraged to wait for the issue. Cattle to ride on and to eat are signs of God's providence. The example of the nations who perished of old for rejecting the Apostle.


The Meccans are called on to believe the Qur’ân. The creation of the heavens and the earth. Warning from the fate of Ad and Thamûd. The very skins of the unbelievers shall bear witness against them on the day of judgment. Punishment of those who reject the Qur’ân. The angels descend and encourage those who believe, Precept to return good for evil. Refuge to be sought with God against temptation from the devil. Against sun and moon worship. The angels praise God, though the idolaters are too proud to do so. The quickening of the earth with rain is a sign. The Qur’ân a confirmation of previous scriptures. If it had been revealed in a foreign tongue the people would have objected that they could not understand it, and that the prophet being an Arab should have had a revelation in his own language. Moses' scripture was also the subject of dispute. God is omniscient. The false gods will desert their worshippers at the resurrection. Man's ingratitude for God's help in trouble. God is sufficient witness of the truth.

p. cix


The Qur’ân inspired by God to warn 'the Mother of cities' of the judgment to come. God is one, the creator of all things, who provides for all. He calls men to the same religion as that of the prophets of old, which men have broken up into sects. Mohammed has only to proclaim his message. Those who' argue about God shall be confuted. None knows when the Hour shall come but God. The idolaters shall only have their portion in this life. God will vindicate the truth of His revelation. His creation and providence signs of His power. Men's misfortunes by land .and sea are due to their own sins. The provision of the next world is best for the righteous. It is not sinful to retaliate if wronged, though forgiveness is a duty. The sinners shall have none to help them on the day of judgment: they are exhorted to repent before it comes. Ingratitude of man. God controls all. No mortal has ever seen God face to face: He speaks to men only through inspiration or His apostles. This Qur’ân was revealed by a spirit to guide into the right way.


The original of the Qur’ân is with God. The example. of the nations of old who mocked at the prophets. God the creator. Men are bidden to praise Him who provides man with ships and cattle whereon to ride. The Arabs are rebuked for attributing female offspring to God, when they themselves repine when a female child is born to any one of them. They are also blamed for asserting that the angels are females. The excuse that this was the religion of their fathers will not avail: it is the same as older nations made: their fate. Abraham disclaimed idolatry. The Meccans were permitted to enjoy prosperity only until the Apostle came; and now that he has come they reject him. They are reproved for saying that had the prophet been a man of consideration at Mecca and Tâ’if they would have owned him. Misbelievers would have had still more wealth and enjoyment, but that men would have then all become infidels. Those who turn from the admonition shall be chained to devils, who shall mislead them. God will take vengeance on them whether Mohammed live to see it or not: he is encouraged to persevere. Moses was mocked by Pharaoh, whom he was sent to warn. But Pharaoh and his people

p. cx

were drowned. Answer to the Arabs who objected that Jesus too must come under the ban against false gods. But Jesus did not assume to be a god. Threat of the coming of the Hour. The joys of Paradise and the terrors of Hell. The damned shall beg Mâlik to make an end of them. The recording angels note down the Secret plots of the infidels. God has no son: He is the Lord of all.


Night of the revelation of the Qur’ân. Unity of God. Threat of the last day, when a smoke shall cover the heavens, and the unbelievers shall be punished for rejecting the prophet and saying he is taught by others or distracted. Fate of Pharaoh for rejecting Moses: fate of the people of Tubbâ’h. The judgment day: the tree Zaqqûm and the punishment of hell. Paradise and the virgins thereof. The Qur’ân revealed in Arabic for an admonition.


God revealed in nature: denunciation of the infidels: trading by sea a sign of God's providence. The law first given to Israel, then to Mohammed in the Qur’ân. Answer to the infidels who deny the resurrection, and warning of their fate on that day.


God the only God and creator. The unbelievers call Mohammed a sorcerer or a forger. The book of Moses was revealed before, and the Qur’ân is a confirmation of it in Arabic. Conception, birth, and life of man. Kindness to parents and acceptance of Islam enjoined. The misbelievers are warned by the example of ‘Âd, who dwelt in A‘hqâf; and by that of the cities whose ruins lie around Mecca. Allusion to the ginns who listened to Mohammed's preaching at Na‘hleh on his return from Tâ’if. Warning to unbelievers of the punishment of the last day.


Promise of reward to believers. Exhortation to deal severely with the enemy. Description of Paradise and of Hell. Reproof to some pretended believers and hypocrites who hesitate to obey the command to make war against the unbeliever. Their secret malice shall be revealed. Exhortation to believe, and to obey God and the Apostle, and sacrifice all for the faith.

p. cxi


Announcement of a victory 1. God comforts the believers and punishes the hypocrites and idolaters. The oath of fealty: the cowardice and excuses of the desert Arabs with regard to the expedition of El ‘Hudâibîyeh. Those left behind wish to share the spoils gained at Khâibar. The incapacitated alone are to be excused. The oath of fealty at the Tree 2. God prevented a collision between the Meccans and the Muslims when the latter were prohibited from making the pilgrimage. Prophecy of the pilgrimage to be completed the next year.


Rebuke to some of the Muslims who had presumed too much in the presence of the Apostle, and of others who had called out rudely to him: also of a man who had nearly induced Mohammed to attack a tribe who were still obedient; of certain Muslims who contended together; of others who use epithets of abuse against each other; who entertain unfounded suspicions. Exhortation to obedience and reproof of the hypocrites.


Proofs in nature of a future life. Example of the fate of the nations of old who rejected the apostles. Creation of man: God's proximity to him: the two recording angels: death and resurrection. The last judgment and exhortation to believe.


Oaths by different natural phenomenon that the judgment day will come. Story of Abraham's entertaining the angels: the destruction of Sodom. Fate of Pharaoh, of ‘Âd, of Thamûd, and of the people of Noah. Vindication of Mohammed against the charges of imposture or madness.


Oath by Mount Sinai and other things. Terrors of the last day. Bliss of Paradise. Mohammed is neither a madman, soothsayer, poet, nor imposter. Reproof of the Meccans for their superstitions, and for proudly rejecting the prophet.

p. cxii


Oath by 'the star' that Mohammed's vision of his ascent to heaven was not a delusion. Description of the same. The amended passage relating to Allât, El ’Huzzah, and Manât 1. Wickedness of asserting the angels to be females. God's omniscience. Rebuke of an apostate who paid another to take upon him his burden at the judgment day. Definition of the true religion, and enumeration of God's attributes.


'The splitting asunder of the moon.' Mohammed accused of imposture. The Meccans warned by the stories of Noah and the deluge, of Thamûd, the people of Sodom, and Pharaoh. The sure coming of the judgment.


An enumeration of the works of the Lord, ending with a description of heaven and hell. A refrain runs throughout this chapter, Which then of your Lord's bounties do ye twain deny?'


Terrors of the inevitable day of judgment: description of heaven and hell. Proofs in nature. None but the clean may touch the Qur’ân. The condition of a dying man.


God the controller of all nature. Exhortation to embrace Islâm. Those who do so before the taking of Mecca are to have the precedence. Discomfiture of the hypocrites and unbelievers at the last day. The powers vouchsafed to former apostles.


Abolition of the idolatrous custom of divorcing women with the formula 'thou art to me as my mother's back.' God's omniscience and omnipresence: He knows the secret plottings of the disaffected. Discourse on the duties of true believers. Denunciation of those who oppose the Apostle.


The chastisements of the Jews who would not believe in the

p. cxiii

[paragraph continues] Qur’ân. The division of the spoils. The treacherous conduct of the hypocrites. The power of the Qur’ân. God's mighty attributes.


Exhortations to the Muslims not to treat secretly with the Qurâis. Abraham's example. Other idolaters who have not borne arms against them may be made friends of. Women who desert from the infidels are to be tried before being received into Islâm; if they are really believers they are ipso facto divorced. The husbands are to be recompensed to the amount of the women's dowries.


Believers are bidden to keep their word and to fight for the faith. Moses was disobeyed by his people. Jesus prophesies the coming of Ahmed: the Christians rebuked.


God has sent the 'illiterate prophet.' The Jews rebuked for unbelief. Muslims are not to leave the congregation during divine service for the sake of merchandise.


The treacherous designs of the hypocrites revealed.

LXIV. THE CHAPTER OF CHEATING. (Place of origin doubtful.)

God the creator: the resurrection: the unity of God. Wealth and children must not distract men from the service of God.


The laws of divorce. The Arabs are admonished, by the fate of former nations, to believe in God. The seven stories of heaven and earth.


The prophet is relieved from a vow he had made to please his wives. The jealousies in his harem occasioned by his intrigue with the Coptic slave-girl Mary. Exhortation to hostilities against the infidels. The example of the disobedient wives of Noah and Lot: and of the good wife of Pharaoh: and of the Virgin Mary.

p. cxiv


God the lord of the heavens; the marvels thereof. The discomfiture of the misbelievers in Hell. The power of God exhibited in nature. Warnings and threats of punishment.

LXVIII. THE CHAPTER OF THE PEN (also called NÛN). (Mecca.)

Mohammed is neither mad nor an impostor. Denounced by an insolent opponent. Example from the fate of the owner of the 'gardens.' Unbelievers threatened. Mohammed exhorted to be, patient and not to follow the example of Jonah.


The infallible judgment. Fate of those who denied it, of ‘Âd, Thamûd, and Pharaoh. The deluge and the last judgment. Vindication of Mohammed from the charge of having forged the Qur’ân.


An unbeliever mockingly calls for a judgment on himself and his companions. The terrors of the judgment day. Man's ingratitude. Adultery denounced. Certainty of the judgment day.


Noah's preaching to the antediluvians: their five idols also worshipped by the Arabs: their fate.


A crowd of ginns listen to Mohammed's teaching at Na‘hleh: their account of themselves. Mohammed exhorted to persevere in preaching.


Mohammed when wrapped up in his mantle is bidden to arise and pray: is bidden to repeat the Qur’ân and to practise devotion by night: he is to bear with the unbelievers for a while. Pharaoh rejected the Apostle sent to him. Stated times for prayer pre-scribed. Almsgiving prescribed.


Mohammed while covered up is bidden to arise and preach 1.

p. cxv

[paragraph continues] Denunciation of a rich infidel who mocks at the revelation. Hell and its nineteen angels. The infidels rebuked for demanding material scriptures as a proof of Mohammed's mission.


The resurrection. Mohammed is bidden not to be hurried in repeating the Qur’ân so as to commit it to memory. Dying agony of an infidel.


Man's conception and birth. Unbelievers warned and believers promised a reward. Exhortation to charity. Bliss of the charitable in Paradise. The Qur’ân revealed by degrees. Only those believe whom God wills.


Oath, by the angels who execute God's behests. Terrors of the last day. Hell and heaven.


Another description of the day of judgment, hell, and heaven.


The coming of the day of judgment. The call of Moses. His interview with Pharaoh: chastisement of the latter. The creation arid resurrection.


The prophet rebuked for frowning on a poor blind believer. The creation and resurrection.


Terrors of the judgment day. The female child who has been burned alive will demand vengeance. Allusion to the prophet's vision of Gabriel on Mount Hirâ. He is vindicated from the charge of madness.


Signs of the judgment day. Guardian angels.

p. cxvi


Fraudulent traders are warned. Siggîn, the register of the acts of the wicked. Hell and heaven.


Signs of the judgment day. The books of men's actions. The resurrection. Denunciation of misbelievers.


Denunciation of those who persecuted believers. Example of the fate of Pharaoh and Thamûd.


By the night star! every soul has a guardian angel. Creation and resurrection of man. The plot of the infidels shall be frustrated.


Mohammed shall not forget any of the revelation save what God pleases, The revelation is the same as that given to Abraham and Moses.


Description of the last day, heaven, and hell.


Fate of previous nations who rejected the apostles. Admonition to those who rely too much on their prosperity.


Exhortation to practise charity.


Purity of the Soul brings happiness. Example of Thamûd.


Promise of reward to believers and of punishment to idolaters.


Mohammed encouraged and bidden to remember how God has

p. cxvii

cared for him hitherto; he is to be charitable in return, and to publish God's goodness.


God has made Mohammed's mission easier to him.

XCV. THE CHAPTER OF THE FIG. (Place of origin doubtful.)

The degradation of man: future reward and punishment.


Mohammed's first call to 'Read' the Qur’ân. Denunciation of Abu Laheb for his opposition.

XCVII. THE CHAPTER OF 'POWER.' (Place of origin doubtful.)

The Qur’ân revealed on 'the night of power.' Its excellence angels descend thereon.

XCV III. THE CHAPTER OF THE MANIFEST SIGN. (Place of origin doubtful.)

Rebuke to Jews and Christians for doubting the manifest sign of Mohammed's mission.

XCIX. THE CHAPTER OF THE EARTHQUAKE. (Place of origin doubtful.)

The earthquake preceding the judgment day.


Oath by the charging of war horses. Man is ungrateful: certainty of the judgment.


The terrors of the last day and of hell-fire.


Two families of the Arabs rebuked for contending which was the more numerous. Warning of the punishment of hell.


Believers only shall prosper.


Backbiters shall be cast into hell.

p. cxviii


The miraculous destruction of the Abyssinian army under Abraha al Asram by birds when invading Mecca with elephants.


The Qurâis are bidden to give thanks to God for the trade of their two yearly caravans.

CVII. THE CHAPTER OF 'NECESSARIES.' (Place of origin doubtful.)

Denunciation of the unbelieving and uncharitable.


Mohammed is commanded to offer the sacrifices out of his abundance. Threat that his enemies shall be childless.


The prophet will not follow the religion of the misbelievers.


Prophecy that men shall join Islâm by troops.


Denunciation of Abu Laheb and his wife, who are threatened with hell-fire.

CXII. THE CHAPTER OF UNITY. (Place of origin doubtful.)

Declaration of God's unity.

CXIII. THE CHAPTER OF THE DAYBREAK. (Place of origin doubtful.)

The prophet seeks refuge in God from evil influences.

CXIV. THE CHAPTER OF MEN. (Place of origin doubtful.)

The prophet seeks refuge in God from the devil and his evil suggestions.


lxxxvii:1 This is constantly alluded to in Persian mystical poetry as Rozialast, 'the day of "Am I not?"'

lxxxvii:2 As Allâh, not Allât, the name of a goddess. See p. 160, note 1.

lxxxviii:1 See Introduction, p. xxxiv.

xciii:1 Here used for the Scriptures generally.

xcix:1 An allusion to the tradition of Mohammed's acknowledgment of the goddesses Allât, Al ’Huzzâ, and Manât. See Introduction, pp. xxvi and xxvii.

civ:1 See Introduction, p. xxxiv.

cxi:1 See note to the passage in the translation.

cxi:2 See Introduction, p. xl.

cxii:1 See Introduction, pp. xxvi, xxvii.

cxiv:1 This part of the sûrah is the second revelation after the appearance of the archangel Gabriel on Mount Hirâ; see Introduction, p. xx.

Next: I. The Opening Chapter