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1. There are four castes (varna), Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras. 1

2. Three castes, Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, (are called) twice-born.

3. Their first birth is from their mother; the second from the investiture with the sacred girdle. In that (second birth) the Sâvitrî is the mother, but the teacher is said to be the father. 3

4. They call the teacher father, because he gives instruction in the Veda. 4

5. They quote also (the following passage from the Veda) to the same (effect): 'Of two kinds, forsooth, is the virile energy of a man learned in the Vedas, that which (resides) above the navel and the other which below (the navel) descends down-wards. Through that which (resides) above the navel, his offspring is produced, when he initiates Brâhmanas, when he teaches them, when he causes them to offer oblations, when he makes them holy. By that which resides below the navel the children of his body are produced. Therefore they never say, to a Srotriya, who teaches the Veda, "Thud art destitute of offspring."' 5

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6. Hârîta also quotes (the following verse): 'No religious rite can be performed by a (child) before he has been girt with the sacred girdle, since he is on a level with a Sûdra before his (new) birth from the Veda.' 6

7. (The above prohibition refers to all rites) except those connected with libations of water, (the exclamation) Svadhâ, and the manes. 7

8. Sacred learning approached a Brâhmana (and said to him), 'Preserve me, I am thy treasure, reveal me not to a scorner, nor to a wicked man, nor to one of uncontrolled passions: so (preserved) I shall become strong.' 8

9. 'Reveal me, O Brâhmana, as to the keeper of thy treasure, to him whom thou shalt know to be pure, attentive, intelligent, and chaste, who will not offend thee nor revile thee.'

10. '(That man) who fills his ears with truth, who frees him from pain and confers immortality upon him, (the pupil) shall consider as his father and mother; him he must never grieve nor revile.' 10

11. 'As those Brâhmanas who, after receiving instruction, do not honour their teacher by their speech, in their hearts or by their acts, will not be profitable to their teacher, even so that sacred learning (which they acquired) will not profit them.'

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12. 'As fire consumes dry grass, even so the Veda, asked for, (but) not honoured, (destroys the enquirer). Let him not proclaim the Veda to that man, who does not show him honour according to his ability.'

13. The (lawful) occupations of a Brâhmana are six, 13

14. Studying the Veda, teaching, sacrificing for himself, sacrificing for. others, giving alms, and accepting gifts. 14

15. (The lawful occupations) of a Kshatriya are three,

16. Studying, sacrificing for himself, and bestowing gifts;

17. And his peculiar duty is to protect the people with his weapons; let him gain his livelihood thereby.

18. (The lawful occupations) of a Vaisya are the same (as those mentioned above, Sûtra 16),

19. Besides, agriculture, trading, tending cattle, and lending money at interest,

20. To serve those (superior castes) has been fixed as the means of livelihood for a Sûdra. 20

21. (Men of) all (castes) may wear their hair arranged according to the customs fixed (for their family), or allow it to hang down excepting the lock on the crown of the head. 21

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22. Those who are unable to live by their own lawful occupation may adopt (that of) the next inferior (caste), 22

23. But never (that of a) higher (caste).

24. (A Brâhmana and a Kshatriya) who have re-sorted to a Vaisya's mode of living, and maintain themselves by trade (shall not sell) stones, salt, hempen (cloth), silk, linen (cloth), and skins, 24

25. Nor any kind of dyed cloth,

26. Nor prepared food, flowers, fruit, roots, per-fumes, substances (used for) flavouring (food); nor water, the juice extracted from plants; nor Soma, weapons, poison; nor flesh, nor milk, nor preparations from it, iron, tin, lac, and lead, 26

27. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'By (selling) flesh, lac, and salt a Brâhmana at once becomes an outcast; by selling milk he. becomes (equal to) a Sûdra after three days.' 27

28. Among tame animals those with uncloven hoofs, and those that have an abundance of hair, (must not be sold), nor any wild animals, (nor) birds, nor beasts that have tusks (or fangs).

29. Among the various kinds of grain they mention sesamum (as forbidden). 29

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30. Now they quote also (the following verse): If he applies sesamum to any other purpose, but food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born again as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged into his own ordure.' 30

31. Or, at pleasure, they may sell (sesamum), if they themselves have produced it by tillage. 31

32. For that purpose he shall plough before breakfast with two bulls whose noses have not been pierced.

33. (If he ploughs) in the hot season, he shall water (his beasts even in the morning).

34. The plough is attended by strong males, provided with a useful share and with a handle (to be held) by the drinker of Soma; that raises (for him) a cow, a sheep, a stout damsel, and a swift horse for the chariot. 34

35. The plough is attended by strong males, i.e. is attended by strong men and bullocks, provided with a useful share--for its share is useful (because) with the share it raises, i.e. pierces deep--and provided with a handle for the drinker of Soma,--for Soma reaches him,--possessing a handle for him. That raises a cow, a sheep, goats, horses, mules, donkeys and camels, and a stout damsel, i.e. a beautiful, useful maiden in the flower of her youth.

36. For how could the plough raise (anything for him) if he did not sell grain?

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37. Substances used for flavouring may be bartered for (other) substances of the same kind, be it for one more valuable or for one worth less. 37

38. But salt must never (be exchanged) for (other) substances-used for flavouring (food).

39. It is permitted to barter sesamum, rice, cooked food, learning, and slaves (each for its own kind and the one for the other).

40. A Brâhmana and a Kshatriya shall not lend (anything at interest acting like) usurers. 40

41. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'He who acquiring property cheap, gives it for a high price, is called a usurer and blamed among those who recite the Veda.'

42. '(Brahman) weighed in the scales the crime of killing a learned Brâhmana against (the crime of) usury; the slayer of the Brâhmana remained at the top, the usurer sank downwards.'

43. Or, at pleasure, they may lend to a person who entirely neglects his sacred duties, and is exceedingly wicked, 43

44. Gold (taking) double (its value on repayment, and) grain trebling (the original price). 44

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45. (The case of) flavouring substances has been explained by (the rule regarding) grain,

46. As well as (the case of) flowers, roots, and fruit.

47. (They may lend) what is sold by weight, (taking) eight times (the original value on repayment). 47

48. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Two in the hundred, three and four and five, as has teen declared in the Smriti, he may take as interest by the month according to the order of the castes.' 48

49. 'But the king's death shall stop the interest on money (lent);' 49

50. 'And after the coronation of (a new) king the capital grows again.'

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51. 'Hear the interest for a money-lender declared by the words of Vasishtha, five mash's for twenty (kârshâpanas may be taken every month); thus the law is not violated.' 51


9:1-2. II. Vishnu II, 1-2; Manu X, 4.

9:3 Identical with Manu II, 169a, 170a, and Vishnu XXVIII, 37-38. The Sâvitrî or the verse addressed to Savitri is found Rig-veda III, 62, 10.

9:4 Gautama I, 10; Manu II, 171.

9:5 The reading tathâpyudâharanti, which several of my MSS. give, seems to me preferable to Krishnapandita's udâharati. Krishnapandita explains sâdhu karoti, 'makes them holy,' by adhyâtmam upadisati,' teaches them transcendental knowledge.'

10:6 Vishnu XXVIII, 40. Instead of Krishnapandita's 'yâvadvedo na gâyate,' 'yâvadvede na gâyate,' which occurs in several MSS. and in the parallel passages of Manu II, 172 and other Smritis, must be read.

10:7 Gautama II, 5. The rites referred to are the funeral rites.

10:8-9. Vishnu XXIX, 9-10, and introduction, p. xxiii; Nirukta II, 4.

10:10 Vishnu XXX, 47.

11:13 Krishnapandita wrongly connects the word brâhmanasya with the next Sûtra. For this and the next seven Sûtras, compare Vishnu II, 4-14.

11:14 Krishnapandita by mistake leaves out the word 'dânam.'

11:20 I read 'teshâm parikaryâ,' with the majority of the MSS., instead of Krishnapandita's 'teshâm ka parikaryâ.'

11:21 In illustration of this Sûtra Krishnapandita quotes a verse of Laugâkshi, which states that Brâhmanas belonging to the Vasishtha family wore the top-lock on the right side of the head, and the members of the Atri family allowed it to hang down on p. 12 both sides, while the Bhrigus shaved their heads, and the Âṅgirasas wore five locks (kûdâ) on the crown of the head. Cf. Max Müller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 53.

12:22 Vishnu II, 15.

12:24 For this and the following four Sûtras, see Gautama VII, 8-21.

12:26 Rasâh, 'substances used for flavouring,' i.e. 'molasses, sugar-cane, sugar, and the like.'--Krishnapandita. See also note on Gautama VII, 9.

12:27 Identical with Manu X, 92.

12:29 Vishnu LIV, 18; Âpastamba I, 7, 20, 13. Krishnapandita wrongly connects this Sûtra with the preceding one.

13:30 Manu X, 91.

13:31 Manu X, 90.

13:34gasaneyi-samhitâ XII, 71. The translation follows the explanation given in the next Sûtra as closely as possible, though the latter is without doubt erroneous. The purpose for which Vasishtha introduces it, is to show that a Vedic text permits agriculture to a Brâhmana who offers Soma-sacrifices.

14:37-39. Gautama VII, 16-21.

14:40 Manu X, 117. Krishnapandita reads with MS. B., vârdhushim na dadyâtâm, and explains it by vriddhim naiva prayogayetâm, 'they shall not take interest.' I read with the other MSS. vârdhushî, and translate that term by 'usurers.' Below, Sûtra 42, vârdhushi is used likewise in this its usual sense.

14:43 Manu X, 117.

14:44-47. Vishnu VI, 11-17; Colebrooke I, Dig. LXVI, where 'silver and gems' have been added after gold, and rasâh, 'flavouring substances,' been translated by 'fluids.' The translation differs also in other respects, because there the Sûtras stand by themselves, while here the nouns in Sûtras 44 and 47 are governed by the preceding dadyâtâm, 'they may lend.' They, i.e. a Brâhmana p. 15 and a Kshatriya. The rule, of course, refers to other castes also, and to those cases where no periodical interest is taken, but the loan returned in kind.

15:47 The Ratnâkara quoted by Colebrooke loc. cit. takes 'what is sold by weight' to be 'camphor and the like.' Krishnapandita thinks that 'clarified butter, honey, spirituous liquor, oil, molasses, and salt' are meant. But most of these substances fall under the term rasâh, 'flavouring substances.' The proper explanation of the words seems to be, 'any other substance not included among those mentioned previously, which is sold by weight.'

15:48 Vishnu VI, 2, and especially Manu VIII, 142. The lowest rate of interest is to be taken from the highest caste, and it becomes greater with decreasing respectability. According to Krishnapandita and the commentators on the parallel passage of Vishnu, Manu, and other Smritis, this rule applies only to loans for which no security is given--a statement which is doubtlessly correct.

15:49-50. Both the reading and the sense of this verse, which in some MSS. is wanting, are somewhat doubtful. I read with my best MSS.,

gâ to mritabhâvena dravyavriddhim vinâsayet |
punâ râgâbhishekena dravyamûlam ka vardhate ||

and consider that it gives a rule, ordering all money transactions to be stopped during the period which intervenes between the death of a king and the coronation of his successor. I am, however, unable to point out any parallel passages confirming this p. 16 view. Krishnapandita's text shows two important various readings, 'bhritibhâvena' and 'râgâbhîshikena,' which I think are merely conjectures, unsupported by the authority of MSS. He explains the verse as follows: 'The king shall destroy, i.e. himself not take, the interest on money by giving [it away] as a salary. But, after thus giving away interest received, he may increase his capital by [an extra tax imposed on] the cultivators, i.e. take from them the highest rate, consisting of one-fourth of the produce.'

16:51 Gautama XII, 29; Colebrooke I, Dig. XXIV. The rule given in this Sûtra refers, as Krishnapandita correctly states, to loans, for which security is given. The rate is 1¼ per cent for the month, or 15 per annum; see the note to Gautama loc. cit. Manu, VIII, 140, especially mentions that this rate is prescribed by Vasishtha.

Next: Chapter III