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2. The Refutation of False Doctrines.

All false doctrines invariably come out of the âtman-conception. If we were liberated from it, the existence of false doctrines would be impossible.

There are two kinds of the âtman-conception: (1) Belief in the existence of a personal atman [or ego-soul]; (2) Belief in the existence of âtman in thing[or things-in-themselves]. 1


106:1 This denial of the existence of things-in-themselves is one of the principal features of the Mahâyâna as distinguished from the Hînayâna Buddhism.

Next: A. Five False Views Held by Those Who Believe in a Personal Atman