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Satapatha Brahmana Part IV (SBE43), Julius Eggeling tr. [1897], at

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8:1:3:11. As to this they say, 'What are the vital airs (prâna), and what the Prânabhritah?'--The vital airs are just the vital airs, and the Prânabhritah (holders of the vital airs) are the limbs, for the limbs do hold the vital airs. But, indeed, the vital airs are the vital airs, and the Prânabhrit is food, for food does uphold the vital airs.

8:1:3:22. As to this they say, 'How do all these (Prânabhrit-bricks) of him (Agni and the Sacrificer) come to be of Pragâpati's nature?'--Doubtless in that with all of them he says, 'By thee, taken by Pragâpati:' it is in this way, indeed, that they all come to be for him of Pragâpati's nature 1.

8:1:3:33. As to this they say, 'As they chant and recite for the cup when drawn, wherefore, then, does he put in verses and hymn-tunes 2 before (the drawing of) the cups?'--Doubtless, the completion of the sacrificial work has to be kept in view;--now with the opening hymn-verse the cup is drawn; and on the verse (rik) the tune (sâman) is sung: this means that he thereby puts in for him (Agni) both the verses and hymn-tunes before (the drawing of) the cups. And when after (the drawing of) the cups there are the chanting (of the Stotra) and the recitation (of the Sastra): this means that thereby he puts in for him both the stomas (hymn-forms) and the prishtha (sâmans) after (the drawing of) the cups 3.

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8:1:3:44. As to this they say, 'If these three are done together--the soma-cup, the chant, and the recitation,--and he puts in only the soma-cup and the chant, how comes the recitation also in this case to be put (into the sacrificial work) for him 1?' But, surely, what the chant is that is the recitation 2; for on whatsoever (verses) they chant a tune, those same (verses) he (the Hotri) recites thereafter 3; and in this way, indeed, the Sastra also comes in this case to be put in for him.

8:1:3:55. As to this they say, 'When he speaks first of three in the same way as of a father's son 4, how, then, does this correspond as regards the rile and sâman?' The sâman, doubtless, is the husband of the

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[paragraph continues] Rik; and hence were he also in their case to speak as of a father's son, it would be as if he spoke of him who is the husband, as of the son: therefore it corresponds as regards the rik and sâman. 'And why does he thrice carry on (the generation from father to son)?'--father, son, and grandson: it is these he thereby carries on; and therefore one and the same (man) offers (food) to them 1.

8:1:3:66. Those (bricks) which he lays down in front are the holders of the upward air (the breath, prâna); those behind are the eye-holders, the holders of the downward air (apâna) 2; those on the right side are the mind-holders, the holders of the circulating air (vyâna); those on the left side are the ear-holders, the holders of the outward air (udâna); and those in the middle are the speech-holders, the holders of the pervading air (samâna).

8:1:3:77. Now the Karakâdhvaryus, indeed, lay down different (bricks) as holders of the downward air, of the circulating air, of the outward air, of the pervading air, as eye-holders, mind-holders, ear-holders, and speech-holders; but let him not do this, for they do what is excessive, and in this (our) way, indeed, all those forms are laid (into Agni).

8:1:3:88. Now, when he has laid down (the bricks) in

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front, he lays down those at the back (of the altar); for the upward air, becoming the downward air, passes along thus from the tips of the fingers; and the downward air, becoming the upward air, passes along thus from the tips of the toes: hence when, after laying down (the bricks) in front, he lays down those at the back, he thereby makes these two breathings continuous and connects them; whence these two breathings are continuous and connected.

8:1:3:99. And when he has laid down those on the right side, he lays down those on the left side; for the outward air, becoming the circulating air, passes along thus from the tips of the fingers 1; and the circulating air, becoming the outward air, passes along thus from the tips of the fingers 1: hence when, after laying down (the bricks) on the right side, he lays down those on the left side, he thereby makes these two breathings continuous and connects them; whence these two breathings are continuous and connected.

8:1:3:1010. And those (bricks) which he lays down in the centre are the vital air; he lays them down on the range of the two Retahsik (bricks), for the retahsik are the ribs, and the ribs are the middle: he thus lays the vital air into him (Agni and the Sacrificer) in the very middle (of the body). On every side he lays down (the central bricks) 2: in every part he thus

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lays vital air into him; and in the same way indeed that intestinal breath (channel) is turned all round

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the navel. He lays them down both lengthwise and crosswise 1, whence there are here in the body (channels of) the vital airs both lengthwise and crosswise. He lays them down touching each other: he thereby makes these vital airs continuous and connects them; whence these (channels of the) vital airs are continuous and connected.


13:1 Or, come to be (Agni-) Pragâpati's (prâgâpatyâ bhavanti).

13:2 In laying down the different sets of Prânabhrit-bricks the priest is said (in VIII, 1, 1, 5; 8; 2, 2; 5; 8) symbolically to put into the sacrificial work (or into the altar, Agni) 'both verses or metres (as Gâyatrî, Trishtubh, &c.) and hymn-tunes (as Gâyatra. Svâra, &c.).

13:3 It is not quite clear whether this is the correct construction of p. 14 the text, especially as, in the paragraph referred to in. the last note, it is not only the metres and tunes that are supposed to be put in along with the Prânabhritah, but also the stomas and prishtha-sâmans.

14:1 Only soma-cups (graha) and hymn-tunes (sâman) and hymn-forms (stoma) are specially named in connection with these bricks, but no sastras.

14:2 Every stotra, chanted by the Udgâtris, is followed by a sastra recited by the Hotri or one of his assistants.

14:3 Most chants (stotra) consisting of a single triplet (e. g. the Prishtha-stotras at the midday service) have their text (stotriyatrika) included in the corresponding sastra recited by the Hotri, or one of the Hotrakas; it being followed, on its part, by the recitation of an analogous triplet (anurûpa, 'similar or corresponding,' i.e. antistrophe) usually commencing with the very same word, or words, as the stotriya.

14:4 As in the case of the first (south-west) set of bricks, VIII, 1, 1, 4-6, he puts down the first four with 'This one, in front, the existent,' 'His, the existent's son, the breath,' 'Spring, the son of the breath,' and 'The Gâyatrî, the daughter of spring,'--implying three generations from father to son (or daughter). In the formulas of the remaining bricks of each set referring to the metres (or verses, ilk) and hymn-tunes (sâman) the statement of descent is expressed more vaguely by, 'From the Gâyatrî (is derived) the Gâyatra,' &c.

15:1 At the offerings to the Fathers, or deceased ancestors, oblations are made to the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather; see II, 4, 2, 23.

15:2 Sâyana, on Taitt. S. IV, 3, 3, explains 'prâna' by 'bahihsamkârarûpa,' and 'apâna' by 'punarantahsamkârarûpa;' see also part i, p. 120, note 2; but cp. Maitry-up. II, 6; H. Walter, Hathayogapradipikâ, p. xviii. Beside the fifty bricks called 'Prânabhritah,' the Taittirîyas also place fifty Apânabhritah in the first layer of the altar.

16:1 ? Or, perhaps, the fingers and toes. The same word (aṅguli), having both meanings, makes it difficult exactly to understand these processes. The available MSS. of Harisvâmin's commentary unfortunately afford no help.

16:2 That is to say, he lays down the fifth set round the (central) Svayamâtrinnâ, on the range of the two Retahsik bricks. It is, p. 17 however, not quite clear in what particular manner this fifth set of ten bricks is to be arranged round the centre so as to touch one another. The two Retahsik bricks, occupying each a space of a square foot north and south of the spine, are separated from the central (Svayamâtrinnâ) brick by the Dviyagus brick a foot square. The inner side of the retahsik-space would thus be a foot and a half, and their outer side two feet and a half, distant from the central point of the altar. The retahsik range, properly speaking, would thus consist of a circular rim, obtained by drawing two


concentric circles round the centre, with diameters of one and a half and two and a half feet respectively. On this rim (allowing for the corners of the bricks jutting out) room would have to be found for twelve bricks of a foot square, viz. the two retahsik, already lying on the eastern side, south and north of the spine, and ten prânabhrits. The way in which these latter were arranged would probably be this: on each of the three other sides two bricks were laid down so as to join each other in a line with the respective 'spine,' similarly to the two retahsik bricks on the east side; and the four remaining bricks would then be placed in the four corners--the twelve bricks thus forming, as nearly as could be, a circular rim. In the construction of the altar, this retahsik range is determined by a cord being stretched from. the centre to the east end of the altar, after the special bricks of the first layer have p. 18 been laid down, knots being then made in the cord over the middle of each of the special bricks. The retahsik range is consequently ascertained, in subsequent layers, by a circle drawn round the centre, with that part of the cord marked by the central and the retahsik knot for the diameter. The foregoing diagram shows that portion of the first layer which contains the continuous row of special bricks laid down first, viz. Svayamâtrinnâ, Dviyagus, two Retahsik, Visvagyotis, two Ritavyâ, and Ashâdhâ; and further the central (or fifth) set of ten prânabhritah, placed round the central brick on the range of the retahsik.

18:1 Each special brick is marked on its upper surface with (usually three) parallel lines. Now the bricks are always laid down in such a way that their lines run parallel to the adjoining spine, whence those on the east and west sides have their lines running lengthwise (west to east), and those on the north and south sides crosswise (north to south). As to the four corner bricks there is some uncertainty on this point, but if we may judge from the analogy of the second layer in this respect, the bricks of the south-east and north-west corners would be eastward-lined, and those of the northeast and south-west corners northward-lined.

Next: VIII, 1, 4. Fourth Brâhmana