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Chap. X.—Of False Piety, and of False and True Religion.

It is worth while to investigate their piety, that from their merciful and pious actions it may be understood what is the character of those things which are done by them contrary to the laws of piety. And that I may not seem to attack any one with harshness, I will take a character from the poets, and one which is the greatest example of piety. In Maro, that king  

“Than who
The breath of being none e’er drew,
More brave, more pious, or more true,” 995

what proofs of justice did he bring forward to us?  

“There walk with hands fast bound behind
The victim prisoners, designed
For slaughter o’er the flames.” 996

What can be more merciful than this piety? what more merciful than to immolate human victims to the dead, and to feed the fire with the blood of men as with oil? But perhaps this may not have been the fault of the hero himself, but of the poet, who polluted with distinguished wickedness “a man distinguished by his piety.” 997 Where then, O poet, is that piety which you so frequently praise? Behold the pious Æneas:—  

“Four hapless youths of Sulmo’s breed,
And four who Ufens call their sire,
He takes alive, condemned to bleed
To Pallas’ shade on Pallas’ pyre.” 998

Why, therefore, at the very same time when he was sending the men in chains to slaughter, did he say,  

“Fain would I grant the living peace,” 999

when he ordered that those whom he had in his power alive should be slain in the place of cattle? But this, as I have said, was not his fault—for p. 146 he perhaps had not received a liberal education—but yours; for, though you were learned, yet you were ignorant of the nature of piety, and you believed that that wicked and detestable action of his was the befitting exercise of piety. He is plainly called pious on this account only, because he loved his father. Why should I say that  

“The good Æneas owned their plea,” 1000

and yet slew them? For, though adjured by the same father, and  

“By young Iulus’ dawning day,” 1001

he did not spare them,  

“Live fury kindling every vein” 1002

What! can any one imagine that there was any virtue in him who was fired with madness as stubble, and, forgetful of the shade of his father, by whom he was entreated, was unable to curb his wrath? He was therefore by no means pious who not only slew the unresisting, but even suppliants. Here some one will say: What then, or where, or of what character is piety? Truly it is among those who are ignorant of wars, who maintain concord with all, who are friendly even to their enemies, who love all men as brethren, who know how to restrain their anger, and to soothe every passion of the mind with calm government. How great a mist, therefore, how great a cloud of darkness and errors, has over-spread the breasts of men who, when they think themselves especially pious, then become especially impious? For the more religiously they honour those earthy images, so much the more wicked are they towards the name of the true divinity. And therefore they are often harassed with greater evils as the reward of their impiety; and because they know not the cause of these evils, the blame is altogether ascribed to fortune, and the philosophy of Epicurus finds a place, who thinks that nothing extends to the gods, and that they are neither influenced by favour nor moved by anger, because they often see their despisers happy, and their worshippers in misery. And this happens on this account, because when they seem to be religious and naturally good, they are believed to deserve nothing of that kind which they often suffer. However, they console themselves by accusing fortune; nor do they perceive that if she had any existence, she would never injure her worshippers. Piety of this kind is therefore deservedly followed by punishment; and the deity offended with the wickedness of men who are depraved in their religious worship, 1003 punishes them with heavy misfortune; who, although they live with holiness in the greatest faith and innocence, yet because they worship gods whose impious and profane rites are an abomination to the true God, are estranged from justice and the name of true piety. Nor is it difficult to show why the worshippers of the gods cannot be good and just. For how shall they abstain from the shedding of blood who worship bloodthirsty deities, Mars and Bellona? or how shall they spare their parents who worship Jupiter, who drove out his father? or how shall they spare their own infants who worship Saturnus? how shall they uphold chastity who worship a goddess who is naked, and an adulteress, and who prostitutes herself as it were among the gods? how shall they withhold themselves from plunder and frauds who are acquainted with the thefts of Mercurius, who teaches that to deceive is not the part of fraud, but of cleverness? how shall they restrain their lusts who worship Jupiter, Hercules, Liber, Apollo, and the others, whose adulteries and debaucheries with men and women are not only known to the learned, but are even set forth in the theatres, and made the subject of songs, so that they are notorious 1004 to all? Among these things is it possible for men to be just, who, although they were naturally good, would be trained to injustice by the very gods themselves? For, that you may propitiate the god whom you worship, there is need of those things with which you know that he is pleased and delighted. Thus it comes to pass that the god fashions the life of his worshippers according to the character of his own will, 1005 since the most religious worship is to imitate.  



Virg., Æn., i. 544.  


Ibid., xi. 81.  


Ibid., i. 10.  


Ibid., x. 517.  


Ibid., xi. 111.  


Virg., Æn., xi. 106.  


Ibid., x. 524.  


Ibid., xii. 946.  


Hominum prave religiosorum.  


Omnibus notiora.  


Pro qualitate numinis sui.  

Next: Chap XI.—Of the cruelty of the heathens against the Christians