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Satapatha Brahmana Part 1 (SBE12), Julius Eggeling tr. [1882], at




2:5:2:11. Now it was by means of the Vaisvadeva that Pragâpati produced living beings. The beings produced by him ate (ghas) Varuna's barley corn; for originally the barley belonged to Varuna. And from their eating Varuna's barley corn the name Varunapraghâsâh (is derived).

2:5:2:22. Varuna seized them; and on being seized by Varuna, they became rent all over 1; and they lay and sat them down breathing in and breathing out. The out-breathing and in-breathing forsook them not, but all the other deities 2 forsook them; and owing to these two, the creatures did not perish.

2:5:2:33. Pragâpati healed them by means of that oblation: both the creatures that were born and those that were unborn he delivered from Varuna's noose; and his creatures were born without disease and blemish.

2:5:2:44. Now when this (sacrificer) performs these offerings in the fourth month (after the Vaisvadeva), he does so either because thus Varuna does not seize his offspring, or because the gods performed (the same offering); and both the children that have been born to him and those that are yet unborn he thereby delivers from Varuna's noose, and his children are born without disease and blemish. This is why he performs these offerings in the fourth month.

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2:5:2:55. At this (sacrifice) there are two altars and two fires 1. The reason why there are two altars and two

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fires, is that thereby one frees the creatures from Varuna's noose both ways,--on the one side (he frees) the upright, and on the other those looking to the ground: this is why there are two altars and two fires.

2:5:2:66. On the northern (uttara) altar he raises the uttara-vedi (upper or north altar), not on the southern one. Varuna, doubtless, is the nobility, and the Maruts are the people: he thus makes the nobility superior (uttara) to the people; and hence people here serve the Kshatriya, placed above them. This is why he raises the uttara-vedi on the northern, not on the southern altar.

2:5:2:77. In the first place there are those five oblations 1. For by means of those five oblations Pragâpati produced the creatures, with them he freed the creatures both ways from Varuna's noose,--on the one side (he freed) the upright, and on the other those that tend to the ground: this is why there are those five oblations.

2:5:2:88. Then follows a cake on twelve potsherds for Indra and Agni. Indra and Agni indeed are the out-breathing and in-breathing: thus this is like

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doing a good turn to one who has done him a good turn; for it is owing to these two that his creatures 1 did not perish. Hence he now restores his creatures by means of the out-breathing and in-breathing, bestows out-breathing and in-breathing on them: this is why there is a cake on twelve potsherds for Indra and Agni.

2:5:2:99. On both (fires) there is an oblation of curds. It is on milk that the creatures subsist and by means of milk that they were preserved: hence it is with that by which they were preserved and whereon they subsist, that he delivers them both ways from Varuna's noose,--on the one side (he delivers) the upright and on the other those looking to the ground. This is why there is an oblation of curds on both (fires).

2:5:2:1010. The northern one is offered to Varuna, since it was Varuna who seized his (Pragâpati's) creatures: hence he thereby directly delivers them from Varuna's noose. The southern one is offered to the Maruts. It is for the sake of diversity that it is offered to the Maruts; for a repetition he would undoubtedly commit, were he to offer both to Varuna. Moreover, it was from the south that the Maruts intended to slay his (Pragâpati's) creatures, and with that share he propitiated them: for this reason the southern (oblation of curds) belongs to the Maruts.

2:5:2:1111. Upon both (dishes of curds) he scatters karîra-fruits 2; for with karîra-fruits Pragâpati

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bestowed happiness (ka) on the creatures, and so does he (the sacrificer) thereby bestow happiness on the creatures.

2:5:2:1212. Upon both of them he also scatters samî-leaves; for with samî-leaves Pragâpati bestowed bliss (sam) on the creatures, and so does he now thereby bestow bliss on the creatures.

2:5:2:1313. Then follows a cake on one potsherd for Ka (Pragâpati); for by that cake on one potsherd to Ka Pragâpati indeed bestowed happiness (ka) on the creatures, and so does he (the sacrificer) now bestow happiness on the creatures by that one-cup cake: this is why there is a cake on one potsherd for Ka.

2:5:2:1414. And on the first day, after husking and slightly roasting barley on the Dakshinâgni, they prepare therewith as many dishes of karambha 1 as there are members of the (sacrificer's) family, exceeded by one.

2:5:2:1515. At the same time they also prepare a ram and a ewe; and if he be able to procure wool other than from edaka sheep, let him wash it and stick it on both the ram and the ewe; but should he not be able to procure wool other than from edaka sheep, tufts of kusa grass may also be (used).

2:5:2:1616. The reason why there are a ram and a ewe is chat the ram manifestly is Varuna's victim, so that he thereby manifestly delivers the creatures from Varuna's noose. They are made of barley, because it was when they (the creatures) had eaten barley that Varuna seized them. A pair they form, so that he

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delivers the creatures from Varuna's noose through conjugal union.

2:5:2:1717. The ewe he places on the southern, and the ram on the northern dish of curds; for in this way alone a proper union is effected, since the woman lies on the left (or north) side of the man.

2:5:2:1818. The Adhvaryu places all the (other) sacrificial dishes upon the northern altar; and the Pratiprasthâtri places on the southern altar that dish of curds (belonging to the Maruts).

2:5:2:1919. Having thus placed the sacrificial dishes, he churns the fire; and having churned it and placed it on (the hearth) 1, he offers thereon, The Adhvaryu in the first place says (to the Hotri2, 'Recite to the fire that is being kindled!' Both (the Adhvaryu and the Pratiprasthâtri) then put firewood on (the fire) and both reserve one kindling-stick each; and they both pour out the first libation (âghâra). Thereupon the Adhvaryu says, 'Agnîdh, trim the fire!' Although the summons is given, the trimming does not take place (immediately) 3

2:5:2:2020. Thereupon the Pratiprasthâtri returns (to where the sacrificer's wife is seated). When he is about to lead the wife away, he asks her, 'With

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whom holdest thou intercourse?' Now when a woman who belongs to one (man) carries on intercourse with another, she undoubtedly commits (a sin) against Varuna. He therefore thus asks her, lest she should sacrifice with a secret pang in her mind; for when confessed the sin becomes less, since it becomes truth; this is why he thus asks her. And whatever (connection) she confesses 1 not, that indeed will turn out injurious to her relatives.

2:5:2:2121. He then makes her say the text (III, 44), 'We invoke the Maruts, the voracious consumers of enemies, delighting in their porridge.' This (verse) is (of like import) as the invitatory prayer she therewith invites them to these dishes 2.

2:5:2:2222. Of these (dishes) there is one for each descendant; as many (children) as there are in the (sacrificer's) family, so many (dishes) there are, exceeded by one. There being one for each descendant, he thereby delivers from Varuna's noose one by one the children born to him; and there being an additional one, he thereby delivers from Varuna's

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noose those children of his that are as yet unborn: this is why there are (the same number of dishes) exceeded by one.

2:5:2:2323. (In the form of) dishes they are, because it is from dishes that food is eaten; and of barley they are prepared, because it was when they (the creatures) had eaten the barley corn that Varuna seized them. From the winnowing basket she offers, because food is prepared by means of the winnowing basket. The wife offers (together with her husband): thus he delivers his offspring from Varuna's noose through conjugal union.

2:5:2:2424. She offers previously to the sacrifice, previously to the oblations, since the people do not eat offerings, and the Maruts are the people. Now when Pragâpati's creatures, being seized by Varuna, became rent all over, and sat and lay them down, breathing in and breathing out, then the Maruts destroyed their sin; and so do the Maruts now destroy the sin of his (the sacrificer's) offspring. This is why she offers previously to the sacrifice, previously to the oblations.

2:5:2:2525. He 1 offers in the southern fire, with the text (III, 45), 'Whatever (sin we have committed) in the village and forest,'--for both in the village and in the forest sin is committed;--'whatever in society and in our own self,'--by 'whatever (we have committed) in society,' he means to say 'against man;' and by 'whatever in our own self' (indriya), he means to say 'against the gods;'--'whatever sin

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we have here committed, that we expiate by offering, Svâhâ!'--whereby he says 'whatsoever sin we have committed, from all that we rid ourselves.'

2:5:2:2626. Thereupon he mutters the (verse) addressed to Indra and referring to the Maruts.--Now when the Maruts destroyed the sin of Pragâpati's creatures, he thought within himself, 'I hope they will not destroy my creatures.'

2:5:2:2727. He muttered that (verse) addressed to Indra and referring to the Maruts. Indra indeed is the nobility, and the Maruts are the people; and the nobility are the controllers of the people: 'They shall be controlled,' he thought; and therefore (that verse, Vâg. S. III, 46) is addressed to Indra.

2:5:2:2828. 'Let there not, O Indra, be (fight) for us here in battles with the gods, since there is a share for thee in the sacrifice, O fiery one!--for thee, the mighty showerer of gifts, whose Maruts the song of the offerer stream-like celebrates.'

2:5:2:2929. He then makes her say the text (Vâg. S. III, 47), 'The men skilled in the work have done the work,'--those skilled in the work have indeed done the work;--'with pleasing song;'--for with song they have done it. 'Having done the work for the gods;'--for the gods indeed they have done the work; 'go home, ye companions!'--they are now together with her while she is led thither from an other place: hence she says, 'ye companions' (sakâbhû, 'being together'). 'Go home,' she says, because that wife doubtless is the hind part of the sacrifice, and he has just now made her take her seat to the east of the sacrifice. 'Home' doubtless means the house, and the house is a resting-place: hence he thereby makes her rest in that resting-place, the house.

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2:5:2:3030. Having led her back (to her seat) the Pratiprasthâtri returns (to his place by the side of the southern altar). They now trim the fire 1. When the fire has been trimmed, both (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) make the second libation (of butter). Thereupon the Adhvaryu, having called (on the Âgnîdhra) for the 'Sraushat,' chooses the Hotri. The chosen Hotri then seats himself on the Hotri's seat beside the northern altar; and having seated himself, he urges (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) to proceed. Being thus urged to proceed, they both take up the spoons and step across (to the south side of the fires). After stepping across and calling for the 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer on the kindling-sticks!' and 'Pronounce the offering-prayer!' at each (subsequent fore-offering). Pouring (the butter in the spoons) together (into the guhû) at the fourth 2, they both proceed with the nine fore-offerings 3.

2:5:2:3131. Thereupon the Adhvaryu says (to the Hotri),

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[paragraph continues] 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni!' referring to Agni's butter-portion 1. Both (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) having taken four 'cuttings' of butter, they step across (to the north side of their respective fires). Having stepped across and called for the 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-formula to Agni!' After the 'Vashat' has been uttered, they both pour out the oblation.

2:5:2:3232. The Adhvaryu then says, 'Pronounce (the invitatory prayer) to Soma!' referring to Soma's butter-portion. Both having taken four cuttings of butter, they step across. Having stepped across and called for the 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to Soma!' After the 'Vashat' has been uttered, they both pour out the oblation.

2:5:2:3333. Thus whatever has to be done by speech, that the Adhvaryu does, and not the Pratiprasthâtri. Now as to why the Adhvaryu alone calls for the 'Sraushat.' Here indeed when the 'Vashat' is pronounced,

2:5:2:3434. The Pratiprasthâtri is merely the imitator of what is done (by the Adhvaryu). For Varuna is the nobility, and the Maruts are the people: hence he thereby makes the people the imitators, the followers of the nobility. But were the Pratiprasthâtri also to call for the 'Sraushat,' he would doubtless make the people equal in power to the nobility: for this reason the Pratiprasthâtri does not call for the 'Sraushat.'

2:5:2:3535. The Pratiprasthâtri sits down, after taking the two offering-spoons in his hand. The Adhvaryu then

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proceeds with those oblations,--viz. Agni's cake on eight potsherds, Soma's pap, Savitri's cake on twelve or eight potsherds, Sarasvatî's pap, Pûshan's pap, and Indra and Agni's cake on twelve potsherds.

2:5:2:3636. Thereupon, being about to proceed with those two oblations of curds, (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) exchange (the ram and ewe): the ram which was on the Maruts' (dish of curds) he (the Adhvaryu) places on that of Varuna; and the ewe which was on Varuna's (dish of curds) he (the Pratiprasthâtri) places on that of the Maruts. Now the reason why they make this exchange, is this,--Varuna is the nobility, and the male represents energy: hence they thereby bestow energy on the nobility. The female, on the other hand, is without energy; and the Maruts are the people: hence they thereby cause the people to be without energy. This is why they make this exchange.

2:5:2:3737. The Adhvaryu now says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Varuna!' He then pours an 'under-layer' of butter (into the guhû), takes two cuttings from Varuna's curds, and with either of the two cuttings puts the rant (in the spoon). He then pours butter thereon, replenishes (the place whence) the two cuttings (have been made), and steps across (to the south side of the fire). After stepping across and calling for the 'Sraushat,' he says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to Varuna!' and, on the 'Vashat' being uttered, he pours out the oblation.

2:5:2:3838. Thereupon the Adhvaryu takes both spoons in his left hand; and taking hold of the Pratiprasthâtri's garment, says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to the Maruts!' The

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[paragraph continues] Pratiprasthâtri then makes an 'under-layer' of butter (in his guhû and two cuttings from the curds of the Maruts, and with either of the two cuttings puts the ewe (in the spoon). He then pours butter thereon, replenishes (the place of) the two cuttings, and steps across (to the south of the fire). The Adhvaryu, having called for the 'Sraushat,' says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to the Maruts!' and on the 'Vashat' being uttered, (the Pratiprasthâtri) he pours out the oblation.

2:5:2:3939. The Adhvaryu then proceeds with the cake on eleven potsherds for Ka; and having made that offering, he says, 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni Svishtakrit (" the maker of good offering")!' The Adhvaryu then takes cuttings from all (his) oblations, one from each; and the Pratiprasthâtri also takes one cutting from that oblation of curds (to the Maruts). They then pour twice butter upon (the portions), and step across (to the south side of the fires). On stepping across and calling for the 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu says, 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to Agni Svishtakrit;' and after the (concluding) 'Vashat,' they both pour out the oblation.

2:5:2:4040. The Adhvaryu now cuts off the fore-portion. Having then cut off the Idâ piece by piece, he hands it to the Pratiprasthâtri; and the Pratiprasthâtri puts thereon two cuttings from the Maruts' curds. He (the Adhvaryu) then pours twice butter thereon. After invoking (the Idâ), they cleanse themselves 1.

2:5:2:4141. Thereupon the Adhvaryu says, 'O Brahman, shall I step forward?' Having put on the (remaining) kindling-stick 2 he says, Agnîdh, trim the fire!

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[paragraph continues] He, the Adhvaryu, then pours the clotted butter 1 (in the prishadâgya-upabhrit) into the two spoons (the guhû and upabhrit); and the Pratiprasthâtri also, if he have any clotted butter, divides it into two parts and pours it (into the two spoons); but if there is no clotted butter, he divides the butter in the upabhrit in two parts and pours them out separately. Then both step across (to the south side of the fires). The Adhvaryu, having stepped across and called for the 'Sraushat,' says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-formula to the gods!' and, 'Pronounce the offering-formula!' at each (subsequent after-offering). Thus they both perform the nine after-offerings 2, pouring together (the butter from the spoons) at the (or at every) fourth after-offering. The reason why there are nine fore-offerings and nine after-offerings, is that he thereby delivers the creatures both times from Varuna's noose,--by the former (he delivers) the upright and by the latter those looking to the ground: for this reason there are nine fore-offerings and nine after-offerings.

2:5:2:4242. They both then separate the spoons 3, after laying them (on the altars). Having separated the spoons, and anointed the enclosing-sticks; and having thereupon taken hold of the (middle) enclosing-stick,

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and called for the (Âgnîdhra's) 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu thus addresses (the Hotri1, 'The divine Hotris are summoned for the proclamation of success; the human is called upon for the song of praise!' The Hotri then intones the song of praise (sûktavâka). Thereupon both seize their prastara-bunches and throw them (into the fires); both take a single straw each therefrom and remain sitting by (the fires); when the Hotri recites the song of praise,--

2:5:2:4343. The Âgnîdhra says, 'Throw after!' Both (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) throw (the stalk) after (the prastara); and both touch themselves.

2:5:2:4444. He (the Âgnîdhra) then says 2, 'Discourse (with me)!' [The Adhvaryu asks,] 'Has he gone (to the gods), Agnîdh? He has gone!'--'Bid (the gods) hear!'--'Yea, may (one) hear!'--'Goodspeed to the divine Hotris! Success to the human!'---The Adhvaryu also (afterwards) 3 says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the "All-hail and blessing!"' They both throw the enclosing-sticks (into the fire); and after taking up the spoons together, they both place them on the wooden sword 4.

2:5:2:4545. Thereupon the Adhvaryu returns (to the Gârhapatya fire) and performs the Patnîsamgas 5. The Pratiprasthâtri, in the meantime,

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remains waiting. After performing the Patnîsamgas, the Adhvaryu steps up (to the northern fire).

2:5:2:4646. He (the Adhvaryu) performs the three Samishtayagus (with the respective texts) 1; the Pratiprasthâtri takes up his spoon (and performs those oblations) silently.--The same garments, worn by the sacrificer and his wife at the Vaisvadeva, should be put on also on this occasion. They now take (the havis) mixed with the burnt scrapings of the Varuna curds, and betake themselves to (the place of) the expiatory bath (avabhritha). This (ablution) stands in relation to Varuna, (being performed) with a view to deliverance from Varuna's power. No Sâman-hymn is sung on this occasion, for at this (sacrifice) nothing whatever is performed with a Sâman-hymn. Having silently walked thither and entered (the water), he (the Adhvaryu) immerses (the vessel containing the scrapings).

2:5:2:4747. With the text (Vâg. S. III, 48), 'O laving bath, laving thou glidest along: with the help of the gods may I wipe out the sin committed against the gods, and with the help of mortals the sin committed against mortals! Preserve me, O God, from injury from the fiercely-howling (demon)!' Those (garments worn while bathing) 2 he may give

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to whichever (priest) he chooses, since they are not the garments of an initiated person. Even as a snake casts its skin, so does he cast away all his sin.

2:5:2:4848. Thereupon they shave (the sacrificer's) hair and beard; and take up the two fires 1,--for only after changing his place (to the ordinary sacrificial ground) he performs that (other) sacrifice 2, since it is not proper that he should perform the Agnihotra on the uttaravedi: for this reason he changes his place. Having gone to the house 3 and 'churned out' the fires, he performs the full-moon offering. These seasonal offerings doubtless are detached sacrifices; whereas the full-moon offering is a regular, established sacrifice: hence he finally establishes himself by means of that regular sacrifice; and therefore he changes his place (to the ordinary sacrificial ground).


391:1 Paridîrna, i.e. swollen, dropsical.

391:2 In the St. Petersb. Dict. devatâ is here taken as 'organ of sense.'

392:1 For the performance of the Varunapraghâsâh the Adhvaryu and his assistant, the Pratiprasthâtri, have to prepare,--to the east of the Âhavanîya, and at the distance of at least three steps (prakrama) from it,--two altars, separate from each other by about a span (of thumb and fore-finger), one south of the other. The northern one, belonging to the Adhvaryu, is to measure between four and five cubits along the west side, and between three and four cubits along the east side; the two sides being between six and eight cubits distant from each other. The southern altar, reserved for the Pratiprasthâtri; is to be of the usual size of the altar at the haviryagñâ. The ceremonies, detailed in I, 2, Brâhmanas 4 and 5, have to be performed also on the present occasion. In the middle of the east side of the northern altar a stake is fixed in the ground. On the north side of the northern altar, and contiguous with it, a pit (kâtvâla), 1⅓ cubits (the length of the wedge) square, is dug, so as to be separated on the west from the utkara (heap of rubbish) by a narrow passage. With the mould dug up from the pit, the so-called uttara-vedi (upper or north altar) is raised on the northern altar, either of the same dimensions as the pit (1⅓ cubits square) or one third of the area of the northern altar, and so that the stake marks the middle of its east side. In the centre of this mound he makes a hollow (or 'navel'), a span square; and the whole mound is then bestrewed with fine gravel. The texts used while tracing the sides of the pit, thrice throwing the wooden sword within the marked-off space, and raising the uttara-vedi, are given Vâg. S. V, 9-10. During the night the uttara-vedi remains covered with udumbara or plaksha branches or with sacrificial grass. Next morning the two fires for the newly-constructed fireplaces are taken from the Âhavanîya, either by dividing the latter into two equal parts, or by means of two bundles of firewood (threefold bound, see p. 389, note 1), lighted at it, and carried eastwards in a pan covered with sand or mould. While the fires, together with the lustral water and a spoonful of ghee, taken from the pot by five ladlings with the sruva, are taken eastward, the Hotri thrice recites the verse 'Pra devyam deva,' &c.; and the Pratiprasthâtri draws, with the wooden sword, a line from the Âhavanîya to the south-west corner (or 'right hip') of the northern altar, or to the uttara-vedi. The Adhvaryu, standing between the two altars, then besprinkles the uttara-vedi with water, while muttering the p. 393 texts Vâg. S. V, II; whereupon he pours out on it crosswise the spoonful of clarified butter, with the texts V, 12; and lays, with the mantras V, 13, three enclosing-sticks (paridhi) of pîtadâru wood round the 'navel' (see I, 3, 4, 2 seq.), and puts bdellium, fragrant reed-grass, and the front-hair of a ram on the 'navel' as a foundation (sambhâra, see II, 1, 1, 1 seq.) for the fire, which is then laid down thereon. On a hearth-mound (khara), a cubit square, formed on the southern altar, the Pratiprasthâtri also lays down his fire, after performing the usual fivefold lustration (see p. 2). Thereupon the pranîtâ-water is brought forward in the way set forth at I, 1, 1, 12 seq. Kâty. V, 3, 9-4, 21. For a different mode of transferring the fire to the special fire-places, see p. 396, note 1.

393:1 See II. 5, 1, 11, with note.

394:1 That is, his offspring and cattle.

394:2 The fruit of Capparis Aphylla. According to Sâyana, on Taitt. I, 8, 3, it is karîra-shoots--which he says resemble the Soma-creeper (somavallî)--that are so used; but he also mentions that some authorities take karîra to mean the fruit. According to a sûtra he p. 395 quotes, above a hundred samî-leaves and above a thousand karîras should be strewn over the two dishes of curds. Cf. Taitt. Br. I, 6, 5, 5.

395:1 A kind of porridge prepared with roasted barley, coarsely ground, and sour curds.

396:1 The author here apparently alludes to a different way of transferring the fire to the new fire-places from that detailed by Kâtyâyana (see p. 392, note 1). The same mode seems to be referred to by the Paddhati on Katy. V, 4 (p. 467). According to this mode (called sarnâropana, or mounting of the fire), the old fires are 'taken up' by means of the two aranis being lighted, or rather heated, at them, and then 'churned out' and placed on the newly-prepared hearth-mounds.

396:2 For the detailed course of procedure, see I, 3, 5, I seq.

396:3 Asamsrishtam eva bhavati sampreshitam. The Kânva recension reads, asamsrishta evâgnir bhavati sampreshitah. Cf. par. 30.

397:1 According to Kâty. V, 5, 7-9, she is either to give the total number or the names of her lovers, or to hold up as many stalks of grass. [If she have none, she is to reply, 'with no one else.' Comm.]--'He makes the wife speak (confess): (thereby) he renders her pure, and then he leads her to penance. Were she not to reveal (the name of) a paramour she has, she would harm a dear relative. Let her declare "N.N. is my paramour," by thus declaring (any one) she causes him to be seized by Varuna.' Taitt. Br. I, 6, 5, 2.

397:2 According to the Black Yagus, the Pratiprasthâtri mutters this formula, while leading the mistress to the place of offering. The sacrificer then recites as the invitatory prayer the verse given in par. 28 (Vâg. S. III, 46); while the offering-prayer (Vâg. S. III, 45) and the text III, 47 (par. 29) are muttered by both the husband and wife. Taitt. I, 6, 5, 3 argues against the practice of the wife being made to pronounce the anuvâkyâ.

398:1 According to Kâty. V, 5, 11, either the mistress alone offers, or she together with her husband. In the latter case, the offering-formula (as well as the dedicatory formula, 'This to the Maruts') is pronounced by both.

400:1 The Kânva text has more correctly, 'He trims both fires;' since it is the Âgnîdhra who has to trim both the northern and southern fires. See par. 29.

400:2 The recipients of the first four fore-offerings are the same as at the normal haviryagña (cf. p. 146 note), viz. 1. the kindling-sticks (samidhs); 2. Tanûnapât (or Narâsamsa); 3. the Ids; 4. the Barhis. The remaining ones are--5. the doors (of heaven); 6. dawn and night; 7. the two divine Hotris; 8. the three goddesses (Sarasvatî, Idâ, and Bhâratî); 9. all the deities to whom offering is made during the sacrifice (see I, 5, 3, 22 seq.). The objects of the first eight offerings are identical with those of the first eight verses of the Âprî hymns.

400:3 Or, 'at every fourth (fore-offering)?' According to the Paddhati on Kâty. V, 5, the butter is poured together at the fourth and seventh prayâgas. See also I, 5, 3, 16.

401:1 See I, 6, 1, 20 seq.

403:1 See I, 8, 1, 18-43.

403:2 See II, 5, 2, 19, and I, 8, 2, 3.

404:1 Prishad-âgya (lit. mottled butter) is clarified butter mixed with sour milk.

404:2 The recipients of the nine after-offerings are as follows: 1. The divine Barhis; 2. the divine doors; 3. the divine dawn and night; 4. the two divine benefactresses (goshtrî); 5. the two goddesses of potent sacrifice (ûrgâhutî); 6. the two divine Hotris; 7. the three goddesses; 8. the divine Narâsamsa; 9. the divine Agni Svishtakrit. Cf. p. 400, note .

404:3 See I, 8, 3, 1 seq.

405:1 See I, 8, 3, 10 seq.

405:2 See I, 8, 3, 20 seq.

405:3 In thus briefly recapitulating the chief points of the course of sacrificial performance, the author's object is merely to assign to each officiating priest--especially to the Adhvaryu and his assistant, the Pratiprasthâtri--his special share of business. In the actual performance, the pronunciation of the formula of 'All-hail and blessing' (see I, 9, 1, 26), of course, comes after the throwing of the enclosing-sticks into the fire (see I, 8, 3, 22).

405:4 See I, 8, 3, 26.

405:5 See I, 9, 2, 1.

406:1 See p. 390, note 3.

406:2 Kâty. V, 5, 30-33, and the scholiasts supply the following particulars: The sacrificer and his wife, accompanied by the priests, are to repair to some quiet part of flowing water. The Adhvaryu then takes the sacrificer by the arm and makes him enter the water. Thereupon he himself enters, strews sacrificial grass on the water, puts a stick on it, and thereon offers a spoonful of butter to Agni. Then follow six oblations, viz. four fore-offerings, performed in the usual way (the one to the Barhis being omitted); p. 407 an oblation of butter to Varuna, and another of the scrapings of curds to Agni and Varuna. Other authorities offer ten oblations instead of six, viz. four fore-offerings, two 'butter-portions' to Agni and Soma, the two oblations to Varuna and Agni-Varuna, and two after-offerings. The Adhvaryu then immerses the butter-pot, with the text Vâg. S. III, 48. Thereupon the sacrificer and his wife bathe without diving, but wash each other's back. They then come out of the water and put on fresh clothes.

407:1 Viz. by lighting (or heating) at them two aranis or churning-sticks, by means of which the fires are transferred to the old hearths. According to the Paddhati, the remaining ceremonies of the ishti, from the offering of the Barhis (see I, 9, 2, 29) to the end, are performed previously to the lifting of the fires.

407:2 Viz. the full-moon sacrifice, see II, 6, 2, 59, where, however, agnau instead of agnî. The construction here is quite irregular. The Kânva text has: kesasmasrûptvâgnî samârohayata udavasâya hy etena yagate.

407:3 That is, to the ordinary sacrificial ground.

Next: II, 5, 3. Third Brâhmana