1. Now at that time the Blessed One was staying at Sâvatthi, in the Getavana, Anâthapindika's Grove. And at that time about thirty Pâtheyyaka Bhikkhus 1,
who were all dwellers in the forest, all living on alms, all dressed in rags from the dust heap, all having only three robes each, when they were on the way to Sâvatthi to visit the Blessed One, at the time when the period for entering upon Vassa was at hand, were unable to reach Sâvatthi in time to spend the Vassa there, and stayed at Sâketa on the way for the Vassa. And they spent the period of Vassa in discomfort, thinking, 'Our Blessed One is staying near us, six leagues from here, and we are not able to visit the Blessed One.'
And when, after three months, those Bhikkhus had completed their Vassa residence, and had held their Pavâranâ, they went on to the place where the Blessed One was, at Sâvatthi, in the Getavana, Anâthapindika's Grove, while the rain was falling, and the waters were gathering 1, and the swamps were forming, and their robes were all drenched, and they were weary. And when they had arrived, they saluted the Blessed One, and took their seats on one side.
2. Now it is the custom of the blessed Buddhas to greet kindly Bhikkhus who have just arrived. And the Blessed One said to those Bhikkhus 2:
Do things go well with you, O Bhikkhus? Do
you get enough to support yourselves with? Have you kept Vassa well, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, and have you not suffered from want of food?'
'Things go well with us, Lord; we get enough to support ourselves with, Lord; we have kept Vassa, Lord, in unity, and in concord, and without quarrel, and have not suffered from want of food. When we were on our way, Lord, about thirty Pâtheyyaka Bhikkhus, to Sâvatthi to visit the Blessed One, we were unable to reach Sâvatthi in time (&c., as in § 1, down to:). And when, after three months, Lord, we had completed our Vassa residence, and had held our Pavâranâ, we have made our way, while the rain was falling, and the waters were gathering, and the swamps were forming; and our robes were all drenched; and we have become weary.'
3. Then the Blessed One in that connection, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said 1:
'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Kathina ceremony shall be performed by Bhikkhus when
they have completed their Vassa. And five things are allowable to you, O Bhikkhus, after the Kathina ceremony has been held--going for alms to the houses of people who have not invited you 1, going
for alms without wearing the usual set of three robes 1, going for alms in a body of four or more 2, possessing as many robes as are wanted 3, and whatever number of robes shall have come to hand, that shall belong to them (that is, to the Bhikkhus entitled, by residence and otherwise, to share in the distribution 4).
'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is the Kathina to be dedicated.
4. 'Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim
the following ñatti before the Samgha: "This Kathina-cloth has become the property of the Samgha. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hand over the Kathina-cloth to such and such a Bhikkhu to spread out the Kathina. This is the ñatti. Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. This Kathina-cloth has become the property of the Samgha. The Samgha hands it over to such and such a Bhikkhu to spread out the Kathina. If the Samgha approves of the handing over of the Kathina to such and such a Bhikkhu for spreading it out, let it remain silent. The Samgha approves thereof. Therefore does it remain silent. Thus I understand 1."
5. 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, has the Kathina ceremony been duly held; and thus has it not been duly held 2.
When, O Bhikkhus, has it not been duly held?'
The Kathina ceremony has not been duly held when the stuff has only been marked (for the purposes of measurement) 1: when it has only been washed: when it has only been calculated (to see how many robes it will make): when it has only been cut out: when it has only been pieced together 2: when it has only been sewn in lengths 3: when it has only been marked 4:when it has only been made strong (in the seams) 5: when it has only
been strengthened by a braid 1 or by a binding 2 along the back, or by being doubled in parts 3: when it has only been put into the dye 4: when the decision (by the presiding Bhikkhu, as to which robes he will take for himself) has been made (but not been carried out 5): when there has been talk (about the merit acquired by presenting the Samgha with cloth, and the donor has been induced thereby to show his liberality 6): when the gift is only a temporary one 7: when the ceremony has been postponed 8:
when the ceremony has had to be abandoned (because it has lasted through the night) 1: when the ceremony has fallen through (from other causes) 2: when (in the formal choice by the presiding Bhikkhu) the upper robes have been left out, or the under robes, or the waist-cloths: when any one of the five parts of the robe have been omitted in the cutting out 3: when the ceremony has been presided over by more than one Bhikkhu 4. And even when the Kathina ceremony has (otherwise) been normally performed, if (the Samgha) ratifying the distribution, be other than the (whole Samgha) dwelling within the boundary, then also the Kathina ceremony has not been duly held 5.
'In these cases, O Bhikkhus, the Kathina ceremony has not been duly held.
6. 'And when, O Bhikkhus, has the Kathina ceremony been duly held?'
'When the robes have been made out of new
cotton-cloth, or as good as new, or out of cloth 1, or out of (rags) taken from the dust-heap 2, or out of odd bits picked up in the bazaar 3: when the decision (by the presiding Bhikkhu as to which robes he will take for himself) has not (merely) been made (but carried out): when there has been no talk about (the merit acquired by offering a Kathina): when the gift is not merely a temporary one: when the ceremony has not been postponed: when it has not been necessary to abandon the ceremony: when the ceremony has not fallen through: when (in the choice made by the presiding Bhikkhu) the upper robes have not been left out, nor the under robes, nor the waist-cloths: when not one of the five parts of the robe have been omitted in the cutting out: when (the ceremony has been presided over) by one Bhikkhu. And also when, after the Kathina ceremony has been (otherwise) normally performed, the ratification has been given by the (whole Samgha) dwelling within the boundary.
'In these cases, O Bhikkhus, the Kathina ceremony has been duly held.'
146:1 Buddhaghosa says, Pâtheyya (the Berlin MS. reads Pâveyya) is the name of a kingdom situated to the west of the Kosala country. This passage refers to Bhikkhus who dwelt there. The Bhattavaggiya Theras (so the Berlin MS.; query Satta-vaggiya), who were brothers of the Kosala king, sons of the same father, are here alluded to.'
But with which of the many kingdoms 'to the west of the Kosala country' are we to identify Pâtheyya? The word does not occur in the stock list, found in different parts of the Pâli Pi.itakas, of the sixteen Mahâ-ganapadâ; that is to say, Aṅga, Magadha, Kâsi, Kosala, Vaggi, Malla, Ketiya, Vamsa, Kuru, Pañkâla, Makkha, Sûrasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhâra, Kamboga. The account of the Council at Vesâlî gives us a hint as to the right answer to the above question; for the Thera Sambhûta, who took part in that Council, is called a Pâtheyyaka in Kullavagga XII, 2, 7, and is also said at Kullavagga XII, 1, 8 to have lived Ahogaṅge Pabbate. The position of this hill is further described in the Mahâvamsa as being on the upper Ganges--uddhagaṅgâya . . . . Ahogaṅgamhi pabbate (p. 39, ed. Turnour). Then again in Kullavagga XII, 1, 7 the Thera Yasa, when wishing to put himself in communication with the Bhikkhus in Pâtheyya and in other places, goes to Kosambî as the most convenient meeting-place for Bhikkhus coming from the East. The other places mentioned in that passage in juxta-position with Pâtheyya would seem to show that Pâtheyya, with Pâkîna, Avanti, and Dakkhinâpatha, is one of the principal divisions into which India, as then known, was divided; and that it includes most, if not all, of the great westerly kingdoms of p. 147 Kuru, Pañkâla, &c., which are the last eight of the sixteen kingdoms in the stock list above referred to. Probably the literal meaning of Pâtheyya is 'western' (Sans. pratyañk). In the Suttavibhaṅga (Pâkittiya 34) merchants are mentioned who are travelling from Râgagaha to the Patiyâloka, which must mean 'the western country,' just as Patiyârâma (Dîpav. 17, 11) means 'the western Ârâma.'
147:1 Udaka-samgahe ’ti udakena samgahite ghatite samsatthe thale ka ninne ka ekodakibhûte ’ti attho (B.).
147:2 Compare IV, I, 8, and foll.
148:1 As has been remarked in a previous note (to the first Nissaggiya Pâkittiya Rule) some of the details of these Kathina ordinances are at present difficult to understand. But the general meaning of them is already clear. Immediately after the Pavâranâ, the ceremony by which the Vassa residence is closed, there follows a distribution of the robes belonging to the local Samgha, (that is, the portion of the Order dwelling within one boundary,) to the particular Bhikkhus composing the Samgha. This distribution commences with the kathin-atthâra, atthâra, 'spreading out,' not being used here literally for spreading out on the ground or otherwise, but in a secondary, juristic sense. And the act performed receives the technical name atthâra by a process of putting a part for the whole, the spreading out in the sun (see our note, p. 18) for the whole ceremony. We translate the term according to the context, sometimes by 'spreading out,' sometimes by 'ceremony,' sometimes by 'dedication.'
The Kathina, literally 'hard,' is the stock of cotton cloth provided by the faithful to be made up into robes for the use of the Samgha during the ensuing year. The whole of this cotton cloth must be dyed, sewn together, and made into robes, and then formally declared to be (not only common property, Samghika, but) available for immediate distribution--all on one and the same day. The object of this was that the Samgha, or at least a quorum of the Samgha, being able to be present throughout, there would be less chance of any mistake by which what was intended equally for all might come to be unequally divided among a few. All the Brethren who have kept their Vassa within the limits of the district within which the particular Samgha lives (and therefore technically called an âvâsa, 'residence'), and who have taken part in the Pavâranâ, are entitled to share in the distribution.
(Buddhaghosa says, 'Ettha kathinatthâram ke labhanti ke na labhanti. Ganavasena tâva pakkhima-kotiyâ pañka ganâ (for at least five must be present to make a Pavâranâ legal, Mahâvagga IX, 4, r) . . . . vutthavassavasena purimikâya vassam upagantvâ pathama-pavâranâya pavâritâ labhanti.')
There can of course be no kathin-atthâra if there is no kathina; and, under certain restrictions laid down in the Nissaggiya Pâkittiya Rules, laymen were allowed to give robes for the special use of a particular Bhikkhu. If, however, a layman was desirous of giving the much more meritorious gift of a Kathina to the whole community, then he is to present the cloth in the early morning to a properly constituted meeting of the Samgha, and the Kathina ceremony has to be gone through. All the Brethren living within the boundary have to be present, and to take part in the work of making the cotton cloth up into robes; and if there is any danger of the work not being concluded before the day is over, even the most senior Bhikkhus, or the most revered for their learning or insight, must lend a hand. Then follows the distribution so far only as is set forth in the next section (§ 4) and in the note to it.
Now it would often happen that, at the end of the rainy season of Vassa, the last year's robes of some of the Bhikkhus would be worn out. And yet no laymen would come forward to give a Kathina until some time after the Vassa residence had closed. But p. 150 if any one did offer a Kathina, and the ceremony was duly performed, then each Bhikkhu had a right to supply his actual needs from the robes made out of the Kathina. He need not do so at once. His want might not be pressing, or might not even arise till afterwards. During such an interval the five privileges (Anisamsâ) mentioned in this section (§ 3) are accorded to the Bhikkhus, though they would be against the rules in force during the rest of the year.
But if the Bhikkhu kept on postponing his choice would the privileges accorded by this section hold good even during the whole year? Could the Bhikkhu, by his mere abstention, thus bring about a practical abrogation of the general rules? Not so, for the five privileges are in their turn suspended by any one of the eight things mentioned below in § 7.
We may add that at the present time in Burma and Ceylon, the robes for the Bhikkhus are usually provided in accordance with the rules regulating gifts to particular Bhikkhus. But the gift of a Kathina is still by no means uncommon. See Spence Hardy's 'Eastern Monachism,' pp. 121 and foll. There is probably, however, very seldom any necessity for the Bhikkhus to avail themselves of any of the five privileges, except the last.
150:1 This privilege is one of the exceptions allowed, in the Pâtimokkha, to the 46th Pâkittiya. Bhikkhus were allowed, as a general rule, to pass through a village, with their alms-bowls in their hands, in order to give any disciple who wished to do so the opportunity of giving them food. (To describe this procedure by our word 'begging,' as is so often done, is, to say the least, misleading.) The 46th Pâkittiya lays down, in certain circumstances, a restriction on this general rule. The present section removes that restriction during the period of Kathin-atthâra; in order, according to Buddhaghosa (see the note on Pâk. 46), to prevent the stock of robes falling short. That is, apparently, with the hope that a freer intercourse than usual between Bhikkhus and laity might lead to a gift of a Kathina when it was urgently required.
Here Buddhaghosa says simply, 'Anâmanta-kâro ’ti yâva kathinam na uddhariyati tâva anâmantetvâ: Âmanteti must be equal to âpukkhati. Compare Böhtlingk-Roth under âmantrana.
151:1 This privilege is granted as a relaxation of the 2nd Nissaggiya. Buddhaghosa says, 'Asamâdâna-kâro ’ti ti-kivaram asamâdâya karanam kîvara-vippavâso kappissatîti attho.' Compare Mahâvagga VIII, 23, 3. It will be seen that the wording of the Pâtimokkha Rule is not inconsistent with the rule laid down here.
151:2 This is a relaxation of the 32nd Pâkittiya, and is mentioned in that rule.
151:3 This would seem to be a relaxation of the 1st Pâkittiya. Though it is not referred to there in terms, it is implied in the clause by which the operation of the rule is postponed till after the Kathina has been 'taken up,' i.e. till each Bhikkhu has actually received his share, or otherwise lost his claim to it. Till that has taken place, a Bhikkhu may use (temporarily, and without actually appropriating them) as many robes as he likes. B. says, 'Yâvadattha-kîvaran ti yâvatâ kivarena attho tâvatakam anadhitthitam avikappitam (compare Sutta-vibhaṅga Niss. I, 3, 1) kappissatîti attho:
151:4 That is, according to Buddhaghosa, either those belonging to a Bhikkhu who has died, or those belonging to the Samgha in any way. This shows that at the division not only the robes made out of the gift of a Kathina were to be included, but whatever robes had not been given as intended specially for some one Bhikkhu. As to the actual practice now in Ceylon, compare Spence Hardy, loc. cit. Buddhaghosa says here: 'Yo ka tattha kîvar-uppâdo tattha kathinatthata-sîmâya mataka-kîvaram vâ hotu samgham uddissa dinnam vâ samghikena tatr’ uppâdena âbhatam vâ yena kenaki âkârena yam samghikam kîvaram uppaggati tam tesam bhavissatîti attho.' The use of the pronoun nesam at the end of the rule is awkward, following after vo; but the meaning as translated is not open to doubt.
152:1 This formula is one of those included in the collection entitled Kammavâkam. It appears from Minayeff (Prâtimoksha, pp. 75, 76) that the Bhikkhu so appointed superintends the processes of dyeing, sewing, &c. When the new robes are ready for wear, he lays aside one of his old robes which has been worn out (pak.uddharitvâ), and chooses for himself one of the new ones (navam adhitthahitvâ), saying as he does so, 'imâya samghâtiyâ (or, as the case may be, uttarâsaṅgena, antaravâsakena) kathinam attharâmi.' This speech shows the technical application of the verb attharati in this connection. He then points out the remaining robes to the Bhikkhus there present, specifying which he thinks fit for the elder, and which for the younger members of the Order (Theras and Navakas); but not assigning further any particular robes to particular Bhikkhus. Finally he calls upon the Samgha for their formal approval of his procedure (compare the closing words of §§5, 6). But when they have given it, the distribution is not at an end. The time has only come when each of the Bhikkhus can transmute his claim to an undivided share into the actual possession of a divided share. Until he does so, the Kathina privileges set out in § 3 are allowed to him.
152:2 The formal permission to each Bhikkhu to take his share is p. 153 not completed by any one of the following acts having been performed. The technical terms of the tailor's craft are, as will be seen, by no means easy to follow.
153:1 Ullikhita-mattenâ ’ti dîghato ka puthulato ka pamâna-gahana-mattena. Pamânam hi ganhanto tassa tassa padesassa sañgânanattham nakhâdîhi vâ parikkhedam dassento ullikhati, nalâtâdîsu vâ ghamsati. Tasmâ tam pamâna-gahanam ullikhita-mattan ti vukkati (B.).
153:2 Bandhana-mattenâ ’ti mogha-suttak-âropana-mattena (B.). Mogha-suttakâni, 'false threads,' are threads put in the cloth to show where it is to be cut or sewn. See Buddhaghosa on Kullavagga V, II, 3 (p. 317 of H. O.'s edition). Our clause therefore means temporarily pieced together as the commencement of the tailoring work.
153:3 Ovattiya (sic) -karana-mattenâ ’ti mogha-suttakânusârena dîgha-sibbita-mattena (B.). Sewn in lengths along the lines of the false threads mentioned in the last note. The word occurs also in Mahâvagga VIII, 14, 2; and in Kullavagga V, 1, 2 we are told that the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus ovattikam dhârenti. Buddhaghosa says there vigghita-karanam ovattikâ.
153:4 By joining on a little piece of cloth. Kandusa-karana-mattenâ ’ti muddiya-patta-bandhana-mattena, says Buddhaghosa.
153:5 Dalhi-karana-mattenâ ’ti dve kimilikâyo (MS. kilimikâyo) ekato katvâ sibbita-mattena: athavâ pathama-kimilikâ ghattetvâ thapitâ hoti, kathina-sâtakam tassâ kukkhi-kimilikam katvâ sappita-(read sibbita-) mattenâ ’ti pi attho. Mahâ-pakkariyam pakatikîvarassa upassaya-dânenâ ’ti vuttam. Kurundiyam pakatipatta kîvaram dupattam kâtum kukkhi-kimilikam alliyâpana-mattenâ ’t vuttam (B.). On kimilikâ compare Minayeff's 'Prâtimoksha,' p. 87.
154:1 Anuvâta-karana-mattenâ ’ti pitthi-anuvâta-âropana-mattena (B.). Compare VIII, 2 1, I.
154:2 Paribhanda-karana-mattenâ ’ti kukkhi-anuvâta-âropana-mattena (B.). Compare VIII, 21, I.
154:3 Ovattheyya (sic) -karana-mattenâ ’ti âgantuka-patt’-âropana-mattena: kathina-kîvarato vâ pattam gahetvâ aññasmim akathina-kîvare patt’-âropana-mattena (B.).
154:4 Kambala-maddana-mattenâ ’ti ekavâram yeva ragane pakkhittena danta-vannena pandu-palâsa-vannena vâ: sake pana sakim vâ dvikkhattum vâ rattam (MS. ratthum) pi saruppam hoti vattati (B.).
154:5 Or perhaps, according to some commentators, when it has been decided to accept the gift as a Kathina, that is, when it has been decided that the cloth is of a suitable kind to make robes out of. Buddhaghosa says: Nimitta-katenâ ’ti iminâ dussena kathinam attharissâmîti evam nimittakatena. Ettakam eva Parivâre vuttam. Atthakathâsu pana ayam sâtako sundaro, sakkâ iminâ kathinam attharitun ti evam nimittakatam katvâ laddhenâ ’ti attho. Compare below, § 6, for this and the two following words, the meaning of which is very doubtful.
154:6 Buddhaghosa: Parikathâ-katenâ ’ti kathinam nâma dâtum vattati, kathina-dâyako bahu-puññam pasavatîti evam parikathâya uppâditena. Kathinam nâma ati-ukkattham vattati: mâtaram pi na viñnâpetum vattati: âkâsato otinna-sadisam eva vattati.
154:7 Buddhaghosa simply says: kukku-katenâ ’ti tâvakâlikena. The last word means 'only for a time, temporary, on loan;' see Gâtaka I, 121, 393, and Kullavagga X, 16, 1; but the explanation is not clear. According to the Abhidhâna-ppadîpikâ kukku is a measure of length.
154:8 Sannidhi-katenâ ’ti ettha duvidho sannidhi; karana-sannidhi p. 155 ka nikaya-sannidhi ha. Tattha tadah’ eva akatvâ thapetvâ karanam karana-sannidhi; samgho agga kathina-dussam labhitvâ puna-divase deti ayam nikaya-sannidhi (B.).
155:1 Nissaggiyenâ ’ti ratti-nissaggiyena. Parivâre pi vuttam nissaggiyam nâma kayiramâne arunam udriyatîti (B.).
155:2 Akappa-katenâ ’ti anâdinna-kappa-bindhunâ (B.), which we do not understand. Perhaps we should read bindunâ.
155:3 Aññatra pañkakena vâ atireka-pañkakena vâ ’ti pañka vâ atirekâni vâ khandâni katvâ mahâ-mandala-addha-mandalâni dassetvâ katen’ eva vattati. Evam hi samandali-katam hoti. Tam thapetvâ aññena akkhinnakena vâ dvi-tti-katu-khandena vâ na vattati (B.). On these five parts of the robe compare below, Mahâvagga VIII, 12,2.
155:4 Aññatra puggalassa atthârâ ’ti puggalassa atthâram thapetvâ na aññena samghassa vâ ganassa vâ atthârena atthatam hoti (B.). The official 'distributor' (atthâraka) must be a single person, not a gana, or the Samgha.
155:5 See the note on § 4, and below, VIII, 23.
156:1 Pilotikâyâ ’ti hata-vatthaka-sâtakena(B.).
156:2 Pamsukulenâ ’ti te-vîsatiyâ khettesu uppanna-pamsukulena.
156:3 Pâpanikenâ ’'ti âpana-dvâre patita-pilotikam gahetvâ kathinatthâya deti, tenâpi vattatîti attho (B.). Compare VIII, 14, 2.