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The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30), by Hermann Oldenberg, [1892], at


1. 1  4 In the eighth year after the conception let him initiate a Brâhmana,

2. In the eleventh year after the conception a Kshatriya,

3. In the twelfth year after the conception a Vaisya.

4. Until the sixteenth year the time has not passed for a Brâhmana, until the twenty-second for a Kshatriya, until the twenty-fourth for a Vaisya.

5. 5 After that (time has passed), they become patitasâvitrîka (i.e. they have lost their right of being taught the Sâvitrî).

6. Let them not initiate such men, nor teach them, nor perform sacrifices for them, nor form matrimonial alliances with them.

7. On the day on which the youth is going to receive the initiation, on that day, early in the morning, they give him to eat, and have his hair arranged, and wash him, and deck him with ornaments, and put on him a (new) garment which has not yet been washed.

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8. 8 Their garments are made of linen, of hempen cloth, of cotton, or of wool (according to the caste to which the student belongs).

9. The skins (which they wear), are an antelope-skin, or the skin of a spotted deer, or a goat's skin.

10. 10 Their girdles are made of Muñga grass, of Kâsa grass, of Tâmbala.

11. Their staffs are of Parna wood, of Bilva wood, of Asvattha wood.

12. The garment of a Brâhmana is made of linen, or of hempen cloth, that of a Kshatriya, of cotton, that of a Vaisya, of wool.

13. 13 Thereby also the other articles have been explained.

14. Or if (the proper articles prescribed) cannot be got, all (of them may be used) by (persons of) all castes.

15. 15 To the east of the house on a surface besmeared (with cow-dung) wood has been put on the fire.

16. Having sacrificed with (the Mantras which the student recites) 'Agni! Lord of the vow' (MB. I, 6, 9-13), the teacher stations himself to the west

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of the fire, on northward-pointed Darbha grass, facing the east.

17. Between the fire and the teacher the student (stands), raising his joined hands, turning his face towards the teacher, on northward-pointed Darbha grass.

18. Standing on his south side a Brâhmana versed in the Mantras fills (the student's) joined hands with water,

19. And afterwards (those) of the teacher.

20. Looking (at the student the teacher) murmurs (the verse), 'With him who comes to us, we have come together' (MB. I, 6, 14).

21. He causes (the student) to say, 'I have come hither to studentship' (ibid. 16).

22. 22 In (the words), 'What is thy name' (ibid. 17), he asks after his name.

23. The teacher chooses for him a name which he is to use at respectful salutations,

24. (A name) derived from (the name of) a deity or a Nakshatra,

25. Or also of his Gotra, according to some (teachers).

26. Having let the water run out of his joined

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hands (over the student's hands), the teacher with his right hand seizes (the student's) right hand together with the thumb, with (the formula), 'By the impulse of the god Savitri, with the arms of the two Asvins, with Pûshan's hands I seize thy hand, N.N.!' (ibid. 18).

27. He then makes him turn round from left to right with (the formula), 'Move in the sun's course after him, N.N.!' (ibid. 19).

28. Grasping down with his right hand over his right shoulder he should touch his uncovered navel with (the formula), 'Thou art the knot of all breath' (ibid. 20).

29. Raising himself (from the position implied in Sûtra 28, he should touch) the place near the navel with (the formula), 'Ahura' (ibid. 21).

30. Raising himself (still more, he should touch) the place of the heart with (the formula), 'Krisana' (ibid. 22).

31. Having touched from behind with his right hand (the student's) right shoulder with (the formula), 'I give thee in charge to Pragâpati, N.N.!' (ibid. 23)—

32. And with his left (hand) the left (shoulder) with (the formula), 'I give thee in charge to the god Savitri, N.N.!' (ibid. 24)—

33. 33 He then directs him (to observe the duties of Brahmakarya, by the formula), 'A student art thou, N.N.!' (ibid. 25).

34. 'Put on fuel. Eat water. Do the service. Do not sleep in the day-time' (ibid. 26).

35. Having gone in a northerly direction from

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the fire, the teacher sits down to the east, on northward-pointed Darbha grass,

36. The student to the west, bending his right knee, turning his face towards the teacher, also on northward-pointed Darbha grass.

37. (The teacher) then ties round (the student) thrice from left to right the girdle made of Muñga grass and causes him to repeat (the verse), 'Protecting us from evil word' (ibid. 27), and (the verse), 'The protectress of right' (ibid. 28).

38. Then (the student) respectfully sits down near (the teacher) with (the words), 'Recite, sir! May the reverend one recite the Sâvitrî to me.'

39. He then recites (the Sâvitrî, ibid. 29) to him, Pâda by Pâda, hemistich by hemistich, and the whole verse,

40. And the Mahâvyâhritis one by one, with the word Om at the end (ibid. 30).

41. And handing over to him the staff, which should be made of (the wood of) a tree, he causes him to repeat (the formula), 'O glorious one, make me glorious' (ibid. 31).

42. Then (the student) goes to beg food,

43. First of his mother, and of two other women friends, or of as many as there are in the neighbourhood.

44. He announces the alms (received) to his teacher.

45. The rest of the day he stands silently.

46. After sunset he puts a piece of wood on the fire with (the Mantra), 'To Agni I have brought a piece of wood' (ibid. 32).

47. Through a period of three nights he avoids eating pungent or saline food.

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48. At the end of that (period) a mess of boiled rice-grains (is offered) to Savitri.

49. 49 Then he may do what he likes.

50. A cow constitutes the sacrificial fee.

End of the Second Prapâthaka.


63:1 10, 1 seq. The initiation of the student. Khâdira-Grihya II, 4, 1 seq.

63:4 1-4. On the number of years given for the Upanayana of persons of the three castes, see the note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, I, 1.

63:5 5, 6. See the note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, I, 9.

64:8 There are four kinds of garments indicated, though only persons of three castes are concerned. The explanation of this apparent incongruence follows from Sûtra 12.

64:10 Tâmbala is stated to be a synonym for sana (hemp).

64:13 As the garments indicated in Sûtra 8 belong, in the order in which they are stated, to persons of the three castes respectively, thus also of the skins (Sûtra 9), of the girdles (Sûtra 10), and of the staffs (Sûtra 11); the first is that belonging to a Brâhmana, the second, to a Kshatriya, and the third, to a Vaisya.

64:15 Comp. above, chap. 9, 2.

65:22 22, 23. It is evident that the words tasyâkâryah belong to Sûtra 23, and not to Sûtra 22, to which the traditional division of the Sûtras assigns them. The corresponding section of the Mantra-Brâhmana runs thus: 'What is thy name?'—'My name is N.N.!' It is not clear whether the student, being questioned by the teacher, had to indicate his ordinary name, and then to receive from the teacher his 'abhivâdanîya nâmadheya,' or whether he had to pronounce, on the teacher's question, directly the abhivâdanîya name chosen for him by the teacher. The commentary and the corresponding passage of the Khâdira-Grihya (II, 4, 12) are in favour of the second alternative.

66:33 33, 34. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 4, 5 note.

68:49 49, 50. Dr. Knauer very pertinently calls attention to the fact that these Sûtras are not repeated, as is the rule with regard to the concluding words of an Adhyâya or Prapâthaka. Comp. chap. 8, 25 note.

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