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Chapter V.—Sundry Features of the Prophetic Style: Principles of Its Interpretation.

These preliminary remarks I have ventured to make 3143 at this first step of the discussion and while the conflict is, as it were, from a distance. But inasmuch as I shall now from this point have to grapple with my opponent on a distinct issue and in close combat, I perceive that I must advance even here some lines, at which the battle will have to be delivered; they are the Scriptures of the Creator. For as I shall have to prove that Christ was from the Creator, according to these (Scriptures), which were afterwards accomplished in the Creator’s Christ, I find it necessary to set forth the form and, so to speak, the nature of the Scriptures themselves, that they may not distract the reader’s attention by being called into controversy at the moment of their application to subjects of discussion, and by their proof being confounded with the proof of the subjects themselves. Now there are two conditions of prophetic announcement which I adduce, as requiring the assent of our adversaries in the future stages of the discussion. One, that future events are sometimes announced as if they were already passed. For it is 3144 consistent with Deity to regard as accomplished facts whatever It has determined on, because there is no difference of time with that Being in whom eternity itself directs a uniform condition of seasons. It is indeed more natural 3145 to the prophetic divination to represent as seen and already brought to pass, 3146 even while forseeing it, that which it foresees; in other words, that which is by all means future. As for instance, in Isaiah: “I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks (I exposed) to their hands.  I hid not my face from shame and spitting.” 3147 For whether it was Christ even then, as we hold, or the prophet, as the Jews say, who pronounced these words concerning himself, in either case, that which as yet had not happened sounded as if it had been already accomplished. Another characteristic will be, that very many events are figuratively predicted by means of enigmas and allegories and parables, and that they must be understood in a sense different from the literal description. For we both read of “the mountains dropping down new wine,” 3148 but not as if one might expect “must” from the stones, or its decoction from the rocks; and also hear of “a land flowing with milk and honey,” 3149 but not as if you were to suppose that you would ever gather Samian cakes from the ground; nor does God, forsooth, offer His services as a water-bailiff or a farmer when He says, “I will open rivers in a land; I will plant in the wilderness the cedar and the box-tree.” 3150 In like manner, when, foretelling the conversion of the Gentiles, He says, “The beasts of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls,” He surely never meant to derive 3151 His fortunate omens from the young of birds and foxes, and from the songsters of marvel and fable. But why enlarge on such a subject? When the very apostle whom our heretics adopt, 3152 interprets the law which allows an unmuzzled mouth to the oxen that tread out the corn, not of cattle, but of ourselves; 3153 and also alleges that the rock which followed (the Israelites) and supplied them with drink was Christ; 3154 teaching the Galatians, moreover, that the two narratives of the sons of Abraham had an allegorical meaning in their course; 3155 and to the Ephesians giving an intimation that, when it was declared in the beginning that a man should leave his father and mother and become one flesh with his wife, he applied this to Christ and the church. 3156





[An important principle, see Kaye, p. 325.]






Isa. 50.6, slightly altered.


Joel iii. 18.


Exod. 3:8, 17, Deut. 26:9, 15.


Isa. 41:18, 19, inexactly quoted.




Hæreticorum apostolus. We have already referred to Marcion’s acceptance of St. Paul’s epistles. It has been suggested that Tertullian in the text uses hæreticorum apostolus as synonymous with ethnicorum apostolus="apostle of the Gentiles,” in which case allusion to St. Paul would of course be equally clear. But this interpretation is unnecessary.


1 Cor. ix. 9.


1 Cor. x. 4; compare below, book v., chap. vii.


Gal. 4:22, 24.


Eph. 5:31, 32.

Next: Community in Certain Points of Marcionite and Jewish Error. Prophecies of Christ's Rejection Examined.