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1:7:4:11. Pragâpati conceived a passion for his own

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daughter,--either the Sky or the Dawn 1. 'May I pair with her!' thus (thinking) he united with her.

1:7:4:22. This, assuredly, was a sin in the eyes of the gods. 'He who acts thus towards his own daughter, our sister, [commits a sin],' they thought.

1:7:4:33. The gods then said to this god who rules over the beasts (Rudra) 2, 'This one, surely, commits a sin who acts thus towards his own daughter, our sister. Pierce him!' Rudra, taking aim, pierced him. Half of his seed fell to the ground. And thus it came to pass.

1:7:4:44. Accordingly it has been said by the Rishi 3 with reference to that (incident), 'When the father embraced his daughter, uniting with her, he dropped his seed on the earth.' This (became) the chant (uktha) called âgnimâruta 4; in (connection with)

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this it is set forth how the gods caused that seed to spring 1. When the anger of the gods subsided, they cured Pragâpati and cut out that dart of this. (Rudra); for Pragâpati, doubtless, is this sacrifice.

1:7:4:55. They said (to one another), 'Think of some means by which that (part of the sacrifice torn out with the dart) may not be lost, and how it may be but a small portion of the offering itself!'

1:7:4:66. They said, 'Take it round to Bhaga (Savitri, the Patron), who sits on the south side (of the sacrificial ground): Bhaga will eat it by way of fore-portion 2, so that it may be as though it were offered.' They accordingly took it round to Bhaga, who sat on the south side. Bhaga (Savitri) looked at it: it burnt out his eyes 3. And thus it came to pass. Hence they say, 'Bhaga is blind.'

1:7:4:77. They said, 'It has not yet become appeased here: take it round to Pûshan!' They accordingly

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took it round to Pûshan. Pûshan tasted it: it knocked out his teeth. And thus it came to pass. Hence they say, 'Pûshan is toothless;' and therefore, when they prepare a mess of boiled rice (karu) 1 for Pûshan, they prepare it from ground rice, as is done for one toothless.

1:7:4:88. They said, 'It has not yet become appeased here: take it round to Brihaspati 2!' They accordingly took it round to Brihaspati. Brihaspati hasted to Savitri for his impulsion (influence, prasava 3), for assuredly Savitri is the impeller (prasavitri) of the gods. 'Impel (influence) this for me!' he said. Savitri, as the impeller, accordingly impelled it for him, and being thus impelled by Savitri, it did not injure him: and thus it was henceforth appeased. This, then, is essentially the same as the fore-portion.

1:7:4:99. Now when he cuts off the fore-portion, he cuts out what is injured in the sacrifice,--what belongs to Rudra. Thereupon he touches water: water is (a means) of lustration, hence he lustrates by means of water 4. He now cuts off piece by piece the idâ 5, (which represents) cattle.

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1:7:4:1010. Let him cut off (for the fore-portion) ever so small a piece 1: thus the dart comes out; let him therefore cut off ever so small a piece. He should (according to some) put clarified butter on one side only, either below or above: thus that which is hard becomes soft and flows forth; and for this reason he should put butter on one side only, either below or above.

1:7:4:1111. Having (nevertheless 2) made an underlayer of butter 3 and a double cutting from the oblation (havis), he pours butter on the upper side of it; for it is only in this way that this becomes part of the sacrifice.

1:7:4:1212. Let him not carry it (to the Brahman) along the front (east) side of the Âhavanîya fire); (though) some, it is true, do carry it along the front side. For on the front side stand the cattle facing the sacrificer: hence he would impose the power of Rudra on the cattle, if he were to carry it along the front side, and his (the sacrificer's) household and cattle would be overwhelmed. Let him therefore cross over in this way (behind the paridhis); for thus he does not impose Rudra's power on the cattle and he removes that (dart) sideways 4.

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1:7:4:1313. He (the Brahman) receives 1 it, with the text (Vâg. S. II, 11 b, c), 'At the impulse (prasava) of the divine Savitri I receive thee with the arms of the Asvins, with the hands of Pûshan!'

1:7:4:1414. And in like manner as Brihaspati then hasted to Savitri for his impulsion,--for, assuredly, Savitri is the impeller of the gods,--and said, 'Impel this for me!' and Savitri, the impeller, impelled it for him; and, impelled by Savitri, it did not injure him; so now also this one (the Brahman) hastes to Savitri for his impulsion,--for, assuredly, Savitri is the impeller of the gods,--and says 'impel this for me!' and Savitri, the impeller, impels it for him; and, impelled by Savitri, it does not injure him.

1:7:4:1515. He eats 2 the fore-portion, with the text (Vâ;. S. II, 11 d), 'With Agni's mouth I eat thee!' for Agni, assuredly, it does not injure in any way; and so neither does it injure him (the Brahman).

1:7:4:1616. He must not chew it with his teeth: 'lest this power of Rudra should injure my teeth!' so (he thinks), and therefore he must not chew it with his teeth.

1:7:4:1717. He then rinses his mouth with water;--water is (a means of) purification: hence he purifies himself with water, (that is, a means of) purification. After he has rinsed the vessel 3,--

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1:7:4:1818. They bring him the Brahman's portion 1. The Brahman, in truth, sits south of the sacrifice, as its guardian. He sits facing that portion. As regards the fore-portion, that they have already brought to him and he has eaten it. In the Brahman's portion which they now bring to him, he obtains his own share; and henceforth he watches what remains incomplete of the sacrifice: for this reason they bring him the Brahman's portion.

1:7:4:1919. He (the Brahman) must maintain silence (from the time he takes his seat on being elected) 2 up to that speech (of the Adhvaryu), 'Brahman, shall I step forward?' Those (priests) who, in the midst of the sacrifice, perform the idâ, which represents the domestic offerings (pâkayagña) 3, tear the sacrifice to pieces, injure it. Now the Brahman, assuredly, is the best physician: hence the Brahman thereby restores the sacrifice; but, if he were to sit there talking, he would not restore it: he must therefore maintain silence.

1:7:4:2020. If he should utter any human sound before that time, let him there and then mutter some Rik or Yagus-text addressed to Vishnu; for Vishnu is

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the sacrifice, so that he thereby again obtains a hold on the sacrifice: and this is the expiation of that (breach of silence).

1:7:4:2121. When he (the Adhvaryu) says, 'Brahman, shall I step forward?' the Brahman mutters thus (Vâg. S. II, 12), 'This thy sacrifice, O divine Savitri, they have announced . . .,'--thereby he has recourse to Savitri for his impulsion (prasava), for he is the impeller (prasavitri) of the gods;--'to Brihaspati, the Brahman,'--for Brihaspati, assuredly, is the Brahman of the gods: hence he announces that (sacrifice) to him who is the Brahman of the gods; and accordingly he says, 'to Brihaspati, the Brahman.'--'Therefore prosper the sacrifice, prosper the lord of sacrifice, prosper me!' In this there is nothing that requires explanation.

1:7:4:2222. [He continues, Vâg. S. II, 13]: 'May his mind delight in the gushing (of the) butter 1!' By the mind, assuredly, all this (universe) is obtained (or pervaded, âptam): hence he thereby obtains this All by the mind.--'May Brihaspati spread (carry through) this sacrifice! May he restore the sacrifice uninjured!'--he thereby restores what was torn asunder.--'May all the gods rejoice here!'--'all the gods,' doubtless, means the All: hence he thereby restores (the sacrifice) by means of the All. He may add, 'Step forward!' if he choose; or, if he choose, he may omit it.


209:1 For other versions of this legend about Pragâpati (Brahman)'s illicit passion for his daughter, which, as Dr. Muir suggests, probably refers to some atmospheric phenomenon, see Ait. Br. III, 33, and Tândya Br. VIII, 2, 10; cf. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 45; I, p. 107. See also Sat. Br. II, 1, 2, 9, with note.

209:2 The construction here is irregular. Perhaps this is part of the speech of the gods, being a kind of indirect address to Rudra in order to avoid naming the terrible god. Dr. Muir translates: The gods said, "This god, who rules over the beasts, commits a transgression in that he acts thus to his own daughter, our sister: pierce him through."' In the Kânva MS. some words seem to have been omitted at this particular place. According to the Ait. Br., the gods created a god Bhûtavat, composed of the most fearful forms of theirs. After piercing the incarnation of Pragâpati's sin, he asked, and obtained, the boon that he should henceforth be the ruler of cattle.

209:3 Viz., Rig-veda X, 61, 7, where verses 5-7 contain the first allusion to this legend.

209:4 The âgnimâruta is one of the sâstras recited at the evening libation of the Soma-sacrifice; and made up chiefly of a hymn addressed to Agni Vaisvânara and one to the Maruts; and [following the stotriya and anurûpa pragâtha] a hymn to Gâtavedas; [and one to the Âpas, followed by various detailed p. 210 verses or couplets]; viz., Rig-veda III, 3, 'vaisvânarâya prithupâgase,' &c., and I, 87, 'pratvakshasah pratavaso,' &c.; [Rig-veda I, 168, 1-2, stotriya; VII, 16, II-32, anurûpa]; and Rig-veda I, 143, 'pratavyasîm navyasîm,' &c. (and X, 9, 'âpo hi shthâ mayobhuvas,' &c.) respectively, at the Agnishtoma (and first day of the dvâdasâha). See Âsv. Sr. V, 20, 5; Ait. Br. III, 35; IV, 30.

210:1 According to Ait. Br. III, 35, where this legend is also given in connection with the âgnimâruta sâstra, Agni Vaisvânara, aided by the Maruts, stirred (and heated) the seed; and out of it sprang successively Âditya (the sun), Bhrigu, and the Âdityas; whilst the coals (aṅgâra) remaining behind became the Aṅgiras, and Brihaspati, and the coal dust, the burnt earth and ashes were changed into various kinds of animals. According to Harisvâmin it would seem that our passage has to he understood to the effect that the composition of the âgnimâruta sâstra shows the order of beings which the gods caused to spring forth from the seed. See also IV, 5, I, 8.

210:2 See note on I, 7, 4, 18.

210:3 'Nirdadâha.' The Kaushît. Br. VI, 10 (Ind. Stud. II, 306) and Yâska Nir. 1 2, 14 have nirgaghâna, 'it knocked out his eyes.' The Kaushît. Br. also makes them first take the prâsitra to Savitri, and when it cut his hands, they gave him two golden ones.

211:1 Karu, in the ordinary sense of the word, is a potful of rice (barley, &c.) grains boiled, or rather steamed (antarûshmapakva), so as to remain whole, as in Indian curry. Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 216.

211:2 According to Kaushît. Br. VI, 10, they took it from Pûshan to Indra, as the mightiest and-strongest of the gods; and he appeased it with prayer (brahman); whence the Brahman (in taking the prâsitra) says, 'Indra is Brahman.' Weber, Ind. Stud. II, p. 307.

211:3 The consistent use of derivations from one and the same root (pra-su) in this and similar passages is, of course, quite as artificial in Sanskrit as must be any imitation of it in English.

211:4 He thereby averts the evil effects of the act which is connected with Rudra, 'the terrible god;' see p. 2, note 2. Besides, the idâ with which he now proceeds representing the cattle, he thereby guards the cattle from the rudriya, cf. above I, 7, 3, 21.

211:5 See I, 8, 1, 12, 13.

212:1 According to Kâty. III, 4, 7, the prâsitra, or (Brahman's) fore-portion, is to be of the size of a barley-corn or a pippala (Ficus Religiosa) berry.

212:2 There is no indication in the text of two different practices being here referred to. The Kânva recension, however, puts in here, 'but let him not do so,' which is evidently understood in our text also.

212:3 Viz. in the prâsitraharana, or pan which is to receive the Brahman's portion. The hollow part of the vessel is to be either of the shape of a (hand-)mirror, i.e. with a round bowl, or of that of a kamasa or jug, i.e. with a square bowl (p. 7, note 1). Kâty. I, 3, 40, 42. On the underlayer' of butter, see I, 7, 2, 8.

212:4 'Tiryag evainam nirmimîte.' I am in doubt as to whether p. 213 enam (which is omitted in the Kânva text) really refers to Rudra's dart. Cf. par. 9.

213:1 According to Kâty. II, 2, 15, he first looks at it, with the text (Vâg. S. p. 58): 'With Mitra's eye I look on thee!'

213:2 According to Kâty. II, 2, 17, he previously puts it down on the shoulder of the altar, with the text (Vâg. S. p. 58), 'I put you down, on the navel of the earth, in the lap of Aditi!' According to 19, however, this is optional (except when the Brahman does not eat the prâsitra immediately).

213:3 According to Kâty. II, 2, 20, the Brahman, having rinsed the p. 214 vessel [or, according to the comment, the two prâsitraharana, one of which is used as lid to the other], touches his navel, with the text (Vâg. S. p. 58), 'May the deities there are in the waters purify this! Enter the stomach of Indra, being offered with "Hail!" Mix not with my food! Settle down above my navel! In Indra's stomach I make thee settle!'

214:1 The Brahman's regular portion (brahmabhâga) of the sacrificial food is cut, like the prâsitra or fore-portion (which apparently he receives as the representative of Brihaspati), from Agni's cake.

214:2 See I, 1, 4, 9.

214:3 According to the scholiast, it represents the pâkayagña or domestic (cooked) offerings, because at the latter, as in the idâ, the remains of the offerings are eaten.

215:1 ? 'Mano gûtir [gyotir, Kânva rec.] gushatâm âgyasya.' I am inclined to read gûter [cf. Ath.-veda XIX, 58, 1: ghritasya gûtih samânâ]. Mahîdhara interprets: 'May the rushing (eager) mind devote itself to the butter!' Hillebrandt, Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, p. 135, apparently proposes to combine manogûtir 'des Geistes Schnelligkeit.' Perhaps gushatâm has to be taken in a transitive sense: 'May the gushing of the butter delight the mind.'

Next: I, 8, 1. Eighth Adhyâya. First Brâhmana