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Satapatha Brahmana Part III (SBE41), Julius Eggeling tr. [1894], at



5:2:2:11. He now proceeds with the Bârhaspatya pap. Its svishtakrit remains yet unoffered, when he (the Adhvaryu) brings 2 him (the Sacrificer) some food; for he who offers the Vâgapeya wins food, vâgapeya being the same as anna-peya: thus whatever food he (the Sacrificer) has thereby gained, that he (the Adhvaryu) now brings to him.

5:2:2:22. In a vessel of udumbara wood--the Udumbara tree being sustenance, (that is) food--for the obtainment of sustenance, food: therefore it is in a vessel of udumbara wood. He first brings water, then milk, then (other) kinds of food, as they occur to him.

5:2:2:33. Now some bring seventeen kinds of food,

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saying, 'Seventeenfold is Pragâpati.' But let him not do so: surely all the food is not appropriated to Pragâpati 1, and, compared to him, what is man that he should appropriate to himself all food? Hence, while bringing every kind of food that occurs to him, let him not bring of some one (particular) kind of food.

5:2:2:44. And whatever food he does trot bring to him, let him (the Sacrificer) forswear 2 that, and not eat of it as long as he lives: thus he does not go to the end, thus he lives long. Of all that food brought together he offers the (seven) Vâga-prasavanîya 3 oblations, cutting out (pieces) with the dipping-spoon. Thus to whatever deities he is now offering, they give an impulse to him, and impelled by them he

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wins: therefore he offers the Vâgaprasavanîya oblations.

5:2:2:55. He offers with (Vâg. S. IX, 23-29), 'The impulse of strength impelled of old that king Soma in the plants, in the waters: may they be rich in honey for us! may we be wakeful in the kingdom, placed in the front, hail!'

5:2:2:66. 'The impulse of strength spread over this sky, and over all these worlds, as the all-ruler; knowing he causeth him to give gifts who wisheth not to give: may he bestow upon us wealth with the full muster of heroes, hail!'

5:2:2:77. 'Yea, the impulse of strength prevailed over all these worlds, on every side; from days of yore the king goeth about knowing, increasing the people, and the well-being amongst us, hail!'

5:2:2:88. 'To king Soma, to Agni we cling 1 for help, to the Âdityas, to Vishnu, to Sûrya, to the Brahman Brihaspati, hail!'

5:2:2:99. 'Urge thou Aryaman, Brihaspati, Indra to the giving of gifts, Vâk 2, Vishnu, Sarasvatî, and the vigorous Savitri, hail!'

5:2:2:1010. 'O Agni, speak to us here, be thou gracious unto us! bestow blessings upon us, O winner of thousands, for thou art the giver of wealth, hail!'

5:2:2:1111. 'May Aryaman bestow blessings upon us, and Pûshan, and Brihaspati! may the divine Vâk give us gifts, hail!'

5:2:2:1212. With the remaining (offering material) he sprinkles him (the Sacrificer); he thereby sprinkles

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him with food, bestows food upon him: for this reason he sprinkles him with the remaining (material) 1.

5:2:2:1313. He sprinkles with (Vâg. S. IX, 30), 'At the impulse of the divine Savitri, (I sprinkle) thee, by the arms of the Asvins, by the hands of Pûshan!' he thus sprinkles (consecrates) him by the hands of gods;--'I place thee in the leading of Sarasvatî Vâk, the leader;' for Sarasvatî is Vâk (speech): he thus places him in the leading of Vâk, the leader.

5:2:2:1414. Here now some say, 'I place thee in the leading of the leader of all the gods;' for all the gods are the All: he thus places him in the leading of the leader of the All. But let him not say so; let him rather say, 'I place thee in the leading of Sarasvatî Vâk;' for Sarasvatî is Vâk: he thus places him in the leading of Vâk.--'I consecrate thee, N.N., with the supreme rulership of Brihaspati!' therewith he mentions the (Sacrificer's) name: he thus makes him attain to the fellowship of Brihaspati, and to co-existence in his world.

5:2:2:1515. He then says,' All-ruler is he, N.N.! All-ruler is he, N.N.!' Him, thus indicated, he thereby indicates to the gods: 'Of mighty power is he who has been consecrated; he has become one of yours; protect him!' thus he thereby says. Thrice he says it, for threefold is the sacrifice.

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5:2:2:1616. He then either offers, or makes him pronounce (the formulas of) the Uggiti oblations 1. Whether he offers or makes him pronounce (the formulas), the significance is the same.

5:2:2:1717. He makes him say (Vâg. S. IX, 31-34), 'With the (word of) one syllable Agni won the breath: may I win that!-- -- 2 With the (metre of) seventeen syllables Pragâpati won the seventeenfold stoma: may I win that!' whatever those deities won by means of those (formulas), that he now wins by them. There are seventeen (formulas), for Pragâpati is seventeenfold: he thus wins Pragâpati.

5:2:2:1818. Thereupon he says, 'Recite (the invitatory formula) to Agni Svishtakrit!' Now, as to why this rite is performed between two oblations. Pragâpati, truly, is that sacrifice which is here performed, and from which these creatures have been produced,--and, indeed, they are even now produced after this one: he thus wins Pragâpati in the very middle: therefore that rite is performed between two oblations. Having made (the Âgnîdhra) utter the

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[paragraph continues] Sraushat, he says, 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to Agni Svishtakrit!' and offers as the Vashat is uttered.

5:2:2:1919. He then puts the Idâ on (the idâpâtrî). The Idâ having been invoked 1, he, having touched water, draws the Mâhendra cup. Having drawn the Mâhendra cup, he sets the chant agoing 2. He urges him (the Sacrificer) forward to the chant: he gets down (from the throne-seat); he is in attendance at the Stotra, in attendance at the Sastra.

5:2:2:2020. Here now some, having performed that, perform that 3; but let him not do it thus; for the Stotra is his (the Sacrificer's) own self, and the Sastra is his people (or offspring): thereby then he ruins the Sacrificer; he goes astray, he stumbles;--hence having performed that, let him perform that:--

5:2:2:2121. He puts the Idâ on (the dish). The Idâ having been invoked, he, having touched water, draws the Mâhendra cup. Having drawn the Mâhendra cup, he sets the (Prishtha-) Stotra agoing. He urges him (the Sacrificer) forward to the chant: he gets down (from the throne-seat); he is in attendance at the chant (stotra), in attendance at the recitation (sastra).


36:2 He collects (sambharati), or provides food for him; this ceremony corresponding to that of equipping or provisioning the sacred fire with the so-called sambharas, at the Agny-âdhâna; see II, 1, 1, 1 seq.; part i, p. 276, note 1.

37:1 Or 'from Pragâpati;' or perhaps, 'surely not all Pragâpati's food is appropriated.' The Kânva recension reads thus, VI, 2, 3, 3. He first brings water, then milk, then, as they occur to him (other) kinds of food. 'Let him bring those seventeen kinds of food,' they say, for Pragâpati is seventeenfold.' Nevertheless (tadu) let him bring whatever kinds of food he can either think of or obtain. 4. Of this his food that has been brought together, let him set aside (uddharet) one (particular kind of) food: let him forswear that (tad udbruvîta), and not eat of it as long as he lives (yâvag gîvet). By that much also (or, even so long, tâvad api vai prâgapateh sarvam annam anavaruddham) all the food of Pragâpati is not appropriated; and who is man (compared) to him, that he should appropriate to himself all food? Thus he does not go to the end, thus he lives long: that (food) is here left over for his offspring (or people).

37:2 Sâyana explains 'tasya udbruvîta' by,--one ought to proclaim it, saying aloud 'such and such food has not been brought;'--na sambhritam ity ukkais tannâma brûyât.

37:3 That is, oblations calculated to promote or quicken (pra-su) the strength (food,--vâga) by their prayers, the first three of which begin with 'vâgasya . . . prasavah.' See p. 2, note 1. In the Black Yagus ritual these oblations are called 'Annahomâh' or food-oblations. Taitt. Br. I, 3, 8, 1. The Sûtras seem, however, likewise to use the term 'Vâgaprasavanîya' (or Vâgaprasavîya).

38:1 Rig-veda X, 141, 3 reads,--King Soma, Agni we invoke with our voices, the Âdityas, &c.

38:2 Rig-veda X, 141, 5 has Vâta (Wind) instead of Vâk (Speech).

39:1 According to the Taittirîyas (Taitt. S., vol. i, p. 1049), the Sacrificer is made to sit on the black antelope skin, with his face to the east, with a small gold and silver plate placed on either side of him; and he is then sprinkled in front, on the head, so that the liquid runs down to his mouth, thus symbolizing the entering of food and strength into him.

40:1 That is, oblations of 'victory,' with the formulas used therewith, containing each two forms of the verb ud-gi, 'to conquer.'

40:2 The intervening formulas here understood, and given in the Vâg. Samhitâ, are to the effect that the Asvins, by two syllables, gained the two-footed men; Vishnu, by three, the three worlds; Soma, by four, the four-footed cattle; Pûshan, by five, the five regions (the four quarters and the upper region); Savitri, by six, the six seasons; the Maruts, by seven, the seven kinds of domestic animals; Brihaspati, by eight, the Gâyatrî metre; Mitra, by nine, the Trivrit stoma (hymn-tune); Varuna, by ten, the Virâg metre; Indra, by eleven, the Trishtubh metre; the All-gods, by twelve, the Gagatî metre; the Vasus, by thirteen, the thirteenfold stoma; the Rudras, by fourteen, the fourteenfold stoma; the Âdityas, by fifteen, the fifteenfold stoma; Aditi, by sixteen, the sixteenfold stoma.

41:1 See I, 8, 1, 18 seq.

41:2 That is, the (first or Hotri's) Prishtha-stotra, for which see above, p. 15, note 1; part ii, p. 339, note 2. Its chanting is followed by the Nishkevalya-sastra, recited by the Hotri.

41:3 That is to say, according to Sâyana,--they make the Svishtakrit, and the rising of the Sacrificer from the throne-seat, take place after the pronunciation of the 'uggiti' formulas, the drawing of the Mâhendra cup, and the performance of the Stotra and Sastra.

Next: V, 2, 3. Second Adhyâya. Third Brâhmana