Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle 4 quality; among vehicles the elephant 5, and among denizens, of the forest the lion; among all sacrificial animals the sheep, and among the dwellers in holes the snake; among cattle also the bull, and among
females a male 1. The Nyagrodha, the Gambu, the Pippala, and likewise the Sâlmali, the Sinsapâ, and the. Meshasringa, and likewise the bamboo and willow 2; these are the princes among trees in this world, there is no doubt of that. The Himavat, the Pâriyâtra, the Sahya, the Vindhya, the Trikûtavat, the Sveta, the Nîla, the Bhâsa, and the Koshthavat mountain, the Mahendra, the Guruskandha; and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain, these are the princes among mountains 3. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas; the sun is the prince among the planets, and the moon 4 among the Nakshatras; Yama is the prince among the Pitris, and the ocean among rivers; Varuna is the king of the waters, and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. Arka is the king of hot (bodies), and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. Fire is ever the lord of the elements 5, and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas; Soma is the lord of herbs, Vishnu is the chief among the strong; Tvashtri is the prince
of the Rudras, and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures; likewise, sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies 1, and Maghavat 2 likewise of the gods; the north among the quarters, and among all vipras the powerful king Soma 3; Kubera (is lord) of all jewels, Purandara of (all) deities. Such is the highest creation among all entities. Pragâpati (is lord) of all peoples; and of all entities whatever I, who am full of the Brahman, and great, (am lord). There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. Understand him to be the ruler, the creator, the uncreated Hari. For he is the ruler of men, Kinnaras, and Yakshas; of Gandharvas, snakes, and Rakshases; of gods, demons, and Nâgas. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires, (the chief) is 4 the great goddess Mâhesvarî, who has beautiful eyes. She is called Pârvatî. Know the goddess Umâ 5 to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. Among women who are (a source 6 of) happiness, likewise, the brilliant 7 Apsarases (are chief). Kings desire
piety; and Brâhmanas are the bridges 1 of piety. Therefore a king should always endeavour to protect the twice-born 2. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low, lose all their qualifications 3, and go into wrong paths after death. But those high-souled kings in whose dominions good men are protected, rejoice in this world, and attain the infinite (seat) after death. Understand this, O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. Non-destruction is the highest piety 4, and destruction is of the nature of impiety. Enlightenment 5 is the characteristic of gods; action 6 the characteristic of men; sound is the characteristic of space; (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air; colour is the characteristic of light; taste is the characteristic of water; the characteristic of earth, the supporter of all beings, is smell; words are the characteristic of speech 7 refined into vowels and consonants; the characteristic of mind is thought. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding, a determination
is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind 1. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. The characteristic of mind is meditation 2; and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived 3. The characteristic of devotion is action 4; and knowledge, the characteristic of renunciation. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation, giving prominence to knowledge 5. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. And crossing beyond darkness, and transcending death and old age, he repairs to that which has no second 6. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension 7 of the qualities. As to the smell of the earth, verily, that is comprehended by the nose; and the wind 8 likewise residing in the nose is a pointed 9 to the knowledge of smell. Taste 10,
the essence of water, is always comprehended by the tongue. And the moon likewise, who resides in the tongue, is appointed to the knowledge of taste. The quality of light is colour, and that is comprehended by the eye; and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of colour. The (sensation of) touch, belonging to the air, is perceived by the skin, and the wind 1 residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. The quality of space is sound, and that is comprehended by the ear. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. Thought is the quality of mind, and that is comprehended by the understanding. The supporter of consciousness 2 residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind 3. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination, and the Mahat 4 of knowledge. To (this) positive comprehension, the unperceived 5 (is appointed), there is no doubt of that. The Kshetragña, which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal, is not to be comprehended by any
symbols. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetragña, which is void of symbols 1, is purely knowledge. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra 2 in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. And I always see, know, and hear it, (though) concealed. The Purusha knows it, therefore is he called Kshetragña 3. And the Kshetragña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities 4. The qualities created again and again, do not know themselves 5, being nonintelligent, to be created and tied down to a beginning, middle, and end 6. Only the Kshetragña attains, no one, (else) attains, to the truth, which is great, transcendent, and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) 7 from the qualities. Hence a man who understands piety, abandoning qualities, and the creation 8, in this world, and transcending the qualities, and having his sins destroyed, then enters into the Kshetragña. One who is free from the pairs of opposites, free from the ceremony of salutations, and
from the svâhâ ceremony 1, who is unmoving, and homeless 2, is the Kshetragña, he is the Supreme Lord.
345:1 I. e. creating or acting, Arguna Misra. I think it probable that it was meant to go with the preceding words. See Gîtâ, p. 83 note; but, for this, 'changing' must be in the accusative. It is in the nominative. As the original stands, and on Arguna Misra's interpretation, the sense seems to be that when he is about to engage fin the work of creation, he can obtain as many bodies as he likes. Nîlakantha compares Khândogya, p. 526. And see pp. 249, 327 supra. Can always perceive = invariably obtains when he wishes.
345:2 Cf. Gîtâ, pp. 83, 93, and note 1 there.
345:3 Cf. Gîtâ, pp. 85, 118.
345:4 I. e. passion--that quality--is dominant in the Kshatriya, Nîlakantha. See p. 329 supra.
345:5 Commenting on Gîtâ V, 18 (p. 65) Sankara calls the elephant atyantatâmasa, belonging entirely to the quality of darkness.
346:1 As to the constructions here, cf. generally Gîtâ, p. 88, and see the remarks of Râmânuga and Srîdhara on Gîtâ X, 21. The meaning here is, of course, the male is ruler over females.
346:2 I do not know what distinction is intended between these two. Generally kîkaka is used for the hollow bamboo, which whistles when the wind blows through it.
346:3 Some of these mountains are mentioned in Patañgali. See Introduction.
346:4 This list may be compared with that at Gîtâ, chapter X. Sometimes the same object occurs more than once with reference to more than one class; thus the moon occurs as lord of Nakshatras, of shining bodies, and of herbs--unless Soma there stands for the Soma plant. See Gîtâ, p. 113. Arguna Misra says expressly that the moon occurs more than once as the correlatives, the classes with reference to which she is mentioned, are different. In such cases I have kept the original names untranslated; Arka = sun; Indu = moon.
346:5 Cf. Katha, p. 83.
347:1 This must mean, I presume, that the sacrifice is higher than the initiation, as male than female, see p. 316, note 1.
347:2 This is another repetition. Indra has been mentioned before, and Purandara is mentioned further on.
347:3 As to king Soma, see inter alia Brihadâranyaka, p. 237; Khândogya, p. 342, where Sankara explains 'king' by adding 'of Brâhmanas.' Vipras = Brâhmanas.
347:4 I. e. Mâhesvarî is the most beautiful of womankind.
347:5 It is well known that Umâ, Pârvatî, Mâhesvarî are names of the consort of the third member of the Hindu Trinity; see Kena, p. 13, and Sankara's comment there. See, too, Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. iv, p. 421, and Taittirîya-âranyaka, p. 839.
347:6 The idea of 'source' is supplied by Arguna Misra.
347:7 Literally, 'rich.' Arguna Misra paraphrases it by 'Gyotishmatî.' Nîlakantha's explanation here is not quite clear.
348:1 I. e. instrumental in piety, or guides to piety. Cf. Svetâsvatara, p. 370; Mundaka, p. 297.
348:2 So literally, doubtless Brâhmanas only are intended here.
348:3 I. e., I presume, they lose all their merits, their good points are destroyed by this dereliction of duty.
348:4 Cf. p. 291 supra. Arguna Misra begins a fresh chapter with 'I shall now,' &c.
348:5 Knowledge of the truth, Arguna Misra.
348:6 I. e. action performed for the purpose of obtaining the fruit of it. The next five items refer to the five elements and their characteristic properties. Nîlakantha's explanation, that all these are merely parallels not stated for their own relevancy here, but as illustrations, seems to be the only available one.
348:7 I. e. the learning of other people, Nîlakantha. The meaning seems to be that we know speech only in its manifestation in the form of words.
349:1 The text here is rather unsatisfactory; I have adopted that which I find in the copy containing Arguna Misra's commentary.
349:2 Frequent pondering on matters learnt from Sâstras or common life, Nîlakantha. Why mind comes twice the commentators do not explain.
349:3 Does this refer to, what is said at Sanatsugâtîya, p. 159.
349:4 Devotion means here, as in the Gîtâ, action without desire of fruits. For action the word here is the same as at Gîtâ, p. 115, note 2.
349:5 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 52, note 7.
349:6 This is Arguna Misra's interpretation, and appears to me to be correct. Nîlakantha's is different, but seems to omit all account of abhyeti, repairs.'
349:7 Arguna Misra's interpretation seems to be different, but our copy is not quite intelligible.
349:8 See p. 337 supra. The wind is the presiding deity of the nasal organ.
349:9 I. e. that is its function. Arguna Misra says, 'it is pondered on,' which is not clear.
349:10 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 74, as to taste and water.
350:1 This cannot be the presiding deity here, though one expects such deity to be mentioned; see p. 337 supra.
350:2 The text of more than one of the lines here is rather doubtful; we follow Nîlakantha, who takes this to mean the gîva, the individual soul. Cf. p. 239, note 2 supra.
350:3 I. e. thought, as Nîlakantha points out.
350:4 Mahat is properly the same as buddhi, understanding, but as it is here mentioned separately, I suppose, it signifies Ahankâra. Nîlakantha takes its operation, here called knowledge, to mean 'the feeling I am,' which agrees with our interpretation, for which some support is also to be derived from p. 333 supra.
350:5 I here follow Arguna Misra, though somewhat diffidently. The knowledge 'this is I,' and the knowledge 'this is so and so and nothing else' is presided over by the unperceived--the Prakriti.
351:1 See Sanatsugâtîya, p. 146. See also p. 309 supra.
351:2 See Gîtâ, p. 102 seq.
351:3 I. e. he who knows the Kshetra.
351:4 Enlightenment, activity, and delusion, Nîlakantha.
351:5 I. e. do not know the self, Nîlakantha; better, I think, the qualities do not know themselves, only the Kshetragña knows them.' Cf. Sânti Parvan (Moksha Dharma), chap. 194, st. 41.
351:6 I. e. production, existence, and destruction, Nîlakantha. This must, however, mean their manifestation, continuance, and dissolution in any particular form. For the prakriti, which is made up of the three qualities, is beginningless. Cf. Gîtâ, p. 104.
351:7 I. e. the actual physical manifestations, as we may say, of the qualities.
351:8 The original, sattva, Nîlakantha renders by buddhi, and qualities by visible objects. In the familiar Sânkhya phrase sattvapurushânyatâpratyaya sattva means creation, or what is other than purusha (cf. Sânkhyatattvakaumudî, pp. 9-144). That is the meaning here. See too p. 371 infra, and Sânti Parvan (Moksha Dharma), chap. 194, st. 38 seq. and comments there.