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Vedic Hymns, Part I (SBE32), by Max Müller, [1891], at

p. 419



To Rudra.

1. What could we say to Rudra, the wise, the most liberal, the most powerful, that is most welcome to his heart,—

2. So that Aditi 1 may bring Rudra's healing to the cattle, to men, to cow, and kith,

3. So that Mitra, that Varuna, that Rudra hear us, and all the united Maruts 1.

4. We implore Rudra, the lord of songs, the lord of animal sacrifices 1, the possessor of healing medicines 2, for health, wealth 3, and his favour.

5. He who shines like the bright sun, and like gold, who is the best Vasu among the gods,

6. May he bring health to our horse, welfare to ram and ewe, to men, to women, and to the cow!

7. Bestow on us, O Soma, the happiness of a hundred men, great glory of strong manhood 1;

8. O Soma 1, let not those who harass and injure overthrow us; O Indu, help us to booty!

9. Whatever beings are thine, the immortal, in the highest place of the law, on its summit 1, in its centre, O Soma, cherish them, remember them who honour thee.

p. 420


Ascribed to Kanva Ghaura, and addressed to Rudra (I, 2, 4-6), to Rudra and Mitrâ-Varunau (3), and to Soma (7-9). Metre, Gâyatrî (1-8); Anushtubh (9). Verse 2 in TS. III, 4, 11, 2; MS. IV, 12, 6.

The hymn may be divided into two, the first from 1-6, the second from 7-9. See, however, Bergaigne, III, 32, n. 1; and Recherches sur l’hist. de la Samhitâ, I, 65. He would prefer to divide the whole into three hymns.

Verse 1.

See TÂ. X, 17, I; Delbrück, Synt. Forsch. I, 246.

Verse 2.

Note 1. Ludwig takes Aditi here as a name of Rudra; also Hillebrandt, Über die Göttin Aditi, p. 6.

Verse 3.

Note 1. The vísve sagóshasah, following on Rudra, can hardly be meant for any but the Maruts, who are often called sagóshasah. But it may also have been intended for all the gods together.

Verse 4.

Note 1. Gâthápatim and medhápatim are both difficult. We expect gâthâ´patim and medhâ´patim. If, as Ludwig maintains, gâtha in Zend is equivalent to ritu, season, then gâthapati might be ritupati, a name of Agni, X, 2, 1. But this is extremely doubtful. We must derive gâthápati from gâthă, I, 167, 6, and medhápati from medhă, animal sacrifice, till we know more on the subject.

Note 2. Gálâsha-bheshagam, an epithet of Rudra; see VIII, 29, 5, where Rudra is intended. In II, 33, 7, the arm of Rudra is called bheshagáh gálâshah; in VII, 35, 6, Rudra himself is called gálâshah. Gálâsha seems connected with gala, water. Bergaigne, III, 32, translates it by adoucissant.

Note 3. On samh, see note 2 to I, 165, 4.

p. 421

Verse 7.

Note 1. Tuvi-nrimna would seem more appropriate as a vocative. In verse 8, too, I should prefer to take Soma as a vocative, like Benfey and Grassmann.

Verse 8.

Note 1. I read Soma, paribâ´dhah. See Delbrück, Synt. Forsch. p. 116.

Verse 9.

Note 1. Unless we can take mûrdhâ´ for a locative, attracted by nâ´bhâ, I should propose to read mûrdhán nâ´bhâ. It can hardly be an adverbial Dvandva, mûrdhâ-nâbhâ, nor do I see how it can be applied as a nominative to Rudra. The whole verse is difficult, possibly a later addition. On ritásya amtasya dhâ´man, see IX, 97, 32; 110, 4 (dhárman).

Next: I, 114. To Rudra